Threesology Research Journal
Artificial Intelligence and 3sology (56K)

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Artificial Intelligence and 3sology Introduction
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On pages 1, 5 and 19 I mentioned the notion of "emergent property" with respect to increased intelligence... though the states of mind called "consciousness" or "self awareness" can not be excluded... that are obtained by way of some accumulation of knowledge due to an increased storage capacity in our brains. Whereas some once thought that a larger brain alone was sufficient, it is now generally considered that a more densely packed (accumulated) state of neurons plays a role. However, if size and compaction of accumulated material was all that is needed, then a warehouse stuffed full of toys, car parts, boxes, bottles, etc., would seem to suggest that there would be an "emergent" property other than a potential fire hazard, or neighborhood hangout for teenagers exploring such a jungled repository of "stuff".


Clearly, an accumulation of sensory distributed stuff in our brain is not enough. There needs to be a built in means of cataloging and compression of information as well as deletion, storage, retrieval (recall), substitution, prioritization, verification, etc... For example, one's diet, culture and genetics all play a role within a given planetary environment. Hence, survival is a main heading under which information is stored, and to which one's behavior is oriented accordingly. Will we humans make survival a dominant program in Artificial Intelligence units? Is self-awareness and ego important? Is protection of biological life forms important? Is sustaining religion, government, or a particular industry? Is the stock market actually that important, or does its existence keep us from seeking an alternative that may be more useful to the species? Should AI units be used to support any and/or all current social exercises (economic, cultural, political, etc.,), or should they be designed with instructions geared towards superseding such activities? Is humanity important? Is humanity's concept of god, life, love, peace, truth, justice, etc., that important?


Has humanity's accumulations of knowledge under traditional headings (religion, wealth, politics, creativity, etc.,) created a state of unknown irrationality? Will AI units built by such humans also possess such irrationality, yet be viewed as rationality because it is the dominantly shared perspective? Will our philosophies and mathematics be contoured to reinforce this state of being, though such ideas produce blackboard results which direct our attention, again and again and again, to the reality of such an existing irrationality? Will not such an irrationality seek to exhibit itself as rationality by presenting different variations of itself to portray a spaced scale between better and worse, thus obscuring that the whole of which is self-defeating nonetheless? While the "better and worse" is a binary scale, others labels may be used. And it is of need to note that neither are meant to suggest ending or beginning points, but segments along a binary scale being used as a model to portray a given preferential mindset. Let's take a stab at a layered philosophical viewpoint, where the "layering" takes place via the inclusion of several details which are inter-laced as cause and effect binaries:


The present practice of human reality is the result of an accumulation of sensory data whose compilation and ordering are based on preferences established by antiquated traditions— originating in a primitive mindset of superstition... have created a long enduring Age of Irrationality that is forced into portraying a scale of adopted variations (between the lesser of two evils) that become labeled as the adopted World of Rationality— in order to persist in some relative measure of survival according to the dictates of a decaying Earth, Solar System, and Galaxy. Humanity is bending to the Will of a wind that is blowing if off a precipice into a void of irrelevance.


binary irrationality (26K)

Even though the layers may be arbitrarily labeled or defined, overlooked, or misunderstood, we should also be cognizant that such layering can take on many appearances. For example, a rainbow is a type of layering that has many overlaying effects and associations:


rainbow effect (159K)

Let's look at another type of layering, with respect to the development of increased oxygen, which occurred over a large expanse of time and because of multiple events. While most of us today do not ordinarily discuss or think about the development of oxygen concentrations over geologic time scales, or can easily perceive the changes that have occurred in an accumulated layered fashion, there are means by which evidence can be obtained by an analysis of iron deposits.


atmosphere (40K)

(Alternatively stated, "The evolution of the Earth's atmosphere" is) the development of Earth's atmosphere across geologic time. The process by which the current atmosphere arose from earlier conditions is complex; however, evidence related to the evolution of Earth's atmosphere, though indirect, is abundant. Ancient sediments and rocks record past changes in atmospheric composition due to chemical reactions with Earth's crust and, in particular, to biochemical processes associated with life.


Earth's original atmosphere was rich in methane, ammonia, water vapor, and the noble gas neon, but it lacked free oxygen. It is likely that hundreds of millions of years separated the first biological production of oxygen by unicellular organisms and its eventual accumulation in the atmosphere.


The composition of the atmosphere encodes a great deal of information bearing on its origin. Furthermore, the nature and variations of the minor components reveal extensive interactions between the atmosphere, terrestrial environment, and biota.


