Threesology Research Journal
Artificial Intelligence and 3sology (56K)

http://threesology.org



AI and 3sology pages:

Artificial Intelligence and 3sology Introduction
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The idea of a "triplet" code in genetics, with respect to DNA and RNA, is established by way of a conservation approach in terms of analysis:


Abstract


The genetic code appears to be optimized in its robustness to missense errors and frameshift errors. In addition, the genetic code is near-optimal in terms of its ability to carry information in addition to the sequences of encoded proteins. As evolution has no foresight, optimality of the modern genetic code suggests that it evolved from less optimal code variants. The length of codons in the genetic code is also optimal, as three is the minimal nucleotide combination that can encode the twenty standard amino acids. The apparent impossibility of transitions between codon sizes in a discontinuous manner during evolution has resulted in an unbending view that the genetic code was always triplet. Yet, recent experimental evidence on quadruplet decoding, as well as the discovery of organisms with ambiguous and dual decoding, suggest that the possibility of the evolution of triplet decoding from living systems with non-triplet decoding merits reconsideration and further exploration. To explore this possibility we designed a mathematical model of the evolution of primitive digital coding systems which can decode nucleotide sequences into protein sequences. These coding systems can evolve their nucleotide sequences via genetic events of Darwinian evolution, such as point-mutations. The replication rates of such coding systems depend on the accuracy of the generated protein sequences. Computer simulations based on our model show that decoding systems with codons of length greater than three spontaneously evolve into predominantly triplet decoding systems. Our findings suggest a plausible scenario for the evolution of the triplet genetic code in a continuous manner. This scenario suggests an explanation of how protein synthesis could be accomplished by means of long RNA-RNA interactions prior to the emergence of the complex decoding machinery, such as the ribosome, that is required for stabilization and discrimination of otherwise weak triplet codon-anticodon interactions.


Source: PLoS ONE. 2009; 4(5): e5708. Published online May 27, 2009. doi:
Codon Size Reduction as the Origin of the Triplet Genetic Code

Authors: Pavel V. Baranov, Maxime Venin, and Gregory Provan
Editor: Neil John Gemmell

Because there are 20 amino acids used in the synthesis of most proteins, a triplet code is the bare minimum needed to achieve this quantity... (see table on page: AI and 3sology pg4)

But all amino acids may not have been necessary, or even available in the past to be used. Let us not forget that like life forms, proteins and amino acids are subjected to evolutionary processes as well. And though a triplet coding system is presently dominant, such may not have always be the case, and may not be the case in the distant future... by way of a process taking place at this very moment. However, it is a processes whose limitations are conserved by environmental circumstances subjected to a decay. Whereas, if the triplet coding system came by way of a 1, 2, 3 development, the overall biological landscape may always be seeking out the route of conservation. This inclination towards conservation, if given an appropriate environment, may well return to using a doublet system because the development of humanity is little more than an extraneous expression of a triplet coding system subjected to a given set of environmental conditions... and is not part of some "intelligent design" imperative using humanity as an expressed "high achievement" representation.


As such, a decaying environment may well present biology with an opportunity to regress to a doublet genetic system because it is a scaffolding still existing as a workable blueprint. Yet, a usage of a doublet system may not occur in all species and may be but a momentary retracing of a previous biological path in order for life to take another route beyond a triplet organization. Such that, if a three-patterned environmental event remains instrumental in promoting a three-patterned (triplet) coding in genetics, then a change in this environmental event will likely have a change in the evolution of the species and the evolution of computing. But even if it is a superior formula to the present binary one, we humans, or our future counter-parts may not be able to take advantage of it because there may not be enough livable time left on planet Earth, this solar system and its place in the Milky Way galaxy.


