Threesology Research Journal
3-to-1 Fundamental Forces of Nature
(and other things)

(The Study of Threes)

Fundamental forces of nature

We begin this section with a general reference to the Fundamental Forces of Nature. It is an idea has had a modern development consisting of three different views of fundamental force quantities:

  1. A theory of two fundamental forces.
  2. A theory of three fundamental forces.
  3. A theory of four fundamental forces.

Three Forces
(middle of the nineteenth century)


Two Forces

Just before the turn of the 20th century, physicists realized that magnetism is actually caused by moving electric charges - i.e. electric currents. So electrostatics and magnetism were different examples of the same single force - electromagnetism. The Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell showed how mathematics could represent the two forces using just a single force. This is an example of a unification. The world of physics was made simpler at this time because there were now only two forces.

Four Forces

When physicists started to probe inside the atom, they realized that there must be a force that holds the protons and neutrons together - the strong nuclear force. Then a fourth force, known as the weak force, was needed to explain beta decay. Each force affects different particle properties and has a different range.

Three Forces ...again

In the 1960s, three American physicists (Sheldon Glashow, Steven Weinberg and Abdus Salam) were working on the mathematics of the weak force. They discovered that, at high energies, the particles that carry the weak force behave just like those that carry the electromagnetic force. So the weak force and the electromagnetic force were combined into a single electroweak force. Once again, the model of physics was made simpler by reducing the number of forces back to three. (I won't be surprised if the "Fundamental Forces" theory goes back and forth (or remains at three) since the pendulum swing in the thinking of many researchers is being influenced by the variable fluctuations of the Earth's rotation in relation to the expansion of the Sun. See the "Earth's Rotation" page at this site... Humanity must get off this planet if it wants to think and evolve differently.)

--- Earth's Rotation Rate page 1 ---

Further simplifications of the fundamental forces are being sought in such ideas as the Grand Unified Theory (GUT) and Theory Of Everything (TOE). The Grand Unified Theory would make the electroweak force and the strong nuclear force part of a single new force, and by combining this force with the force of gravity, we would have a Theory Of Everything.

--- A world of particles ---

Some creatively thinking playfulness (not meant to be vulgar) might then devise some other physiologically representative three-lettered EAR, EYE, GUM, PEE, POO, CUM, etc., denotation, that serves as a metaphorical loop- whorl- arch finger print-like image caricature of the fundamental forces. The usage of the "GUT" and "TOE" labels may be a type of Freudian slip of the tongue that describes a state of on-going human self-absorption that is inclined towards unconscious projections of human focused species-centered interests.

In the same way that all the elements are different arrangements of just three particles, like all life forms as different arrangements of a triplet codon DNA/RNA/ and 3 Protein structures; all the (three) forces would be a different arrangement of just one force. We see this 3 to 1 ratio being played out again and again in different forms such as the "3 in 1" colors street light arrangement, to give but one example. In other words, a fusion of all forces into a single force would provide us with another 3 to 1 ratio example. Another everyday example is the usage of periods- question marks- and exclamation points in sentences in paragraphs within a particular body of written expression, be it a story, letter, essay or larger model such as a play or book.

Whereas some might want to argue not everyone uses all three sentence ending elements in a given body of work, the same can be said for every street light we come to. Sometimes we "participate" with respect to the activities of all three Red- Yellow- Green events, and other times we might only encounter green lights all the way to our destination. The same exercise might very well play out on the atomic levels as well. Imagine, if atomic particles obey a heisenberg principle based on a roadway scenario of an atomic particle world containing its own relevant street signs, stop signs, yield signs, traffic lights, potholes, traffic jams, traffic cops, detours, etc... Curiously, DNA and RNA exhibit "Stop" and "Start" codons, that may also include, unbeknowest to use in the present, some other "traffic-like" representative markers.