The consumption of oxidizing power by the crust is recorded by the inorganic constituents of sedimentary rocks. Iron-bearing sediments, or iron formations, are of particular interest because the collection of substantial quantities of iron in a sedimentary basin requires that iron be mobile in the world ocean. Mobility requires solubility, and, while Fe2+ is soluble, Fe3+, the form of iron that results if O2 comes in contact with Fe2+, is highly insoluble.


Three states can be distinguished:
banded iron (75K)
  1. The existence of iron formations containing only Fe2+ suggests a complete absence of oxygen.
  2. The existence of iron formations containing Fe2+ and Fe3+ indicates that levels of oxygen were low enough—essentially zero in the deep ocean—so that iron was mobile, but it also suggests that O2 (perhaps at an oxygen oasis) was important in triggering deposition of the iron, though other means of oxidation—photochemical processes, for example—are quite conceivable.
  3. The disappearance of iron formations from the sedimentary record suggests persistent oxygenation of the ocean.

This sequence of possibilities is represented in the geologic record as follows:


  1. The oldest sedimentary rocks are iron formations that contained only Fe2+ at the time of their deposition.
  2. The first appearance of primary Fe3+ (produced during the formation of the rock rather than in later weathering) was in iron formations about 2.7 billion years ago.
  3. Iron formations disappeared almost completely from the record about 1.7 billion years ago (with a few isolated and very small recurrences about 1 billion years ago).

Moreover, the abundance of iron formations increased significantly from 2.7 billion to 2.2 billion years ago, suggesting that some new factor, possibly oxidative precipitation of Fe3+, was enhancing the rate of deposition. It is for this same time interval that isotopic evidence from carbon indicates the operation of an O2-dependent methane cycle.


Evidence for the evolution of eukaryotic organisms (those containing a membrane-bound nucleus and other organelles) first appears in the microfossil record of about 1.4 billion years ago. Biochemical reactions that occur during the growth and division of such cells require oxygen levels of 0.02 PAL. Attainment of that level by 1.4 billion years ago apparently led to oxygenation of the deep sea and the cutoff of deposition of iron formations about 1.7 billion years ago.


Attainment of the modern O2 level


The abundance of carbon-13 in sedimentary organic materials and in carbonates from 900 million to 600 million years ago indicates that unusually large quantities of organic carbon were buried without reoxidation during that interval. The burial of this carbon must have been accompanied by the accumulation of oxidized forms of carbon's redox partners. The quantities released were adequate to raise the level of O2 to 1.0 PAL or more.


It has been calculated that oxygen requirements of the earliest animals, which developed about 700 million years ago, would have been met—if the animals had circulatory systems that incorporated oxygen carriers like hemoglobin—by O2 abundances as low as 0.1 PAL. If circulatory systems had not yet evolved, an O2 abundance of 1.0 PAL would have been required. Studies of fossils indicate that the animals were very thin (1–6 mm [0.04–0.24 inch]) in spite of great breadth and length (up to 1,000 mm [39 inches]). Such a shape seems optimized for transport of O2 by diffusion from the surrounding water to the cells in which it was needed, thus pointing to the latter higher value (namely, an O2 abundance of 1.0 PAL). Other reconstructions of O2 levels based on biologic evidence suggest that the widespread development of land plants about 400 million years ago must have driven O2 to levels near 1.0 PAL, and they show O2 levels rising smoothly from levels near 0.1 PAL at 650 million years ago to 1.0 PAL at 400 million years ago.


Variation in abundance of carbon dioxide


The approximately hundredfold decline of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) abundances from 3.5 billion years ago to the present has apparently not been monotonic. During that interval, numerous ice ages have come and gone. Significant changes in climate can result from geographic changes, but it is generally concluded that modulation of the efficiency of Earth's greenhouse effect is also required to produce the extreme variations associated with widespread continental glaciations. In recognition of this, broad climatic variations during the past 750 million years have been described in terms of alternating “icehouse” and “greenhouse” episodes.


Icehouse conditions—apparently associated with the depletion of atmospheric CO2, the principal greenhouse gas—have prevailed since about 65 million years ago and during two earlier periods, 650 million–530 million and 360 million–240 million years ago. It is suggested that intervening greenhouse episodes have been associated with higher abundances of CO2 in the atmosphere. It has been suggested that the modern buildup of atmospheric CO2, due in large part to modern industrial and agricultural activities, could result in the melting of the polar ice caps and the subsequent flooding of coastal areas.


J.M. Hayes

Source: "Atmosphere, Evolution of." Encyclopædia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite, 2013.

