Threesology Research Journal
Artificial Intelligence and 3sology (56K)

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AI and 3sology pages:

Artificial Intelligence and 3sology Introduction
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The presence of three semi-circular canals being used for equilibrium might help some readers more readily acknowledge the similarity of "three" in the following account of Inertial Guidance Systems. I make mention of it because we will need to incorporate a means by which an AI maintains "intellectual" or "mental" stability (along with some sort of gyro-static maintenance for walking, running, jumping, swimming, falling, dreaming, eating, etc...) when it is provided with components which will be adaptive and provided with a circuitry that is able to metamorphicize due to the fluidity we will no doubt need to incorporate for a selection of creativity... though the adage of their being a thin line between genius and insanity needs to be more fully defined before we place include such a configuration. Then again, if humanity's present evolutionary development is an expression of unrecognized insanity that can not be recognized because we all share in the same orientation; then all computers may well reflect this insanity and a sane AI computer will appear crazy.


Inertial Guidance System


(Is an) electronic system that continuously monitors the position, velocity, and acceleration of a vehicle, usually a submarine, missile, or airplane, and thus provides navigational data or control without need for communicating with a base station.


The basic components of an inertial guidance system are gyroscopes, accelerometers, and a computer. The gyroscopes provide fixed reference directions or turning rate measurements, and accelerometers measure changes in the velocity of the system. The computer processes information on changes in direction and acceleration and feeds its results to the vehicle's navigation system.


There are two fundamentally different types of inertial navigation systems: gimbaling systems and strapdown systems. A typical gimbaling inertial navigation system, such as might be used on board a missile, uses three gyroscopes and three accelerometers. The three gimbal-mounted gyroscopes establish a frame of reference for the vehicle's roll (rotation about the axis running from the front to the rear of the vehicle), pitch (rotation about the axis running left to right), and yaw (rotation about the axis running top to bottom). The accelerometers measure velocity changes in each of these three directions. The computer performs two separate numerical integrations on the data it receives from the inertial guidance system. First it integrates the acceleration data to get the current velocity of the vehicle, then it integrates the computed velocity to determine the current position. This information is compared continuously to the desired (predetermined and programmed) course.


In a strapdown inertial navigation system the accelerometers are rigidly mounted parallel to the body axes of the vehicle. In this application the gyroscopes do not provide a stable platform; they are instead used to sense the turning rates of the craft. Double numerical integration, combining the measured accelerations and the instantaneous turning rates, allows the computer to determine the craft's current velocity and position and to guide it along the desired trajectory.


In many modern inertial navigation systems, such as those used on commercial jetliners, booster rockets, and orbiting satellites, the turning rates are measured by ring laser gyroscopes or by fibre-optic gyroscopes. Minute errors in the measuring capabilities of the accelerometers or in the balance of the gyroscopes can introduce large errors into the information that the inertial guidance system provides. These instruments must, therefore, be constructed and maintained to strict tolerances, carefully aligned, and reinitialized at frequent intervals using an independent navigation system such as the [three-patterned] global positioning system (GPS).


Source: "Inertial Guidance System." Encyclopædia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite, 2013.

The word "equilibrium" is not typically used in the jargon related to discussions about electrical circuitry, but it is very much implied by the single-letter, 3-patterned arrangements of binary switching: such as the previously mentioned P- N- P and N- P- N structures. They also act as a syllogism (though I prefer the term "sillygism" since so many of the three-patterned structures are rather silly... such as "All ravens are black, Jack is a Raven, therefore Jack is a Raven"... though one might prefer to call them simple-gisms.) In many respects, due to an inclination towards a binary (two-patterned) perspective, our efforts at construction give the occurrence and functionality of two-dimensions:


One-dimensional language: A programming language whose expressions are represented by strings of characters

Surface


In geometry, a two-dimensional collection of points (flat surface), a three-dimensional collection of points whose cross section is a curve (curved surface), or the boundary of any three-dimensional solid. In general, a surface is a continuous boundary dividing a three-dimensional space into two regions. For example, the surface of a sphere separates the interior from the exterior; a horizontal plane separates the half-plane above it from the half-plane below. Surfaces are often called by the names of the regions they enclose, but a surface is essentially two-dimensional and has an area, while the region it encloses is three-dimensional and has a volume. The attributes of surfaces, and in particular the idea of curvature, are investigated in differential geometry.


