Threesology Research Journal
Artificial Intelligence and 3sology (56K)

AI and 3sology pages:

Artificial Intelligence and 3sology Introduction
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Formerly called manic depression or manic-depressive illness

(A Bipolar disorder is a) mental disorder characterized by recurrent depression or mania with abrupt or gradual onsets and recoveries. There are several types of bipolar disorder, in which the states of mania and depression may alternate cyclically, one mood state may predominate over the other, or they may be mixed or combined with each other. Examples of types of the disorder, which encompass the so-called bipolar spectrum, include bipolar I, bipolar II, mixed bipolar, and cyclothermia.

A bipolar person in the depressive phase may be sad, despondent, listless, lacking in energy, and unable to show interest in his or her surroundings or to enjoy himself or herself and may have a poor appetite and disturbed sleep. The depressive state can be agitated—in which case sustained tension, overactivity, despair, and apprehensive delusions predominate—or it can be retarded—in which case the person's activity is slowed and reduced, the person is sad and dejected, and he or she suffers from self-depreciatory and self-condemnatory tendencies.

Mania is a mood disturbance that is characterized by abnormally intense excitement, elation, expansiveness, boisterousness, talkativeness, distractibility, and irritability. The manic person talks loudly, rapidly, and continuously and progresses rapidly from one topic to another; is extremely enthusiastic, optimistic, and confident; is highly sociable and gregarious; gesticulates and moves about almost continuously; is easily irritated and easily distracted; is prone to grandiose notions; and shows an inflated sense of self-esteem. The most extreme manifestations of these two mood disturbances are, in the manic phase, violence against others and, in the depressive, suicide.

A bipolar disorder may also feature such psychotic symptoms as delusions and hallucinations. Depression is the more common symptom, and many patients never develop a genuine manic phase, although they may experience a brief period of over-optimism and mild euphoria while recovering from a depression.

Bipolar disorders of varying severity affect about 1 percent of the general population and account for 10 to 15 percent of re-admissions to mental institutions. Statistical studies have suggested a hereditary predisposition to bipolar disorder, and that predisposition has now been linked to a defect on a dominant gene located on chromosome 11. In addition, bipolar disorder has been associated with polygenic factors, meaning that multiple, possibly thousands, of small-effect genetic variants can interact to give rise to the disease. Schizophrenia shares a similar polygenic component, suggesting that the two disorders may have a common origin.

In a physiological sense, it is believed that bipolar disorder is associated with the faulty regulation of one or more naturally occurring amines at sites in the brain where the transmission of nerve impulses takes place. Abnormal regulation that produces a deficiency of the amines appears to be associated with depression, and an excess of amines is associated with mania. The most likely candidates for the suspect amines are norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine).

Bipolar disorder requires long-term therapy. It is managed most effectively with a combination of medication, psychotherapy, and social support. Patients who are hospitalized during a severe bout of depression or mania often are given medications in an attempt to balance mood. Medications that may be used include lithium carbonate, antidepressants, anticonvulsants, and anxiolytics (antianxiety drugs). Once the patient's mood has been stabilized, a long-term treatment strategy can be devised. Certain medications, such as lithium or antidepressants, may be used on a long-term basis and can help alleviate or even eliminate symptoms. Long-term pharmacological therapy often is supported with psychotherapy or group therapy. Shock therapy is reserved for persons whose mania or depression remains severe despite other forms of treatment and for women who are pregnant and therefore unable to take medications.

Bipolar disorder was described in antiquity by the 2nd-century Greek physician Aretaeus of Cappadocia and definitively in modern times by the German psychiatrist Emil Kraepelin.

Source: "Bipolar Disorder." Encyclopædia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite, 2013.

Please note the word "cyclicity" is mentioned, which is consistent with the usage when speaking of the environment's cycles of seasons, night/day, magnetic reversals, tidal behavior, etc... Also note its similarity to schizophrenia (initially defined by the term ambivalence), as well as having been described in the distant past. Because such behaviors appear to re-occur with humanity as a percentage of population, such so-called mental disorders may well have unrecognized survival advantages; such as perhaps allowing for flexibility in cognitive processes... thus increasing adaptability performances in given environments. And if dichotomous (binary) thinking can do this for us, perhaps trichotomous thinking can thus be more advantageous... though it too may be one-day described as a mental disorder.

The word "Schizophrenia" was coined by Eugene Bleuler, 1857-1939); and referred to a "splitting of the mind". The word ambivalence, to denote schizophrenia, is used to describe "contradictory" manifestations of impulse, idea, or effect. Prior to the use of the word "Schizophrenia", the term "dementia praecox", which the German psychiatrist Emil Kraepelin had first used in 1899 to distinguish the disease from what is now called bipolar disorder.