Alternating icehouse and greenhouse events is a layering effect, that most of us living today are only marginally aware of by comparing summers and winters. Also such layering events are being itemized in binary formulas, even though the labels should not be used as extreme positions... but as two points along a larger spectrum of possibility. Nonetheless, recurrence of such events creates scales of binary reference used time and again with different labels with different types of scales of accumulated data over extended durations of time and place. Our human brain has developed an analysis of historic data has compressed large expanses of time into minuscule compartmentalizations that are not well used by the human minds as yet.


It should also be acknowledged that "layering" does not necessarily imply a smooth linear overlap, since different materials may be merged together with a medium... and that a (jagged edge) racheting effect may be the formula used. For example, on an old house I encountered a roof that had a metal drip edge secured by roofing nails. Over time, the wind pulled/pushed on the metal causing the nails to incrementally rachet upwards over time. While the word "rachet" may not customarily be envisioned to explain a process of deposition for different materials that may involve pressure and heat or other chemical activity, incremental changes are a type of racheting event when intermittant results take place... or even the absence thereof. Another example of racheting is when someone pulls socks on their feet over their ankles onto their legs in several motions, though one should be inclined to always think that such racheting occurs in a straight-line linear fashion all the time; though perhaps the image of trying to put on tight fitting boots is a better example of racheting. Nor should one think that such layering events occur in only one area or with one type of material, such as in the case of parallel evolutionary events, where similar changes can occur independently.


The reason for bringing the idea of layering into the discussion is to provide the groundwork for appreciating that the usage of layering is a wide-spread phenomena occurring in many areas, and no doubt occurs in human thinking and construction. Hence, we should be aware of our usage of layering as a predisposition that need not be interpreted as a necessity... but as a functionality that could cause distraction and needless diversion. Nonetheless, we use the formula of layering quite often, as can be seen in our development of circuits and labeling of "computer generations", as if such is the earmark of something to be distinguished as an imperative without which developmental progress does not well occur. For example, Microsoft has incrementally introduced variations of its Windows® program with varying results. At present, (April 2016) it is still offering a free version of a "Windows 10" setup which many computer enthusiasts have rejected to do so because it is felt that Microsoft can not be trusted... that it is a Trojan horse enabling microsoft the potential to unleash some controlled attack on the privacy of the public... thereby forcing it to submit to further incursions of free choice when it comes to using other marketed programs that Microsoft wants to exclude from competition. In short, the word is "Microsoft can't be trusted"... it is a two-faced, split-tongued, wolf in sheep's clothing. This is how their usage of binary thinking has evolved. Like every business, government and religion, the dichotomy becomes them versus the public... how do they get the public to see things their way, by hook or by crook (law, manipulation, deception, etc, of which there many layers of chicanery taking place...).


In direct terms of layering applied to electronic components, both resistors and transistors have layers... though we might not normally think in terms of concentrality since the common view is to generally view them simplistically in terms of a linear (two-dimensional) perspective of a three-dimensional matrix; and not as a portion of a larger picture... much like viewing the spoke of a wheel but overlooking the internal and external circular points of attachments, and the definable triangular spacing. In short, we humans are inclined towards creating "cocktail" ideas. Dictionaries, encyclopedias, and libraries are all expressed combinations... but such compilations do not produce an "emergent property of intelligence". While combinations of ideas have produced the wheel and subsequent applications and designs, the produced designs remain static (non-moving) emergent properties that are set into motion by people, or some extraneous event which causes them to move or decay.


wheel (36K) penny farthing (53K)

The image about the invention of the wheel is a supposition. It is not known whether such a series of events actually occurred. Neither is it accurately known when the usage of fire first occurred... we simply make educated guesses (guesstimation). The image of the old bicycle called a "penny farthing" was thus labeled because the small wheel was associated with a penny and the larger wheel with a farthing. With respect to fire, it was discovered and subsequently harnessed to the extent of usage and artificialized creation.


Manufacture of fire


The step from the control of fire to its manufacture is great and required hundreds of thousands of years. The number and variety of inventions of such manufacture are difficult to imagine. Not until Neolithic times is there evidence that human beings actually knew how to produce fire. Whether a chance spark from striking flint against pyrites or a spark made by friction while drilling a hole in wood gave human beings the idea for producing fire is not known; but flint and pyrites, as well as fire drills, have been recovered from Neolithic sites in Europe.