Source: "Surface." Encyclopædia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite, 2013.

Motion of a particle in one dimension


Uniform motion

According to Newton's first law (also known as the principle of inertia), a body with no net force acting on it will either remain at rest or continue to move with uniform speed in a straight line, according to its initial condition of motion. In fact, in classical Newtonian mechanics, there is no important distinction between rest and uniform motion in a straight line; they may be regarded as the same state of motion seen by different observers, one moving at the same velocity as the particle, the other moving at constant velocity with respect to the particle.


Although the principle of inertia is the starting point and the fundamental assumption of classical mechanics, it is less than intuitively obvious to the untrained eye. In Aristotelian mechanics, and in ordinary experience, objects that are not being pushed tend to come to rest. The law of inertia was deduced by Galileo from his experiments with balls rolling down inclined planes, described above.


For Galileo, the principle of inertia was fundamental to his central scientific task: he had to explain how it is possible that if Earth is really spinning on its axis and orbiting the Sun we do not sense that motion. The principle of inertia helps to provide the answer: Since we are in motion together with Earth, and our natural tendency is to retain that motion, Earth appears to us to be at rest. Thus, the principle of inertia, far from being a statement of the obvious, was once a central issue of scientific contention. By the time Newton had sorted out all the details, it was possible to account accurately for the small deviations from this picture caused by the fact that the motion of Earth's surface is not uniform motion in a straight line (the effects of rotational motion are discussed below). In the Newtonian formulation, the common observation that bodies that are not pushed tend to come to rest is attributed to the fact that they have unbalanced forces acting on them, such as friction and air resistance.


As has already been stated, a body in motion may be said to have momentum equal to the product of its mass and its velocity. It also has a kind of energy that is due entirely to its motion, called kinetic energy. The kinetic energy of a body of mass m in motion with velocity v is given by:


mechanics equation 3 (1K)

Simple harmonic oscillations


oscillations (54K)

Consider a mass m held in an equilibrium position by springs, as shown in Figure 2A. The mass may be perturbed by displacing it to the right or left. If x is the displacement of the mass from equilibrium (Figure 2B), the springs exert a force F proportional to x, such that:


mechanics equation 10 (1K)

where k is a constant that depends on the stiffness of the springs. Equation (10) is called Hooke's law, and the force is called the spring force. If x is positive (displacement to the right), the resulting force is negative (to the left), and vice versa. In other words, the spring force always acts so as to restore mass back toward its equilibrium position. Moreover, the force will produce an acceleration along the x direction given by a = d2x/dt2. Thus, Newton's second law, F = ma, is applied to this case by substituting -kx for F and d2x/dt2 for a, giving -kx = m(d2x/dt2). Transposing and dividing by m yields the equation:


mechanics equation 11 (1K)

Equation (11) gives the derivative—in this case the second derivative—of a quantity x in terms of the quantity itself. Such an equation is called a differential equation, meaning an equation containing derivatives. Much of the ordinary, day-to-day work of theoretical physics consists of solving differential equations. The question is, given equation (11), how does x depend on time?


The answer is suggested by experience. If the mass is displaced and released, it will oscillate back and forth about its equilibrium position. That is, x should be an oscillating function of t, such as a sine wave or a cosine wave. For example, x might obey a behaviour such as:


mechanics equation 12 (1K)

Equation (12) describes the behaviour sketched graphically in Figure 3. The mass is initially displaced a distance x = A and released at time t = 0. As time goes on, the mass oscillates from A to -A and back to A again in the time it takes ωt to advance by 2π. This time is called T, the period of oscillation, so that ωT = 2π, or T = 2π/ω. The reciprocal of the period, or the frequency f, in oscillations per second, is given by f = 1/T = ω/2π. The quantity ω is called the angular frequency and is expressed in radians per second...


mechanics equation 3 (16K)


Author: David L. Goodstein

Source: "Mechanics." Encyclopædia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite, 2013.