For example, talking about some "fringe" topic as ghosts, bigfoot, flying saucers, conspiracy theory, crop circles, etc., may well be interpreted as suggesting someone is "not all there", "has a few screws loose", is weird, etc... Nonetheless, I have on occasion referred to myself as an (extra-terrestrial) alien which, when I first used it on some friends, caused them to lift a curious eye towards me. In other words they thought I might have gotten kicked in the head by a horse. Their expressions were so funny that I had to laugh. Because "alien" was alien to our typical conversations, not to mention being used self-referentially, they didn't know how to respond in the presence of such a word. It was a context they had never been in, and was made all the more uncertain by my (pretended) serious usage of the word and application. But, other words or word patterns can do the same thing, whether or not one refers to themselves as being representative thereof. However, there are many people you can not joke with. Like the high-functioning mentally handicapped adults I worked with, or those not familiar with a particular subject; they have difficulty in grasping the intended nuances of a joke.

In studying the circumstances of a binary formula being used in computers and the desire to produce an artificial intelligence by way of such an underlying language model it is necessary to delve into the recesses of many different subjects which use a similar pattern of cognitive orientation. But let us not lose sight of the discussion about basic electrical circuits as well:

bipolar transistor image 1 (58K) bipolar transistor image 2 (22K)
emitter circuit (48K)

The three-patterned "P-N-P" is deceptive since it represents what is called a bipolar configuration. However, it may well suggest that the human mind is reaching for the development of a "Tripolar" construction... even though the "P-N-P" or "N-P-N" appears to be like reduplicated babbling with a pause inserted. Then again, what would a "Tripolar" architecture look like? How do we transform a binary orientation into a trinary one if the underlying substrate (electrical switching) is viewed as a primivity whose simplicity is interpreted as an intellectual advancement because we make use of it, like an early hominid having discovered the benefits of fire... and thus promotes a cultural observance that practices the agreed acceptance of social positions equal to a "keeper of the flame"? When a culture becomes heavily invested in a given practice, how do we promote a different path of cognition which requires the adoption of a different public education program as well (such as teaching a trinary instead of a binary perspective), when a binary orientation is so entrenched in the culture... despite the existence and usage of different three-patterned formulations in different subjects?

analog to digital (18K) A normal "person speed" of switching.

slow switching speed (16K)

A coffee or energy drink switching speed.

medium switching speed (16K)

A slow computer speed of switching.

fast switching speed (16K)

The bipedal gait of hominids and the existence of dualistic thinking, both socially normal and psychiatric extremes; attests to a behavioral permanence and psychological dependency on binary formulations. There are different models occurring under different labels in different subjects. As an incidence of numerical serialization, it comes before a "3" and after a "1". We find proportions of the 1, 2, 3 forms in biological substrates such as single, double and triple-stranded forms of DNA. We also find the formula in Germ layer development, such that complex organisms have three layers, less complex have two, and more simplified have one. However, this is not to say that a three-patterned sequence will be readily seen or even available. Extinction may well occur in some instances. And yet, let us not overlook that the fundamental substrates of life (DNA, RNA, Proteins) are simplistic and in this sense, primitive, because the environment in which they originated is simplistic and primitive. In other words, the planet Earth and its place in the Solar system, along with its place in the Milky Way galaxy; are simplistic and primitive. On its own time scale, the Universe is young and immature... regardless of all the social regard given to various scientific and religious theories.

In the use of the word "binary" to represent "two", it is rather curious that we find a repetitive usage of the word "ternary" to describe "three". Whereas one might consider that "ternary" not only describes a step beyond "binary", it also appears to be different in sound and structure. Perhaps for some, the word "trinary" is too much like "tricycle"... an object meant for children, but "bicycle" is commonly noted as referring to "sophisticated" cycling events involving adults who take such behavior seriously. However, one might well use the word "bernary" to describe "two", even though this description is rather awkward because of its neologistic unfamiliarity. Whatever your preference, binary or bernary, trinary or ternary... you'll have to do the substitutions on your own.