We must consider the possibility that a binary language is a regression... a regression in terms of regrouping, of regaining our sense of direction, of retreating to a crossroads at which point our evolutionary trek begins anew by way of divergence. It is a divergence like that which our hominid line has sprouted from, and from which humanity must depart once again... due to changing environmental conditions. However, scores of people will not be able to retreat because they retain a deeper herd mentality... and must follow the lead of a binary predisposition that, even in the face of irrefutable evidence involving an alternative perception such as a trinary formula, they will fuse the three into a two... without realizing it is a partial event involving a three into one ratio. But let me retrace my steps for those readers who have either not read previous remarks giving reference to this idea, or may have been dismissive thereof:


There is a conservation of number, of quantity when we peer into the intricacies of atomic and genetic structures, as well as physiology. For example, the preponderance of evidence points to the recurrence of two eyes, and not a greater quantity, though some researchers may come across an instance of a larger quantity. However, on the human level, we have developed the notion of a third eye... generally denoted as the pineal gland. However, we do not then devise the commonality for thinking we have additional eyes, despite the claim of some that their mothers have eyes in back of their heads... and a child with glasses may be said to have four eyes. Another example is the single tongue being described as a forked tongue, thereby relaying the idea of someone who lies. Yet, there is no common description for someone being multi-tongued. Anatomically, biologically, chemically and atomically, there is conservation... to use the least amount... though we may well have the capacity to go beyond the points of conservation.


Take a look at the following conservation of number. It's as if the notes of music must be subjected to a binary "halving" process instead of a binary doubling:


musical notes with numerical reference (5K)

The "double whole note" expression is quite reminiscent of early counting systems which repeated themselves instead of having a separate label, such as 1 and 10, 2 and 10, 3 and 10, etc.,, for eleven, twelve, thirteen, etc... In fact, the repetition of the suffix "teen" in 13, 14, 15, etc., is a retention of the usage of "ten" in the old counting method. We have a recurrence of this stopping point (like a "stop" codon in amino acids?), when we try to describe a clothing size beyond "large". Instead of developing a new word or set of words, we instead repeat ourselves... like a babbling infant, when we say "X-large", "XX-large", "XXX-large". There is a conservation of number because language is conserved as well. The conservation of language is imprinting itself on our ideas about artificial intelligence. Though we may not be cognizant of the conservation taking place, it is affecting us to the point of restraint. To develop new ideas which may ultimately require a new word, phrase, equation, etc..., goes against the many restraints imposed upon on by the underlying socially practiced constraints... of conservation.


Whereas a new idea may truly be innovative and break the bounds of one or more constraints, this new idea then becomes the new standard of constraint upon which those tied to a preoccupation with the many social conservations (traditions, etc...). The new idea then become filled up with the projections of human behavior and personality, both good and bad. In other words, the new age of computers is becoming filled up with developments involving theft, cheating, lying, promiscuity, murder, mayhem, love, kindness, charity, etc... The behaviors become translated into symbolic designs, interactions, and functionality... and become overlooked because of our constant exposure to such activities. Programs and business practices are used to cheat, steal, maim, sicken, destroy, assist, encourage, etc... until the next new idea throws a wrench into the human fray of nonsense by focusing people away from their self-absorptions.


We of today are still using the words and ideas made up in centuries past. For example, you would think that a more intellectually astute and perceptive person of today could be able to devise a word more definitively expressive than the words love, war, peace, hope, pain, sorrow, fight, eat, drink, music, math, science, religion, etc... By retaining the same words developed in some distant age, we also retain much of the same notions applied to the words. Both the words "artificial" and "intelligence" come from the 14th century. The word "computer" comes from the mid 1600's, and the word "electron" comes from the latter part of the 1800's. The word "circuit" comes from the 14th century and the word "math" comes from the middle of the 1800's. The word "atom" comes from the 15th century, and the word "love" comes to us before the 12th century. And even though the early ideas connected with these words may no longer be in use (such as the notion of an atom being indivisible), our present day notions are not assigned with a new word. The words act like umbilical cords that we are afraid to cut.