In the above (shortened) reference it was mentioned that we humans have difficulty paying witness to the rotation of the Earth because we are moving at the same speed and have no means of referencing it except for external bodies (Sun, planets, stars, Moon). The same goes for a binary, trinary, etc., usage... because we are too (genetically, biologically, and physiologically) close to such patterns. We need to find references which permit us to acquire greater objectivity instead of the current levels and types of subjectivity that we are using to navigate our perceptions and commensurate activity in accordance with. I also wanted to put in a bit of information about oscillation because we will be working with oscillations in electrical circuitry later on in terms of circuitry that will be designed for "hearing/listening" to electrical wave/particle and possibly... a third entity to be introduced as a descipherable pattern to make use of.


Switching Theory

Theory of circuits made up of ideal digital devices, including their structure, behaviour, and design. It incorporates Boolean logic (see Boolean algebra), a basic component of modern digital switching systems. Switching is essential to telephone, telegraph, data processing, and other technologies in which it is necessary to make rapid decisions about routing information. See also queuing theory.


Source: "Switching Theory." Encyclopædia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite, 2013.

Boolean Algebra


(Boolean Algebra is a) symbolic system of mathematical logic that represents relationships between entities—either ideas or objects. The basic rules of this system were formulated in 1847 by George Boole of England and were subsequently refined by other mathematicians and applied to set theory. Today, Boolean algebra is of significance to the theory of probability, geometry of sets, and information theory. Furthermore, it constitutes the basis for the design of circuits used in electronic digital computers.


In a Boolean algebra a set of elements is closed under two commutative binary operations that can be described by any of various systems of postulates, all of which can be deduced from the basic postulates that an identity element exists for each operation, that each operation is distributive over the other, and that for every element in the set there is another element that combines with the first under either of the operations to yield the identity element of the other.


The ordinary algebra (in which the elements are the real numbers and the commutative binary operations are addition and multiplication) does not satisfy all the requirements of a Boolean algebra. The set of real numbers is closed under the two operations (that is, the sum or the product of two real numbers also is a real number);
identity elements exist—0 for addition and 1 for multiplication (that is, a + 0 = a and a × 1 = a for any real number a);
and multiplication is distributive over addition (that is, a × [b + c] = [a × b] + [a × c]);
but addition is not distributive over multiplication (that is, a + [b × c] does not, in general, equal [a + b] × [a + c]).


The advantage of Boolean algebra is that it is valid when truth-values—i.e., the truth or falsity of a given proposition or logical statement—are used as variables instead of the numeric quantities employed by ordinary algebra. It lends itself to manipulating propositions that are either true (with truth-value 1) or false (with truth-value 0). Two such propositions can be combined to form a compound proposition by use of the logical connectives, or operators, AND or OR. (The standard symbols for these connectives are ? and ?, respectively.) The truth-value of the resulting proposition is dependent on the truth-values of the components and the connective employed. For example, the propositions a and b may be true or false, independently of one another. The connective AND produces a proposition, a ? b, that is true when both a and b are true, and false otherwise.


Source: "Boolean algebra." Encyclopædia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite, 2013.

Queuing Theory


subject in operations research that deals with the problem of providing adequate but economical service facilities involving unpredictable numbers and times or similar sequences. In queuing theory the term customers is used, whether referring to people or things, in correlating such variables as how customers arrive, how service meets their requirements, average service time and extent of variations, and idle time. When such variables are identified for both customers and facilities, choices can be made on the basis of economic advantage.


Queuing theory is a product of mathematical research that grew largely out of the need to determine the optimum amount of telephone switching equipment required to serve a given area and population. Installation of more than the optimum requires excessive capital investment, while less than optimum means excessive delays in service.


Source: "Queuing Theory." Encyclopædia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite, 2013.

