Threesology Research Journal
Artificial Intelligence and 3sology (56K)

AI and 3sology pages:

Artificial Intelligence and 3sology Introduction
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The definition of Artificial Intelligence, as taken from its description in the Britannica, is narrowly defined narrative purposely derived into a naive definition, in order to facilitate some hoped-for obtainable goal... but is not set in stone. Once a working model... described by the definition— is reached, a new... or second generation definition can come to the fore. The definition provides for a plausible goal to be obtained:

(Artificial Intelligence is) the ability of a digital computer or computer-controlled robot to perform tasks commonly associated with intelligent beings...

Source: "Artificial Intelligence (AI)." Encyclopædia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite, 2013.

Those working in one or another area involving the design of computer software/hardware, like to put a reachable carrot out in front of them, while at the same time using an operable telescopic stick in order to challenge themselves to go the extra mile in attempting to make some new discovery or improvement. The present definition is therefore rather fluidic in that it can be altered to serve the purpose and philosophical position of those in their particular efforts. Unfortunately, examples of artificial intelligence have fallen short of expectations... expectations that have been influenced by science fiction portrayals of highly intelligent robotic entities. However, this is coupled with the introduction of ideas about Artificial Intelligence from influential thinkers who are not directly involved with those attempting to create a "walking-talking" robot whose mannerisms and overall mobility can be mistaken for "humanness"... or some other intelligent and animate life form.

Nonetheless, in an attempted analysis of what is meant by "Intelligence", "Artificial" and "Artificial Intelligence"... all three of which can have separate definitions; our examination of humanity and its presumed "intelligence", appears to be a specific behavioral capacity like the behavioral specificities recognized in other life forms... which appear to be the actions of intelligence— such as the building of dams by beavers, the design of intricate webs by spiders, the geometric architecture of bee hives, flight navigation over long distances by migrating birds, etc... And even though some might want to argue with terms such as "instinct" and behavior modification based on environmental pressures... like rats learning how to run a maze... so too can human intelligence be defined. Social and planetary/galactic environmental influences over long stretches of time have an ability to shape behavior by providing punishments and rewards... even if Historians and Sociologists do not have the breadth of perception to recognize, much less record the events... even if the whole of the public could appreciate such an expanse of knowledge.

In terms of behavior modification due to environmental pressures, human intelligence is an artificiality. Whether a person is viewed as the village idiot or talented, gifted, or as a genius... the intelligence of most people goes unrecognized... either privately or publicly. Humans are a poor judge of intelligence... typically describing one or another quality based on a presumed standard that has not been subjected to any real scrutiny. In other words, thoughts about thinking are not extensively thought out beyond an analogic (one to one pairing by way of analogy). Human intelligence has not really been scrutinized by the current binary digital paradigm, much less a trinary (ternary) model without resorting to some religious-based interpretation (such as the trinity or "intelligent design" presumption), or some type of esoteric application whose development is stifled by an association with superstition or approximated derivations that can not be tested. Humans very often use definitions in describing some validity without having taken the time to make a comparison with reality. They get swept up in fanciful notions of social application that are quite often foolish or just plain wrong... and promote the perpetuation of disadvantages. For example, take a look at the two charts comparing social benefits received by military personnel, to those benefits available to the public. Please note that both situations are described as expressions of Democracy:

These two practices are erroneously called a Democracy.
The Military Reality
(sponsored by the public)

  1. A worry-free Health care system.
  2. A free Housing system (Billet, Barrack).
  3. A free Basic income program (Everybody has an income).
  4. A free Recruitment, Education/training system.
  5. A free Legal system.
  6. A free public Feeding system (Cafeterias/Mess-halls).
  7. A free Laundry system (in many instances of training).
  8. A free Merit, Promotion, Reward system.
  9. A freely standardized wage scale.
  10. A uniform code of Military Justice.
  11. A free paid-Vacation allotments for everyone.
  12. A free clothing requirement and uniform allotment.
  13. A free (subsidized) retail outlets (Post Exchange).
  14. A free Commune-ity... large Communes without competition.
The Public Reality
(sponsored by inadequate legislation)

  1. A worry-filled high cost Health care system.
  2. A high cost Housing system.
  3. No Basic income or employment guarantees program.
  4. No free universal Education/training system.
  5. A substandard free Legal system.
  6. No free public Feeding system (Cafeterias/Mess-halls).
  7. No free Laundry system of any kind.
  8. No citizen Merit, Promotion, Reward system.
  9. An unequalized wage system.
  10. An arbitrarily practiced Criminal Justice service.
  11. No free paid-Vacation allotments for everyone.
  12. No free clothing allotment.
  13. No free (subsidized) retail outlets.
  14. No free Community... towns, cities, or States run as large Communes.