Most widespread among prehistoric and later primitive peoples is the friction method of producing fire. The simple fire drill, a pointed stick of hard wood twirled between the palms and pressed into a hole on the edge of a stick of softer wood, is almost universal. The fire-plow and the fire saw are variations on the friction method common in Oceania, Australia, and Indonesia. Mechanical fire drills were developed by the Eskimo, ancient Egyptians, Asian peoples, and a few American natives. A fire piston that produced heat and fire by the compression of air in a small tube of bamboo was a complex device invented and used in southeastern Asia, Indonesia, and the Philippines. About 1800 a metal fire piston was independently invented in Europe. In 1827 the English chemist John Walker invented the friction match containing phosphorus sulfate, essentially the same as that which is in use today.


Source: "Fire." Encyclopædia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite, 2013.

Analogous to fire is electricity. Analogous to the wheel and its application to a "frame" (a category: bicycle, tricycle, wagon, car, plane, watch, etc.) and the addition of simplified mathematics with respect to gears (and their shifting); is particle physics.


(I had awakened this early morning {05-Apr-2016 about 3 AM} by a vision of viewing atomic particles with inscribed invisible labels attached. The inscriptions designated spin direction, "coordination" [orientation?], speed and associated vectoring that appeared to recede from me and then replay the event anew... But there was so much taking place it was difficult to get a central bearing in order to distinguish a singular "point of origin" and thus ordering. Though everything had been slowed down and miniaturized and accompanied with a type of "smoke" trail giving the indication of direction, the amount of information cascading into my mind was overwhelming because I was not prepared for it. Previous "bombardments" of information in other dream states take on a kaleidoscopic presentation, that I call a 'brain defragging' that needs to occur from time to time. The smoke trails were laid out in what looked like a big spider web with a peculiar type of webbing arrangement that dissipated from view like wisps of clouds. My mind flip-flopped up and down while also turning the scene inside out... as if to tell me the sub-atomic can be viewed from a different vantage point. I was again and again subjected to an impression of a motion picture containing three-different languages sub-title configuration. It was a cocktail of languages like the Rosetta stone.)

Particle physics deals with spin ratios. The problem is that with the adoption of a so-called fourth variable, what is not being distinguished in the presence of a three-to-one ratio. This 3-to-1 realization (and labeling) instead of saying "four", is consistent with the notion of the Sun's three "moments" headed towards a "fusion". A fusion of three events leads to a fourth that is not only dependent, but independent as well. It is dependent on the three fusing, but is independent in the sense of establishing a separate entity... like a mutation having emerged. A person involved with a "doubling" perspective may automatically choose to accept "4" after a third position, instead of using a "1" to designate a difference of character... like an apple, banana and an orange being compared to a tomato. While all are fruits, each has a separate character, and the so-called fourth (tomato) has an additional differentiation of being viewed by some as a vegetable... like having a bipolar personality.


Spin


The concept of quantization led during the 1920s to the development of quantum mechanics, which appeared to provide physicists with the correct method of calculating the structure of the atom. In his model Niels Bohr had postulated that the electrons in the atom move only in orbits in which the angular momentum (angular velocity multiplied by mass) has certain fixed values. Each of these allowed values is characterized by a quantum number that can have only integer values. In the full quantum mechanical treatment of the structure of the atom, developed in the 1920s, three quantum numbers relating to angular momentum arise because there are three independent variable parameters in the equation describing the motion of atomic electrons.


In 1925, however, two Dutch physicists, Samuel Goudsmit and George Uhlenbeck, realized that, in order to explain fully the spectra of light emitted by the atoms of alkali metals, such as sodium, which have one outer valence electron beyond the main core, there must be a fourth quantum number that can take only two values, -1/2 and +1/2. Goudsmit and Uhlenbeck proposed that this quantum number refers to an internal angular momentum, or spin, that the electrons possess. This implies that the electrons, in effect, behave like spinning electric charges. Each therefore creates a magnetic field and has its own magnetic moment. The internal magnet of an atomic electron orients itself in one of two directions with respect to the magnetic field created by the rest of the atom. It is either parallel or antiparallel; hence, there are two quantized states—and two possible values of the associated spin quantum number.


The concept of spin is now recognized as an intrinsic property of all subatomic particles. Indeed, spin is one of the key criteria used to classify particles into two main groups:


  1. Fermions, with half-integer values of spin (1/2, 3/2,...)
  2. Bosons, with integer values of spin (0, 1, 2,...)

In the Standard Model all of the “matter” particles (quarks and leptons) are fermions, whereas “force” particles such as photons are bosons. These two classes of particles have different symmetry properties that affect their behaviour.