Here is a 3 to 1 representation that, like other things, can be filed under the rubric of "related" or "combination" just as are the three street-light color "related" (combined) and three DNA/RNA codons "related" (combined) and so many other three-part subjects:

C, P & T Symmetries

The Standard model of particle physics has three "related" natural near-symmetries. These state that the actual universe about us is indistinguishable from one where:

  1. —Every particle is replaced with its antiparticle. This is C-symmetry (Charge symmetry);

  2. —Everything appears as if reflected in a mirror. This is P-symmetry (Parity symmetry);

  3. —The direction of time is reversed. This is T-symmetry (Time symmetry)

These symmetries are near-symmetries because each is broken in the present-day universe. However, the Standard Model predicts that the combination of the three (that is, the simultaneous application of all three transformations) must be a symmetry, called CPT symmetry. CP violation, the violation of the "combination" of C- and P-symmetry, is necessary for the presence of significant amounts of baryonic matter in the universe. CP violation is a fruitful area of current research in particle physics.

--- Wiki: Symmetry ---

There are other types of 3 to 1 examples such as::

The so-called four-directions concept referred to as North/South~ East/West, is readily recognized as a two-by-two polarity association. We also are accustomed to use the phrase "North, South, East and West," (also, "Winter, Spring, Summer and Fall") with the "and" as a distinct means of partitioning off the first three, thereby producing a circumstance of 3 to 1.

Another such occurrence of partitioning off the first three as a characteristic of three-patterned grouping, is the child's counting scheme of One Potato, Two Potato, Three Potato, Four. There is no "Four Potato." Like-wise, in the High School cheer "Two Bits, Four Bits, Six Bits, a Dollar," there is not only no "Dollar Bits," there also is the separator "a" which acts as a sort of demarcation boundary line between the first three "Relatives" and that which is distantly related.

Perhaps placing these examples into a chart will be of some additional clarification:

Three-to-One varieties
THREE Items Separator type ONE Item
North~ South~ East "and" West
Winter~ Spring~ Summer "and" Fall
1- potato~ 2- potato~ 3- potato no signifier "potato" 4
2 bits~ 4 bits~ 6 bits "a" Dollar

For another perspective of the 3 to 1 phenomena:

--- The four forces in Unity ---

When we look at the toe arrangements of perching birds, we find that the most prevalent stance is the (anisodactyl) 3-to-1 ratio (of three toes in front and the (first digit) hallux pointing rearward) with the other two stances being an "X" and a "V" (and some may want to include the view that a "Y" is present):

Perching bird toe arrangements

The solid arrows indicate the (presumed) evolution of this stance and the Dashed arrows indicate uncertain derivations. The syndactyl foot, (of the Coraciiformes) has the bases of toes 2 and 3 fused. The zygodactyl arrangement, with two forward and two rearward-pointing toes (which forms an "X,") has been achieved in different ways nine times during bird evolution. In trogons, toe 2, and not toe 4, is rear-directed (heterodactyl). In the pamprodactyl foot, the positions of toes 1 and 4 are not fixed; all four toes may point to the front (creating a "V" pattern).

Information and illustration adapted from page 53, of the Book "Ornithology" by Frank B. Gill, 1995.

Compare the above most prevalent bird stance (anisodactyl) to the old Peace sign:

common peace sign inverted peace sign

Here's another view of bird feet:

Anisodactyl: The hallux is behind and the other three toes are in front, as in a thrush. Anisodactyl bird foot
Syndactyl: The third and fourth toes (outer and middle) are united for most of their length and have a broad sole in common, as in the Belted Kingfisher Syndactyl bird foot
Zygodactyl: The toes are arranged in pairs, the second and third toes in front, the fourth and hallux behind, as in a woodpecker. Zygodactyl bird foot
Heterodactyl: Like the zygodactyl foot except the inner toe is reversed (digits 3 and 4 face forward, 1 and 2 face backward); only found in trogons. Heterodactyl bird foot
Pamprodactyl: All four toes are in front, the hallux being turned forward, as in a Chimney Swift. Pamprodactyl bird foot
Raptorial: The toes are deeply cleft, with large, strong, sharply curved nails (talons), as in hawks & owls. Raptorial bird foot
Semipalmate, or half-webbed: The anterior toes re joined part way by a small webbing, as in the Semipalmated Plover. Semiplamate bird foot
Totipalmate, or fully webbed: All four toes are united by ample webs, as in a cormorant.