The people are forced to provide (through taxes), the means by which military personnel can have a much less difficult time in pursuing a livelihood... thus presenting us with an exercised dichotomy (binary formula). Incredulously, both situations are (erroneously) described as expressions of Democracy... even though there is no Actual Democracy being practiced and many in the public are all too aware that the type of government is variously described as a plutocracy, Coporatocracy, Aristocracy, etc... though I am inclined to agree with the notion of a "Plutocratic Aristocracy"... with the word "Aristocracy" being applied to interchanging Oligarchies whose aristocratic lineage may be derived from different people in different sectors of society, and not necessarily be the result of blood relations or marital arrangements. The Aristocracy is quite fluid and adaptable, but certain people remain in the association even if their role runs the scale of inactivity, mild activity, to full-dominant activity.

"Democracy", like "Artificial Intelligence" is being arbitrarily defined to fit within the practiced purview who hold the social reins in which the practices are taking place. If we attempt to alter the definition of Democracy by using a fairer description and practice by providing the public with the same benefits package they pay for military personnel, we are confronted with a situation in which an attempted fairness becomes redefined as a disparagement. In other words, what was called an expression of Democracy when practiced by the military, becomes defined as a Socialism and/or Communism when practiced by the public:

Now let us look at the so-called Democracy definition if the military benefits were given as a Public entitlement:
Hypothetical Public Entitlement to Military Benefits

  1. A worry-free Health care system.
  2. A free Housing system (Billet, Barrack).
  3. A free Basic income program (Everybody has an income).
  4. A free Recruitment, Education/training system.
  5. A free Legal system.
  6. A free public Feeding system (Cafeterias/Mess-halls).
  7. A free Laundry system (in many instances of training).
  8. A free Merit, Promotion, Reward system.
  9. A freely standardized wage scale.
  10. A uniform code of Military Justice.
  11. A free paid-Vacation allotments.
  12. A free clothing requirement and uniform allotment.
  13. A free (subsidized) retail outlets (Post Exchange).
  14. A free Commune-ity... large Communes without competition.

Military entitlements given to the Public as a benefit are called an act of Socialism.
(And in some instances would be referred to as a Communism.)

This is the rationalized hypocrisy the public is expected to put up with as a patriotically driven insanity.

"Insanity", or the expression of one or more opinions not aligned with a given majority that expects compliance to its rationale, is very much a part of that which is described as intelligence. In such a definition, Albert Einstein was clearly insane when he presented his ideas in several 1905 papers. If it hadn't been for the interest of Max Planc, history might have turned out a bit different, since the rest of the physic's community ignored Einstein. And if Einstein had exhibited the personality of a theatrics prone artist or musician, he might have ended up in an asylum or would have had to seek asylum amongst bohemians, anarchists or revolutionists.

Insanity, like intelligence, are artificialities dependent on context and content. In fact, so are the constructs called knowledge, dreams and wishes. They are all artificialities... but they are artificialities which have persisted over time. Despite the outward labeling, the definition of such words is differentially applied to person and place of occurrence. The same goes for the use of a two-patterned cognitive orientation... leaving us with different models of binary operation. In other words, if we look upon the human species as a "walking talking" robot, the present usage of a binary computer system is a sub-routine that is advancing towards the usage of a trinary system... though it already exists on the scaffolding of biological and physiological substrates. However, the maturational development along a 1- 2- 3 (and then 3 to 1) path is persistently overlooked.

The early substrate of computers was the integrated circuit fashioned from a semi-conductive crystalline material such as silicon. Transistors are made from one or more semi-conductors and an integrated circuit is an assemblage of electronic components such as resistors, diodes, capacitors, etc...

(a Semiconductor is) any of a class of crystalline solids intermediate in electrical conductivity between a conductor and an insulator. Semiconductors are employed in the manufacture of various kinds of electronic devices, including diodes, transistors, and integrated circuits. Such devices have found wide application because of their compactness, reliability, power efficiency, and low cost. As discrete components, they have found use in power devices, optical sensors, and light emitters, including solid-state lasers. They have a wide range of current- and voltage-handling capabilities and, more important, lend themselves to integration into complex but readily manufacturable microelectronic circuits. They are, and will be in the foreseeable future, the key elements for the majority of electronic systems, serving communications, signal processing, computing, and control applications in both the consumer and industrial markets.