As for discussing distinctions between a binary and trinary circuit, the foregoing "P-N-P" (or "N-P-N") image references represent both two and three-patterned characteristics... but not, per sey, a trinary circuit. While it has been suggested by others that a trinary circuit involves two ONs and one OFF, the obverse (two OFFs and one ON) might be denoted as well. The problem is, we head into the territory of metaphysics. For example, if we describe life as being ON, and death as being OFF; then how does an entity exist in two (separate?) living states? Or, two (separate?) death states? Are we to include the notion of a pre and post-life? If we involve the term "reincarnation", then there is a former and a following life. Yet, can we apply a death and life binary model to this idea... such that one can both live and die in death (a "living death" notwithstanding), and a life and death in reincarnation? In other words, is death a type of life and life a type of death? Are we somehow describing sub-atomic states of existence that have a type of consciousness all their own and this is reflected in our metaphysical concepts which are not recognized as "whispers" of the consciousness our body's sub-atomic structure has experienced? Is a discussion about a "real-life" topic such as binary and trinary circuitry, actually a different way humans are approaching the ancient notions of pre and post-life?

traffic light (2K)

If we can not interpret the existence of an actual third state of existence to the ON and OFF binary formula, then an attempt to devise a third state by involving only two, may be a rationalization. Though we may sincerely want to develop that which is a step above and beyond the binary, how can we be sure of such an accomplishment... and that it is not merely an exercise in a two-based multiplication factor? Where is the third state to an ON and OFF situation? Do we thus look at other three-patterned structures such as a three-colored street-light... and yet overlook that the middle, yellow color is considered an over-lapping intermediary... more easily noted when the switching occurs over a lengthened time period (some cities practice a 1 or more second interval before changing to red or green, as a means to clear the inter-section). The transitional period is an overlap, though most humans may not be describing nor defining the circumstance in this manner. They may not be viewing the situation as a metaphor for the overlapping transitions which have occurred time and again in biology, as well as in the development of different species. From basic genetics to the overall development of hominids, transitions and transitional variations (metamorphosis) have occurred, leaving us an account of similar structures; one of which was denoted by Ernst Haeckel.

Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel (1834-1919) was a German biologist and philosopher who advocated Darwinism and formulated the theory of recapitulation... and was an exponent of materialistic monism (source: WordWeb dictionary). He his known for the Biogenetic law:

Also called Recapitulation Theory,

(A) postulation, by Ernst Haeckel in 1866, that ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny—i.e., the development of the animal embryo and young traces the evolutionary development of the species. The theory was influential and much-popularized earlier but has been of little significance in elucidating either evolution or embryonic growth.

Source: "Biogenetic Law." Encyclopædia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite, 2013.

Ernst Haeckel embryos (13K)

Biogenetic thinking had arisen in the 1820s with the work of anatomist J. Mecker (1781-1833) and zoologist Karl Ernst von Baer (1792-1876), but neither of them developed a theory of evolution. Haeckel's great biogenetic predecessor was the german zoologist Fritz Müller (1821-1897), who formulated the basic laws of biogenesis in 1864. According to Haeckel, "the sequence through which a developing individual passes in its embryological stages (a kind of development we call ontogeny), from the single cell to its fully developed state, is actually a short, compressed replay of the long series of species ancestral to that individual from the earliest geological times to the present." Simply stated, Haeckel's law of biogenesis is that ontogeny (individual development) recapitulates phylogeny (development of the species). He concluded that embryos give us the key to earlier Phylogenetic stages of animal groups.

Source: Chapter 4, page 66, Grzimek's Encyclopedia of Evolution, 1976

embryos image 2 (10K)

I highlighted the images in red in order to provide some other correlations involving the brain, though the relationships required a different way of looking at the information... thus exhibiting a new way of thinking involving a larger contextual picture:

The following are examples of embryos from different animals set next to the previous image of the reptilian structure in what some may want to (negatively) describe as the core of the human brain:

Embryos of different animals embryonic reptilian structure (1K)

But there are some readers, for whatever reason, who will have a slight difficulty in making a visualized connection so let me provide some additional images which bend the "tail" to make the comparison that much easier. And just for fun, take a look at the slight resemblance to Seahorses, though by moving the images around and using a little imagination, we could also see an early American (1890's) mustache with long "handles", a re-curve sports bow, a (lochness) sea "monster", (1960s - 1970s American) bicycle handlebars, the letter "S", a "baby" alien creature in the old movies entitled "Alien", etc...

embryonic reptilian structure (2K) Sea-horses alien (8K)

embryonic reptilian structure (1K)

But I bet there were only a very few who saw the number three, while a few of you diehard Elvis Presley fans think they can see his image with a bulbous head of hair (set in place by some sort of wax, cream or Vaseline) and long sideburns.

Some of you artistically inclined folk will no doubt mentally or mechanically place copies back to back, front to front, top to bottom and side to side. By using a practiced form of visualize animation, the image "comes alive" like a collection of still images gathered together in a series of collated page slips that are held together and then flipped rapidly through.