  • 4 webbed toes = 3 triangular webs.
  • 3 webbed toes = 2 triangular webs.
  • 2 webbed toes = 1 triangular web.
Totiplamate bird foot
Palmate, or webbed: The front toes are united as in ducks and gulls. Palmate bird foot
Lobate, or lobed: A swimming foot with a series of lateral lobes on the toes, as in a grebe. Lobate bird foot

--- Bird Feet ---

Another 3-to-1 example can be seen in the dates ascribed to the two solstices and the two equinoxes which, when the Big Dipper's seven stars are viewed and drawn on paper during these times of the year, not only provides us with a celestial origin for the swastika, which can be viewed as four 7's (sevens) attached at their bases, but also gives an indication of how the left and right-handed turns of the swastika are numerologically correct:

Left turning swastika Right turning swastika

The "Equinox" refers to the position of the Sun when it is closest to the equator and makes the length of day and night the same. The "Solstice" refers to the position of the Sun when it is furthest from the equator. If you look at the dates that the two solstices and the two equinoxes occur, and arrange them in a circular or square-formed four-point type of directions concept as did ancient peoples, you will see that the calendar dates we of today ascribe to these solar occurrences, reveals:

•Twenty ONE
•Twenty TWO
•Twenty THREE

(but instead of a Twenty FOUR, we have another: Twenty TWO.)

Hence, we have a 3-to-1 ratio whether you count to the right (clockwise) or to the left (counter-clockwise). And for those of you who would argue that the solstices can occur on the day before or the day after the customary 22nd, we still end up with a Three-day possible occurrence consisting of the 21st~ 22nd~ 23rd! However, you may on some occasion find a reference to the Summer Solstice as occurring on June 20th or the Spring Equinox occurring on March 20th. No doubt that by making calculations based on different time zones and calendars, we can come up with different dates to the Solstices and equinoxes. Yet it may be of some value to some readers that I make mention of such an occurrence and acknowledge the presence of these dates as presenting us with a circumstance of a 3 to 1 ratio...that can also be viewed in terms of overlap (as well as interference and/or separation).

1 of 1. Day 20
1 of 3. Day 21
2 of 3. Day 22
3 of 3. Day 23

As a correlation to the numerically-referenced three-day spread of 21~ 22~ 23, take a look at the 23 chromosome line-up found in humans:

X and Y chromosomes

Chromosome pairs 1 through 22 are always found in both males and females. Pair 23 are similar for a female (XX) but different for a male (XY). On occasion, three chromosomes occur in Pair 21 which results in a form of mental retardation generally called Down's syndrome or Mongolism. The thinking that revolved around having a "bad chromosome" had at one time influenced researchers to search for a "bad" gene in criminals. It was considered that a criminal had a "XYY" arrangement, but this view has been discarded with further research findings. However, the point to be made for our present discussion is that these frequent references to chromosomes involve:

  1. The 2l~ (22)~ 23 chromosome area.
  2. The "XYY" at one time proposed as a commonality of criminals is an obvious 3-pattern.
  3. The "X" and "Y" shapes look very much like the stance arrangements of perching birds.

Some people might even want to consider the 3rd example as a prime example of cosmic inter-connectedness related to all life forms.

Links for supplemental information:

--- Human Chromosomes ---

--- Biology Lecture ---

--- Biology Study Guide ---

Notice that the arrangement of numerically-labeled occurrences of the two solstices and two equinoxes permits either a left or right variation, but the numerical labels attached to specific toes of birds lends us with only one direction which is clockwise. As a third example of direction, let me say that most amino acids are said to be turning to the left.