Solid-state materials are commonly grouped into three classes: insulators, semiconductors, and conductors. (At low temperatures some conductors, semiconductors, and insulators may become superconductors.) Insulators, such as fused quartz and glass, have very low conductivities, on the order of 10-18 to 10-10 siemens per centimetre; and conductors, such as aluminum, have high conductivities, typically from 104 to 106 siemens per centimetre. The conductivities of semiconductors are between these extremes and are generally sensitive to temperature, illumination, magnetic fields, and minute amounts of impurity atoms. For example, the addition of about 10 atoms of boron (known as a dopant) per million atoms of silicon can increase its electrical conductivity a thousandfold.

conductivity (26K)

The study of semiconductor materials began in the early 19th century. The elemental semiconductors are those composed of single species of atoms, such as silicon (Si), germanium (Ge), and tin (Sn) in column IV and selenium (Se) and tellurium (Te) in column VI of the periodic table. There are, however, numerous compound semiconductors, which are composed of two or more elements. Gallium arsenide (GaAs), for example, is a binary III-V compound, which is a combination of gallium (Ga) from column III and arsenic (As) from column V. Ternary compounds can be formed by elements from three different columns—for instance, mercury indium telluride (HgIn2Te4), a II-III-VI compound. They also can be formed by elements from two columns, such as aluminum gallium arsenide (AlxGa1 - xAs), which is a ternary III-V compound, where both Al and Ga are from column III and the subscript x is related to the composition of the two elements from 100 percent Al (x = 1) to 100 percent Ga (x = 0). Pure silicon is the most important material for integrated circuit applications, and III-V binary and ternary compounds are most significant for light emission.

Prior to the invention of the bipolar transistor in 1947, semiconductors were used only as two-terminal devices, such as rectifiers and photodiodes. During the early 1950s germanium was the major semiconductor material. However, it proved unsuitable for many applications, because devices made of the material exhibited high leakage currents at only moderately elevated temperatures. Since the early 1960s silicon has become by far the most widely used semiconductor, virtually supplanting germanium as a material for device fabrication. The main reasons for this are twofold: (1) silicon devices exhibit much lower leakage currents, and (2) silicon dioxide (SiO2), which is a high-quality insulator, is easy to incorporate as part of a silicon-based device. Thus, silicon technology has become very advanced and pervasive, with silicon devices constituting more than 95 percent of all semiconductor products sold worldwide.

Source: "Semiconductor." Encyclopædia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite, 2013.

The comments about binary and ternary compounds, as well as bipolar and two-terminal, are lost on those as examples of the 1, 2, 3 and 3-to-1 (environmentally influenced) cognitive development placed in the present discussion about artificial intelligence. Likewise, without a knowledge of the development of the Periodic table, the patterns are likewise overlooked.

elements table (59K)

A triadic structure of elements for the periodic table was proposed by J.W. Dobereiner in 1817. The triad is the earliest atomic weight classification of the elements.

During the 1820s Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner's experiments with the ignition of hydrogen on contact with powdered platinum led the Swedish chemist J.J. Berzelius to develop the concept of catalysis. Toward the end of the decade Döbereiner found that the properties of bromine, a liquid, seem halfway between those of chlorine gas and the solid iodine. He recalled a comparable graduation of properties in two other sequences—calcium, strontium, barium; and sulfur, selenium, tellurium. He showed that in each triad the mean of the lightest and heaviest atomic weights approximated the atomic weight of the middle element. But he could not substantiate his hypothesis with a sufficient number of triads, and his findings were regarded in his time as merely interesting curiosities. Döbereiner also discovered the organic compound furfural and developed the separation of calcium and magnesium.

Source: "Döbereiner, Johann Wolfgang." Encyclopædia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite, 2013.

The point to be made is that this reference represents another example of the "three" as a cognitive orientation to be catalogued with others, and to make note of the absence of other enumerated organizations. In other words, there isn't, for example, a recurrence of a "17", "80", or "6,000" pattern. However, the "three" does not seem to be a reference generated in the same manner as a "two"... in terms of what some might otherwise describe as a prejudice or bias, if race, gender, or dietary preference were thus being considered.