Source: "Subatomic particle." Encyclopædia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite, 2013.

In designing a metaphysics that can be used in the world of matter and sub-atomic particle physics, a theory of mental parameters needs to be established and translated into the languages of commonly used appreciation in developing one's world-view reality that is testable. Use of the word "layering" can be too general for some and evoke only one or a few images associated with ideas far removed from those depths of intellectual inquiry most people may not venture into on a day to day basis of sustained interest. For some, "layering" may refer to a barbering technique without being applied to any notion of Artificial Intelligence. Another may view the word "layering" in terms of cake decoration, though these two examples display the notion of generality or superficiality under which many terms are otherwise used selectively specific and with great intent. While the two layering ideas are... perhaps... complex if compared to the mental state an ancient hominid may have entertained in their day-to-day foraging of food and attempts to keep off some predators menu; they too suffice as part of a growing usage of creating instances for the application of mental cocktails (mix/match- layering events).


Patches placed onto garments or over holes in one's shoes are layering events. So is the making of a quilt. However, retracing one's steps is also a layering activity, though we may not mentally circumscribe the overlapped events with a visualized image. The "hook" (parts of a song repeated three times) in a musical rendition is a layering effect. In short, repetition... like the seasons... even though variations take place imperceptively. The art forms known as decoupage and montage are layering effects, even if items are placed next to one another and do not overlap. The word "layering" need not imply overlap. For example, concentric circles created by dropping an object in water are layers, just as are the rings of trees. It is doubtful if the human species (or any "thinking" species) can have a singular thought. Thoughts derived from brain activity are the result of layers of activity, or it could be suggested that a single electron can constitute a thought.


In present computer design, let us look at information storage:


Bit


(A Bit,) in communication and information theory, (is) a unit of information equivalent to the result of a choice between only two possible alternatives, as between 1 and 0 in the binary number system generally used in digital computers. The term is shortened from the words “binary digit.” It is also applied to a unit of computer memory corresponding to the ability to store the result of a choice between two alternatives.


Source: "Bit." Encyclopædia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite, 2013.


Byte


(A Byte is) the basic unit of information in computer storage and processing. A byte consists of 8 adjacent binary digits (bits), each of which consists of a 0 or 1. The string of bits making up a byte is processed as a unit by a computer; bytes are the smallest operable units of storage in computer technology. A byte can represent the equivalent of a single character, such as the letter B, a comma, or a percentage sign; or it can represent a number from 0 to 255. Because a byte contains so little information, the processing and storage capacities of computer hardware are usually given in kilobytes (1,024 bytes) or megabytes (1,048,576 bytes). Still larger capacities are expressed in gigabytes (about one billion bytes) and terabytes (one trillion bytes).


Source: "Byte." Encyclopædia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite, 2013.


Memory hierarchy


Although the main/auxiliary memory distinction is broadly useful, memory organization in a computer forms a hierarchy of levels, arranged from very small, fast, and expensive registers in the CPU to small, fast cache memory; larger DRAM; very large hard disks; and slow and inexpensive nonvolatile backup storage. Memory usage by modern computer operating systems spans these levels with virtual memory, a system that provides programs with large address spaces (addressable memory), which may exceed the actual RAM in the computer. Virtual memory gives each program a portion of main memory and stores the rest of its code and data on a hard disk, automatically copying blocks of addresses to and from main memory as needed. The speed of modern hard disks together with the same locality of reference property that lets caches work well makes virtual memory feasible.


David Hemmendinger

Source: "Computer Memory." Encyclopædia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite, 2013.

The words "level", "hierarchy", and "layer" are interchangeable. And let us recall that a chessboard set-up consists of two rows of eight pieces for two players, and the board contains 64 squares. One must wonder if the numerical values and arrangements have significance as projected images of symbolism relating to a biological and/or physics configuration that "must" be represented on different levels of consciousness (and unconsciousness?) in different modes and manners. Is the configuration a memory of some event that our brains do not accurately appreciate... and yet repeat again and again and again in different ways... yet none of which stir a recall of the context?




Subject page first Originated (saved into a folder): Thursday, November 13, 2014... 5:50 AM
Page re-Originated:Sunday, 24-Jan-2016... 08:51 AM
Initial Posting: Saturday, 13-Feb-2016... 10:59 AM
Updated Posting: Saturday, 09-Apr-2016... 11:47 AM

Your Questions, Comments or Additional Information are welcomed:
Herb O. Buckland
herbobuckland@hotmail.com