The reason for this short etymological foray, is to describe a situation in which our lack for developing an artificial intelligence is because we are participating in the conservation of ideas is due to our word and equation usage. Because we have been taught one way— is the very way we likewise perceive the world... because its common observance and practice provides us with comforting thoughts, or assumptions that we are right... and yet, right in perpetuating views which are not progressive, no matter the context nor manner of expression amongst those who are gratuitously patting themselves on the back for thinking they are correct... but the social agreement doesn't produce anything other than a host of rationalizations for why nothing actually new is being developed. Personal freedom as well as social liberty are conserved... leading many to falsely claim that by indulging in crime, promiscuity, and various other social excesses or rebellions, is an expression of freedom. Unfortunately, the freedom that is needed is one in which the governing structure is dramatically altered so as to unleash the constraints of conservatism which bind our minds to the cognitive realms of some antiquity that many foolishly describe as an unexplored terrain of available discovery enabling all of humanity to grow beyond itself.


Music is a specialized area of physics using simplified mathematics limited by the conservations of patterned human physiology. This conservations of pattern are seen in the atomic structure, chemical structure, genetic structure, biological and physiological structures... all of which create a conservation of cognitive structures which attempt to imply increased complexity by the basic formulas of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division... which may be viewed as 'stand alone' single operations, two binary operations or a three-to-one ratio. Despite the insistence of some readers who may want to use "four" instead of "single" as a description, we nonetheless as the conserved quantity of three. In the following image will be seen the reference to "triads", but not the reference to two binaries:


2 binary triads (6K)

Major and Minor are a binary combination as are Diminished and Augmented. Whereas someone wanting to argue against the presence of a "Threesological" point of view by citing the two binaries as a four, we must ask how the elements are actually functioning. Functionality may not reinforce our notion of either a binary or a four, though the presence of a triad is fully noted. We humans very often read into something which exists only in our minds... influenced by a biology that is influenced by the environment... not to mention nurturance in a given social setting. When there is a social setting of widespread and deep conservatism; the functioning of the social structure reflects this orientation... hence the lack of an Actual Democracy. The presence of an Actual Democracy would not permit excesses of conservatism that enable a few in their "conservatism towards selfish excess" that permits the exploitation of the many.


Many people have realized that language is a limitation. What we perceive and how we describe the perception may be felt to be an inaccuracy. Very often, people are tongue-tied, or make use of a wrong word or phrase that, in retrospect, is identified as being wrong. The same goes for mathematics, in terms of it being a language. And many people realize that a binary language is a limitation. Whereas others have thought that if they could only find or create the right word or phrase, they could develop an accompanying new idea that would eventually change the thoughts of others... to improve the overall human condition. But the question remains, what is the correct... or best language? Is it words? Is it math? Or is it something as yet not discovered, but will not be discovered because both words and math are actions of conservative behavior?


This inclination towards conservatism is prompted by the decay of the planetary system. Like Hitler calling for the destruction of Germany as he faced an inevitable loss of life at the tail end of his reign, just as the planetary system is headed for a loss of life... so is all life to be destroyed. Humanity is eroding the Earth's resources like a flame seeking out its last morsel of edible fuel... and its attempts to thwart the process are always too conservative... and two binary.. too dichotomous... too oppositional. In speculating how humanity has arrived at the present juncture suggesting it will instead engage in acts to destroy life on Earth prior to the Sun's eventual burnout, we look for basic patterns and assume that the environment, or if you prefer... God's use of the environment as a tool... will provide us with some indication that life is molded in the symbolic image of the environment's patterns, rhythms, and other repetitions.


By identifying the presence of a one- two- three maturational development sequence with respect to the three germ layers (Endoderm- Mesoderm- Ectoderm) and then the development of a numbering sequence featuring the symbols "1" "2" "3"; we look at other biological and psychological structures in a deliberate attempt to see whether or not such a pattern is present. Yet, when we find the recurring presence of a 1, 2, 3... on an analogical, digital or quantitative measure; we look to nature to deliberately see whether or such patterns also exist. For example, in terms of identifying possible environmental patterns which may link to similar patterns in genetics; the recurrence of a triplet coding system begs the question of what three-patterned event might have existed billions of years ago when DNA and RNA were developing? Necessarily so, it is suggested that it would have had to be a developmental environmental sequence because the triplet coding in DNA and RNA may have well been preceded by a doublet and singlet coding system. The present triplet genetic code may well have been in another format such as a doublet, quadruplet, or otherwise, if we assume the wide-spread usage of the present coding system is sustained by a "triplet enforcing" environmental influence that was as yet not fully developed, not present in the distant past, or was not as influential as it is today... because it was undergoing an "environmental infancy".