With the question of prejudice on hand, we must ask whether the binary focus is based and sustained because of an engrained bias towards this pattern? In other words, do we focus on... in fact, search for and expect a "two" existence, and will alter our behavior... in order to justify this orientation? This is particularly important because we are thus "reading into" reality what we are socially/environmentally influenced to apprehend. If we seek out a "two" explanation with respect to the properties of an electron, we will necessarily determine to create those conditions which will produce a two... such that we have "experimental evidence" which concludes that the electron exhibits both wave and particle properties.

The electron: wave or particle?

Young's aforementioned experiment in which a parallel beam of monochromatic light is passed through a pair of narrow parallel slits (Figure 5A) has an electron counterpart. In Young's original experiment, the intensity of the light varies with direction after passing through the slits (Figure 5B). The intensity oscillates because of interference between the light waves emerging from the two slits, the rate of oscillation depending on the wavelength of the light and the separation of the slits. The oscillation creates a fringe pattern of alternating light and dark bands that is modulated by the diffraction pattern from each slit. If one of the slits is covered, the interference fringes disappear, and only the diffraction pattern (shown as a broken line in Figure 5B) is observed.

2 slit experiment (51K)

Young's experiment can be repeated with electrons all with the same momentum. The screen in the optical experiment is replaced by a closely spaced grid of electron detectors. There are many devices for detecting electrons; the most common are scintillators. When an electron passes through a scintillating material, such as sodium iodide, the material produces a light flash which gives a voltage pulse that can be amplified and recorded. The pattern of electrons recorded by each detector is the same as that predicted for waves with wavelengths given by the Broglie formula. Thus, the experiment provides conclusive evidence for the wave behaviour of electrons.

If the experiment is repeated with a very weak source of electrons so that only one electron passes through the slits, a single detector registers the arrival of an electron. This is a well-localized event characteristic of a particle. Each time the experiment is repeated, one electron passes through the slits and is detected. A graph plotted with detector position along one axis and the number of electrons along the other looks exactly like the oscillating interference pattern in Figure 5B. Thus, the intensity function in the figure is proportional to the probability of the electron moving in a particular direction after it has passed through the slits. Apart from its units, the function is identical to ?2, where ? is the solution of the time-independent Schrödinger equation for this particular experiment.

If one of the slits is covered, the fringe pattern disappears and is replaced by the diffraction pattern for a single slit. Thus, both slits are needed to produce the fringe pattern. However, if the electron is a particle, it seems reasonable to suppose that it passed through only one of the slits. The apparatus can be modified to ascertain which slit by placing a thin wire loop around each slit. When an electron passes through a loop, it generates a small electric signal, showing which slit it passed through. However, the interference fringe pattern then disappears, and the single-slit diffraction pattern returns. Since both slits are needed for the interference pattern to appear and since it is impossible to know which slit the electron passed through without destroying that pattern, one is forced to the conclusion that the electron goes through both slits at the same time.

In summary, the experiment shows both the wave and particle properties of the electron. The wave property predicts the probability of direction of travel before the electron is detected; on the other hand, the fact that the electron is detected in a particular place shows that it has particle properties. Therefore, the answer to the question whether the electron is a wave or a particle is that it is neither. It is an object exhibiting either wave or particle properties, depending on the type of measurement that is made on it. In other words, one cannot talk about the intrinsic properties of an electron; instead, one must consider the properties of the electron and measuring apparatus together.

Source: "Quantum Mechanics." Encyclopædia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite, 2013.

The importance of discussing "artificial intelligence" by including the topic of Quantum Mechanics rests on the application of the "electron" and other atomic particles in the construction of materials used in the development of computers. Hence, at some point of "core" reference, we find that "intelligence" is linked to atomic behavior. However, though there already exists the notion of hidden, unknown, misunderstood or mistaken variables, the "two" as given in the present context of discussion has not been included. Even though the usage of "two" as in the basic minimum particle arrangement is taken as a logical standard, this very standard needs to be questioned because it suggests that there is an existing prejudice, bias and seduction for this pattern.

Subject page first Originated (saved into a folder): Thursday, November 13, 2014... 5:50 AM
Page re-Originated: Sunday, 24-Jan-2016... 08:51 AM
Initial Posting: Saturday, 13-Feb-2016... 10:59 AM
Updated Posting: Saturday, 09-Apr-2016... 12:26 PM

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Herb O. Buckland