Put plainly, we are dealing with the pairings of Off/On, True/False, O/1. Theses parings represent conservative groupings used in conservative orders, arrangements or queuing. This function is also found in the ordering of humans in a line, electrical impulses in a circuit, and products along a conveyor belt to be placed into a container. Whether a "container" is the box of a computer's design in which to house components or the skull in which a brain is thus but another box whose functionality is limited by the resources it is subjected to in one's culture during a given era (a superstitious global culture breeds constricting ideas such as religion, mathematics, science, etc.). Our ideas limit our explorations and discoveries. Political, religious and business climates are severely restrictive boxes in which we must contend with. Even if we were to travel, we would only be exposed to a partial lessening of the social leashes that a "global" mentality puts into place and expects us to abide with... particularly in what is accepted as truth.


Yet, the observed (and practiced) constraints within one culture, though try as they might to be imposed on those external to their group; may lend on deaf ears if those external to the group find the practices contrary to morality or logic... like the Conquistadors when subjected to the proceedings and accompanying cultural rituals used for human sacrifice. But if everyone shares in the same ideas, the same views, they go along with the practices and perspectives. Such that, in order to step beyond the limitations we humans engage in, and are particularly ignorant of in our design of an advanced computer system; it may be necessary to deliberately alter humans on the genetic level... if attempts to alter perceptions and concepts are not achieved by producing discussions as are presented here... in rather lay-persons terms (meaning, the concepts are not steeped in specialized technicalities that can not be understood by those with an average I.Q. whose familiarity is with multiple subjects.)


Those who live in social vacuums may at times appear to be naive, but in other circumstances we encounter such hermits, such reclusives (or eccentrics)... as having trespassed normal conventions of consideration and found a worthwhile trail of exploration. This vacuum, as one might want to visualize as that of outer-space or the interior of a lightbulb, allows for certain filaments (for example the Sun, or one's brain), to shine brighter for a longer length of time. The Universe and genetics, it appears, does not provide for an abundance of these particular types of filaments, thus making the presence of a Sun and a genius, rather few and far between. While humanity stupidly attempts varying experiments in the vacuum of space in space craft instead of creating off-world research laboratories; we need to promote the idea of using a cold, oxygen-less vacuum with or without a differentiated gravity; in which to house one, more or all computer components... thus taking a step back in electronics by recreating "vacuum tubes" involving an entire circuitry. For example, the entire operating environment of a computer could be placed into a vacuum tube... or separate components to facilitate the usage of different "filaments" (circuits and/or components).


Molecules (think also of atomic particles), act differently in cold, hot, pressure, and magnetic fields. The table of elements have different operating ranges in an atmosphere of oxygen than they do in a vacuum or some other gas. In our usage or non-usage of a given element, structure, application, etc., we are necessarily engaging in a conservation of number. It is a behavior we practices over and over again as a child, and no doubt exhibits itself in the counting sequences we engage in as an adult, though we have long ago substituted the occasion and applied wording. In other words, we are counting... even if we are not counting. We may be using a visual or auditory means of counting just like some animals that have a sense of what we describe as number or "number relativity". The parameters of more and less, large and small, empty or full, etc., are fixed binary paradigms in our brain that we unknowingly rely on. Let's look at a reference about counting rhymes used by children:


Counting-Out Rhyme


(Counting-out rhyme is a) gibberish formula used by children, usually as a preliminary to games in which one child must be chosen to take the undesirable role designated as “It” in the United States, “It” or “He” in Britain, and “wolf,” “devil,” or “leper” in some other countries. Among the most popular rhymes are those having the refrain “Eeny, meeny, miny, mo.” Players form a line or a circle and a caller dubs each in turn with a word of the rhyme. The one on whom the last word or syllable falls is eliminated, and the rhyme is repeated until all are counted out except the one who is “It.”


Some of the rhymes are very old and remarkably similar from country to country. For example, the British “Eena, meena, mona, my,/ Barcelona, bona, stry” can be compared to the north German “Ene, tene, mone, mei/ Pastor, lone, bone, strei.” The “Eeny, meeny” refrain has been linked to sets of ancient numerals of uncertain origin still used in England by shepherds and fishermen in their work.