In order to attempt some mental construct of what the early relationship of the Sun to Earth may have been like, explorations into Astrophysics (Astronomy) and evolutionary genetics is of need. Thus, let us imagine traveling to the past in an attempt to secure what environmental conditions were like on Earth, with respect to the Sun's influence on it... since life requires some sort of catalyst. As such, it is thought that the rotation rate of the Earth was accelerated, as discussed on page: AI and 3sology pg18. But what has not been provided is a small image representing the Sun's three "moments" (dawn- noon- dusk) "fusing" together as the Sun decays by way of an expansion. The expansion is thought be so large that it will engulf the innermost three planets. (In reverse of this thinking, the Sun may have been further away at one time... allowing life to have begun on Mercury and/or Venus).


3 solar moments fusing into 1 (15K)

Along with this image we must provide one that illustrates the path of the Sun, since this surely would have had some influence on biological life that would reflect the pattern according to the biology of a given species:


triangular solar path (18K)

Some readers may have already caught a glimpse of the triangle image of the Sun's path, because it has been used as the backdrop of a city shown on T.V.. It requires the use of time elapsed photography to capture the movement, though biology no doubt has been influenced by the triangular pattern, if the images of pyramids, teepees, spear/arrow heads and v-shaped engine blocks are a tell-tale symbolic symbol thereof.


Source: Pyramid page 1

The intensity of the Sun due to its distance, coupled with the speed of the Earth's rotation along with the amount of oxygen in the atmosphere, available minerals, etc., all have an impact on life. These circumstances are the language that life's development has had to contend with. It is the language that biological mimics, as best it can, as any child mimics the language of the environment it is subjected to. Less complex organisms are akin to less intelligence and experience. Such that, the interpretation of a more complex organism such as humans, and more experienced as adults, will necessarily respond to the "language" of the environment quite differently. While some termites do build mounds, suggestive of an analog (analogy) to the pyramidal (or mound) structures constructed by humans, we can not expect all species to do the same. Undoubtedly, there is something which prohibits, or conserves many species from engaging in some type of "mound" formula... though we are generally looking at such from a very primitive perspective and definition. There are problems with the languages called words and mathematics, as well as our efforts in using such behaviors as tools to reach beyond our grasp. An attempt to develop an artificial intelligence is suffering because of such problems.


Thought, communication, and understanding


Language use is a remarkable fact about human beings. The role of language as a vehicle of thought enables human thinking to be as complex and varied as it is. With language one can describe the past or speculate about the future and so deliberate and plan in the light of one's beliefs about how things stand. Language enables one to imagine counterfactual objects, events, and states of affairs; in this connection it is intimately related to intentionality, the feature of all human thoughts whereby they are essentially about, or directed toward, things outside themselves. Language allows one to share information and to communicate beliefs and speculations, attitudes and emotions. Indeed, it creates the human social world, cementing people into a common history and a common life-experience. Language is equally an instrument of understanding and knowledge; the specialized languages of mathematics and science, for example, enable human beings to construct theories and to make predictions about matters they would otherwise be completely unable to grasp. Language, in short, makes it possible for individual human beings to escape cognitive imprisonment in the here and now. (This confinement, one supposes, is the fate of other animals—for even those that use signaling systems of one kind or another do so only in response to stimulation from their immediate environments.)