Yes, we can call each of the examples patterns-of-four (or two-by-two), but I wanted to show that it is possible, with qualification, to view them as representations of a 3-to-1 pattern. When we look at the so-called Four Fundamental Forces of Nature:

  1. The Strong Interaction
  2. The Electromagnetic Force
  3. The Weak Force
  4. The Gravitational force

Some people do not see them as I do:

Gravitational ~ Nuclear ~ Electromagnetic

The Nuclear Force typically is broken down into a polarized reference of Weak and Strong labels. Be this as it may, the usage of a "Four" to represent the forces of Nature harkens back to an ancient age when the number 4 was viewed as being a sacred number that could be found in such ideas as:

  • Four Corners of the Earth: North ~ South ~ East~ "and" West
  • Four Elements: Fire ~ Water ~ Air ~ "and" Earth
  • Four letters to God's name in the Jewish tradition: (YHVH) Y with man, H with lion, V with bull, "and" H with eagle
  • Four seasons: Winter ~ Spring ~ Summer "and" Fall

as well as...

  • The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse
  • The Four Humours
  • The Four Winds
  • The Four Arms to the Cross
  • The Four Columns of the Universe
  • The Four Rivers of Paradise
  • The Four Camps of the Twelve Tribes of Israel...
  • well at the four emblems of those tribes
  • The Four Gospels of the Bible
  • The Four Corners of the World, etc...

Each of these so-called patterns-of-four, on some level, can be viewed as a 3-to-1 representation. Take for example the four gospels of the bible. Matthew ~ Mark ~ Luke are, from many a scholar's point of view, seen as actual (synoptic) accounts with the account of John viewed as being Idiosyncratic. Hence, there is a 3-to-1 compartmentalization even if the everyday ordinary person is not aware of such.

We can easily accept the view that there are Four Fundamental Forces of Nature, or we can take another look at this representation from a 3-to-1 perspective. To this extent we will acknowledge that the Gravitational force frequently is cited as being separate from the other three. By continuing to reference the idea that there are Four Fundamental Forces of Nature and do not discuss the underlying 3-to-1 pattern inherent in the design, we will fail to recognize the realization of a more pervasive fundamental pattern.

In seeking the origin of the so-called Four Fundamental Forces of Nature, many physicists have attempted to turn back the clock of large expanses of time to consider what condition these forces may have been in during the beginning stages of the Universe.

The following table is adapted from:

--- "The Fundamental Forces of Nature" ---

Loss of Unity in the Forces of Nature

Forces Unified Time Since Beginning Temperature (GeV)*
All "3-to-1" forces unified Gravity, Strong, Electromagnetic, Weak ~0 ~Infinite
Gravity separates
Strong, Electromagnetic, Weak 10-43 s 1019
Strong Force separates
(Grand Unified Theory)
Electromagnetic, Weak 10-35 s 1014
Split of Weak and Electromagnetic Forces None 10-11 s 100
Present Universe None 1010 y 10-12

*Temperature Conversion: 1 GeV = 1.2 x 1013 K

In short, the Forces of Nature are thought to have arisen from the extremely hot temperatures of the early Universe as a (fused) singularity, and then separated into the present quantity as the Universe has cooled since that time. This present quantity should be considered as THREE Fundamental Forces, or a 3-to-1 ratio representation.

Many people consider that what happens on the microscopic level occurs in some fashion on the macroscopic level. Generally however, these are referred to as microcosmic and macrocosmic levels. In any respect, no matter what labeling is used, there is the idea that basic patterns occurring on very small atomic scales also occur on larger scales such as in the shape of planetary alignments, social structures, individual lives, etc... With this in mind, take a look at the following description of an event that takes place in photo-chemical reactions and relate it to the information in the above chart.

Singlet =>=>=> Triplet Transition

When a molecule changes its electronic state without direct absorption of light, as in nonradiative decay or internal conversion, it may go into a new excited state, which, left alone, would be short-lived (less than about 10-6 second); or it may go into a long-lived (metastable) excited state. Both types of reaction are known in photo-chemistry, but the long-lived states are particularly important in storing energy for chemical processes. The most important of the last named kind of transition is a Singlet >>> Triplet transition. Singlets and Triplets are electronic states that differ in having paired and unpaired electrons, respectively. Triplets are the most commonly found phosphorescing states. They cannot radiate rapidly and are therefore among the most long-lived excited species. For this reason triplets are frequently the primary products of photo-chemical reactions. Excited singlets are sometimes found, but they more often decay, triplets. Triplets can be identified by their magnetic properties; by contrast with singlets, the individual electron magnets of a triplet do not cancel each other so that triplets exhibit weak magnetism (paramagneticism), which can be detected by suitable techniques.