Source for above information: Criminal twos page 4

Most portrayals of the human brain typically display a side view and label parts of the brain in a fairly accurate and general way that suffices for most people. However, let us take a look at the reptilian section of the human brain from a side view, then a frontal view, and then compare the frontal perspective with a frontal view of a reptile known as the cobra snake:

Human brain divisions (3K)
3 divisions of human brain
Reptilian brain in green (1K)
Reptilian core highlighted in green
Frontal view of human brain (2K)
Frontal cross-section of human brain
cobra (6K)
The cobra snake

Is the close similarity of appearance between the frontal view of the human reptilian brain and the reptilian Cobra snake a coincidence? Or does it suggest a hint of human brain origin that has not been extensively studied enough? This path of research needs to be traveled on by those with a different type of perspective than those who have looked into the idea that criminals are like reptilians. Then again, if we all have this "reptilian core" in our brain, why aren't all of criminals? Unless of course, all the "white lies", cheating and theft, however "innocent" they are contextually interpreted, are an indication of a widespread representation.

Note: The many references to the idea of a snake symbolizing phallic/fecundity worship may be an external (cultural) imposition of an internal construct with a more fundamental (brain) origin than human sexuality. In other words, the usage of the snake to (supposedly) refer to the phallus (and associated fecundity) is but a simplistic rendering of a fundamental influence of brain structure image impression.

While there are many who are well aware of the analogy used in many contexts regarding criminals and reptilian-like bestial behavior, what is not discussed is the evolution that the "reptilian-like criminal" undergoes if and when they are not caught for committing those very first acts which lead them on towards developing more reptile-like behaviors. They are behaviors that are permitted to evolve into various forms of inhuman creatures because society did not catch them soon enough to stop the development through counseling, training, imprisonment, or they get killed through civil attempts at arrest or by state mandated sanctions. The evolution of the "reptilian-like criminal" has its own evolutionary tree, much like humanity has its own genealogical tree containing various types of hominids, each with its own forms of behavior and world views. In short, and to get to the point, the criminal can and does evolve (metamorphosize) into more hideous forms of functionality if permitted to do so.

Playfully rendered, the following image portrays the criminal as a type of unrecognized genetic mix between the hominid and reptilian lines of historical transformation:

human mixed with reptile (70K)

For the sake of discussion, let us recognize three types of criminals, to an extent some readers might see themselves in reflection:

One Time criminal (14K) Part Time criminal (16K) Full Time criminal (8K)

However, it should also be noted that the criminal, as a reptilian creature with its own form of brain activity, is useful in those contexts where reflexive survival instincts may be more useful than what might be termed reflective rational thinking. It is appropriate in some contexts. It is how and by whom the circumstances are defined and judged which make them either criminal or not. Some observers have a very narrow, tunnel-visioned view while others have a broader, panoramic perspective. It should go without saying that such reflexive and instinctual behavior is witnessed by all of us in different contexts, some being defined as talent, genius, extrasensory, and even lucky. Most instinctual and reflexive behavior is not bad or injurious to oneself or others. Yes such behavior can cause accidents, but so can the inhibition of such instincts and reflexes.

Source: Criminal twos page 1

Indeed, we need to think differently just as it is noted that those who have created the computers of today think differently than their counter-parts before punch-card machines were even developed, but the idea of a computer was being tossed about in terms of how to construct one. We of today are trying to think about how to develop the next stage of computers, even if it means leap frogging ahead. Such an interest necessarily requires that we cast off functions of thinking which are akin to "functional fixedness"... in that some people seen a hammer, screwdriver or other tool, as having only a single purpose. Far too many people are engaging in what can be called "subject fixedness" in that the information found in one area of study is only good for that subject, or only marginally applicable elsewhere. Different combinations of ideas, different ommissions, different substitutions and the like, are needed in our efforts.

We must examine mathematics, biology, chemistry, physics, sociology, anthropology, music, agriculture, etc., from a different perspective of analyzing patterns and basic structures. If need be, we must substitute the language of one subject area for that of another or several others at the same time. When putting circuits together, let us see overlap and layering just as it appears in geology and developmental embryology. For example, sitting on a hillside overlooking a city when I was very young, I would see the view as a circuit board and vehicles as the electrons flowing through a wire. Or birds sitting at different positions on nearby electric wires as notes on a music page. While some of you may want to call this imagination, to me it is the reality of the moment; just as the computers of today were once the imagination of those in the past. For the most part, computers are just fancy typewriters for many of us, albeit with greater flexibility enabling us to seek out and find accompanying information needed for a given task.

Subject page first Originated (saved into a folder): Thursday, November 13, 2014... 5:50 AM
Page re-Originated: Sunday, 24-Jan-2016... 08:51 AM
Initial Posting: Saturday, 13-Feb-2016... 10:59 AM
Updated Posting: Sunday, 21-Aug-2016... 05:17 AM

Your Questions, Comments or Additional Information are welcomed:
Herb O. Buckland