Sometimes terms of later currency are substituted for traditional terms if they capture the children's fancy or complete a rhyme (e.g., “diesel,” “bikini,” or “Mickey Mouse”). Folklorists have also identified, embedded among the nonsense words and topical allusions, relics of ancient charms, Latin liturgy, or secret passwords of the Freemasons. Thus, a gibberish line such as “otcha, potcha, dominotcha” and its variants—“Hocca, proach, domma, noach,” “Oka, poka, dominoka,” “Hocus, pocus, deminocus”—can be traced to the solemn Hoc est enim corpus meum (“This is my body”) phrase of the mass.


Some folklorists have connected counting-out rhymes with ancient Druidic rituals of sortilege in which the victim on whom the lot fell was chosen for death. Remote as this may be, counting out is conducted by children with elaborate seriousness, and the one on whom the lot falls accepts it fatalistically.


In these rhymes the word “out” is often a prominent dramatic feature of the climax. The Scottish child may say:


    Black pudding, white troot
    I choose the first one oot

In the United States, children may say:

    Icka backa, icka backa
    Icka backa boo;
    Icka backa, soda cracka
    Out goes you!

The elimination may be further dramatized by spelling:

    O-U-T spells out goes he
    Right in the middle of the deep blue sea.

Source: "Counting-out rhyme." Encyclopædia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite, 2013.

Is the foregoing word "gibberish" an accurate label, or should we instead refer to the expressions as a hold-over pattern from the "babbling era", as it winds its way through a forest without leaving recognizable breadcrumbs to most researchers? Then again, have we presumed adults actually cleared the forest or is this so-called gibberish being used in our construction of computer languages because the two-lettered "reduplications" found in infant babbling are finding an affinity with a binary code? If we were to construct a binary code from the expression "Ba", or "Da-Da" or "Ma-Ma-Ma", would you be able to read between the lines of subject matter and decipher a code related to behavior?




(Ba).......... B = 01000010/ a = 01100001
(DaDa).........D = 01000100/ a = 01100001
(MaMaMa).......M = 01001101/ a = 01100001

Are the utterances of infants an insight into early cognitive processes if we use the appropriate tool of decipherment? Is the earliest "code" of infants a binary one? Does it reflect a similarity to the pairing and triplicity of DNA/RNA, or/and the 3 to 1 ratio of proteins? (primary- secondary- tertiary... and the quaternary as a composite matrix)


Because it is common and thus interpreted as a normal behavior of infancy the world over, the repetitive usage of a given set of utterances, when translated into the present binary computer code; provides us with a means of understanding developmental brain circuitry observed in vocalizations. Understanding the physical dimensions in a similar way will come next. And yet, the circuitry we are using, how it is and is not constructed, is an impediment to a facile appreciation that will assist in the learning of subject-specific languages. Indeed, we must consider that babbling is a rudimentary way of learning how to count... by way of repetition; a pattern which becomes embodied as a working architectural scaffolding/paradigm during the infant's critical period of developmental cognitive structuring. The expression of small groupings of repeated utterances as a so-called "gibberish" form of counting establishes conserved patterns related to counting.


The topic of subitizing needs to be reviewed next, after which I will come back to the topic of "counting rhymes" in order to provide for the recognition of a counting system within the rhyme itself, as if the brain of humans, in infancy, are using a layered form of (simplistic) "computation"... perhaps consistent with the "layering" which appears in the Germ layer differentiation:




Subject page first Originated (saved into a folder): Thursday, November 13, 2014... 5:50 AM
Page re-Originated: Sunday, 24-Jan-2016... 08:51 AM
Initial Posting: Saturday, 13-Feb-2016... 10:59 AM
Updated Posting: Saturday, 09-Apr-2016... 12:32 PM

Your Questions, Comments or Additional Information are welcomed:
Herb O. Buckland
herbobuckland@hotmail.com