There are several questions to be asked, one of which is whether or not there is an actual occurrence of a microcosmic/macrocosmic exchange of parallel representation, or is this microcosmic/macrocosmic idea merely another example of an ancient perspective involving polarities? Is there some truth to the idea that what occurs on a small microcosmic level can be found to have some parallel occurrence on a larger macrocosmic scale? If there is, then it is of some consideration that we entertain the idea that this Singlet >>> Triplet transition does in fact represent something on an even smaller level, or perhaps, it is a type of atomized memory of an earlier macrocosmic event. For surely, if what we see on a microcosmic level occurs on the macrocosmic level, the same can be said for the opposite. Namely, What occurs on a larger level also occurs on a smaller level. However, this is stated with the cautionary rule-of-thumb that there may be variations to the continuity of expression due to variables inherent with the alterations of simple structures to more complex ones.

If Atomic particle behavior is not the smallest representation of a microcosmic occurrence, then it can be assumed to be a larger representation of something even smaller. In any event, if we accept the notion that there is some level of parallel pattern occurring amongst small and large scale events, whether or not one or more events are considered to be a type of "memorized" representation of an earlier event that no longer persists on a scale that we can presently measure, the fact that we can find a Singlet >>> Triplet transition, suggests we should reconsider our usage of the label "Four Fundamental Forces of Nature."

If atomic particle composition and behavior of today represent a type of memory of events which occurred in the Universe after (and before?) the Big Bang, is there to be found some larger representation of this on a genetic level? On the human level? On the human social level? And if a parallel is sighted, does it represent an actual occurrence of a microcosmic/macrocosmic event, or merely a representation of a recurring type of perception?

Let's take for example the above statement that triplets are the most commonly found phosphorescing states, and that they are among the most long-lived excited species. Does this have an application to the realm of human behavior, whether on the individual or group level, to the extent that such social movements occurring amongst the third-born Indo-European race are merely recurring macrocosmic variations of this "Excited Triplet" representation:

  • Hitler's Third Reich
  • The French Revolution's Third Estate
  • The Italian (Mussolini's) Third Way, etc...

Or is this question another type of anthropomorphic view in that we view human activity as the larger (macrocosmic) occurrence and atomic activity as a microcosm, but the actual case is a reverse of this perception? Is human activity the microcosm and atomic behavior the macrocosm?) Likewise, the less frequent occurrence of "Excited Singlets" is representative of short-lived singular leaders whose activities transition (decay) into some form of triplet configuration, whether or not the triplet configuration is widely acknowledged?

Such a consideration could possibly be said of the singular "Hitler" transitioning into a "Third Reich" state. Thus, Hitler is a singular particle that "decayed" (?) into a triplet state? Perhaps the word "decay" is a misnomer in the sense that those who react emotionally to any mention of Hitler will interpret such a word as a representation of something less than what is normal. For those of you who are more open-minded, you will quickly realize I make the analogy between the charisma of Hitler developing into a triplet state, as a metaphor to phosphorescing singlet to triplet conversions.

In other words, an "Excited Singlet" can be seen as a Ruler, Leader, Poet, Artist, Musician, Scientist, Philosopher, or even Criminal. Whereby the example of Christ as an "Excited Singlet" that decays to a triplet, is reminiscent of his death and the transitional development of the Trinity. Other examples abound.

If we continue to overlook the presence of other patterns inherent in the so-called Four Fundamental Forces of Nature reference to the extent we call it THE fundamental pattern designed by a god, we may very well overlook other patterns (such as the "three) occurring on a human scale that present themselves as useful tools of predicting events on the social level that could have good, mediocre, or undesirable consequences.

Your Questions, Comments or Additional information are welcomed: Contact Herb O. Buckland