The evidently close connection between language and thought does not imply that there can be no thought without language. Although some philosophers and linguists have embraced this view, most regard it as implausible. Prelinguistic infants and at least the higher primates, for example, can solve quite complex problems, such as those involving spatial memory. This indicates real thinking, and it suggests the use of systems of representation—“maps” or “models” of the world—encoded in nonlinguistic form. Similarly, among human adults, artistic or musical thought does not demand specifically linguistic expression: it may be purely visual or auditory. A more reasonable hypothesis regarding the connection between language and thought, therefore, might be the following: first, all thought requires representation of one kind or another; second, whatever may be the powers of nonlinguistic representation that human adults share with human infants and some other animals, those powers are immensely increased by the use of language.


The “mist and veil of words”


The powers and abilities conferred by the use of language entail cognitive successes of various kinds. But language may also be the source of cognitive failures, of course. The idea that language is potentially misleading is familiar from many practical contexts, perhaps especially politics. The same danger exists everywhere, however, including in scholarly and scientific research. In scriptural interpretation, for example, it is imperative to distinguish true interpretations of a text from false ones; this in turn requires thinking about the stability of linguistic meaning and about the use of analogy, metaphor, and allegory in textual analysis. Often the danger is less that meanings may be misidentified than that the text may be misconceived through alien categories entrenched (and thus unnoticed) in the scholar's own language. The same worries apply to the interpretation of works of literature, legal documents, and scientific treatises.


The “mist and veil of words,” as the Irish philosopher George Berkeley (1685–1753) described it, is a traditional theme in the history of philosophy. Confucius (551–479 BC), for example, held that, when words go wrong, there is no limit to what else may go wrong with them; for this reason, “the civilized person is anything but casual in what he says.” This view is often associated with pessimism about the usefulness of natural language as a tool for acquiring and formulating knowledge; it has also inspired efforts by some philosophers and linguists to construct an “ideal” language—i.e., one that would be semantically or logically “transparent.” The most celebrated of these projects was undertaken by the great German polymath Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646–1716), who envisioned a “universal characteristic” that would enable people to settle their disputes through a process of pure calculation, analogous to the factoring of numbers. In the early 20th century the rapid development of modern mathematical logic (see formal logic) similarly inspired the idea of a language in which grammatical form would be a sure guide to meaning, so that the inferences that could legitimately be drawn from propositions would be clearly visible on their surface.


Outside philosophy there have often been calls for replacing specialized professional idioms with “plain” language, which is always presumed to be free of obscurity and therefore immune to abuse. There is often something sinister about such movements, however; thus, the English writer George Orwell (1903–50), initially an enthusiast, turned against the idea in his novel 1984 (1949), which featured the thought-controlling “Newspeak.” Yet he continued to hold the doubtful ideal of a language as “clear as a windowpane,” through which facts would transparently reveal themselves.


Source: "Language, Philosophy of." Encyclopædia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite, 2013.

Thoth (Greek), Egyptian Djhuty


...in Egyptian religion, a god of the moon, of reckoning, of learning, and of writing. He was held to be the inventor of writing, the creator of languages, the scribe, interpreter, and adviser of the gods, and the representative of the sun god, Re. His responsibility for writing was shared with the goddess Seshat. The cult of Thoth was centered in the town of Khmunu (Hermopolis; modern Al-Ashmu-nayn) in Upper Egypt.


In the myth of Osiris, Thoth protected Isis during her pregnancy and healed the eye of her son, Horus, which had been wounded by Osiris's adversary Seth. He weighed the hearts of the deceased at their judgment and reported the result to the presiding god, Osiris, and his fellow judges. Thoth's sacred animals were the ibis and the baboon; millions of mummified bodies of those animals have been found in cemeteries near Hermopolis and Memphis. Thoth was usually represented in human form with an ibis's head. The Greeks identified Thoth with their god Hermes and termed him “Thoth, the thrice great” (Hermes Trismegistos). Important philosophical works were attributed to Hermes Trismegistos.


Source: "Thoth." Encyclopædia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite, 2013.



Subject page first Originated (saved into a folder): Thursday, November 13, 2014... 5:50 AM
Page re-Originated: Sunday, 24-Jan-2016... 08:51 AM
Initial Posting: Saturday, 13-Feb-2016... 10:59 AM
Updated Posting: Saturday, 09-Apr-2016... 12:28 PM

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