Threesology Research Journal
Chemical Evolution Processes

(The Study of Threes)

In our human attempts at using a scientific ("measurement") approach for understanding the development of life from an evolutionary perspective, it is currently believed that life as we know it has arisen along a path beginning from simple chemical processes billions of years ago. The notion of "Chemical Evolution" is the common reference to the idea that biological life as we know it may have had its beginnings in what is colloquially referred to as a primordial pond, and alternatively called the primordial soup or primordial broth. Simply put, it is thought that life arose by the mixture of certain basic elements under early Earth conditions some 3½ to 5½ billion years ago, give or take a few hundred million years. Those arguing against life developing by way of chemical evolution processes over long expanses of time, have difficulty in imagining changes for lengths of time exceeding their own immediate interests, or what they encounter while perusing written accounts of actual or make-believe ("exaggerated") historical events.

In our attempts to devise experiments which may help us to better understand the origin of life from a combination of basic elements, there is a 3 to 1 ratio collection of ideas that come to mind during our considerations:

  1. 1 of 1. Life began in an open-air "test tube" pond.
  2. 2 of 2. Life began in a type of sealed "test tube" pond beneath the Earth's surface.
  3. 3 of 3. One or more necessary components for life came from outer space. (aliens, a god "entity," meteors, etc...)
  4. 1 of 1. combinations of the above considerations took place to develop one or more life forms.

While it is not quite certain whether or not we can re-create the conditions of Earth so many billions of years ago, there have been a variety of approaches, all with a variety of results:

Summary of some early important electrical discharge experiments:

Author(s) Year Atmosphere Products
S.L. Miller 1953/1955 CH4, NH3, H2O, H2 Amino acids, HCN, and other organic compounds
P. Abelson 1956 Various mixtures, including H2, CO and CO2, instead of CH42 + H instead of NH3 Amino acids, especially from a reduced atmosphere
K. Heynes, W. Walter, E. Meyer 1957 Like Miller (see 1st entry) Amino acids and others
T.E. Pavlovskaya, A.G. Passynsky 1959 Like Miller (see 1st entry) Amino acids and others

Summary of some early important ionizing radiation experiments:

Author(s) Year Radiation Atmosphere Products
K. Dose
B. Rajewsky

X-rays CH4, NH3, H2O, CO2, N2, CO
H2 (secondary atmosphere)
Amino acids, amines, and other organic compounds
C. Palm
M. Calvin
1962 High-speed electrons CH4, NH3, H2O, and H2 Amino acids, lactic acid, HCN, urea
C. Ponnamperuma
R.M. Lemmon
R. Mariner
M. Calvin
1963 High-speed electrons CH4, NH3, H2O, and H2 As above but also with adenine

Summary of some early important ultraviolet radiation (through a simulated primordial atmosphere) experiments:

Author(s) Year Radiation Atmosphere Products
W. Groth
H. Suess
1938 Xenon lamp
(1470 Å)
CO2, H2O Formaldehyde, glyoxal
W. Goth
H.v. Weysenhoff
1957 Various mercury (Hg) lines NH3, H2, H2O, simple CH compounds and Hg steam as a sensitizer Amino acids, amines
T.E. Pavlovskaya
A.G. Passynsky
1959 Vacuum
NH3, H2, H2O, CH4 Amino acids

Summary of some early important (short term) high temperatures {1000°C} (on simulated primordial atmosphere) experiments:

Author(s) Year Radiation Atmosphere Products
K. Harada
S.W. Fox
1964 Quartz sand, silicates; 1000°C CH4, NH3, H2 Numerous amino acids and their polymers
I. Oro 1965 No solid material;
CH4, NH3, H2 Only simple amino acids

Above table(s) information derived from pages 99-101, Grzimek's Encyclopedia of Evolution, 1976.

Scientists, philosophers as well as everyday people who may momentarily contemplate such, conjecture what the conditions of Earth may have been Like:

  • Hot all over
  • Hot with some iced-over areas
  • With or Without an atmosphere (varying types of primordial atmosphere)
    1. example: A methane atmosphere
    2. example: A sulphurous atmosphere
    3. example: A nitrogen atmosphere

  • High barometric pressure and/or low barometric pressure, vacuum
  • Violent thunderstorms with or without rain, sleet, hail, snow...
  • Acidic oceans
  • Short/long daylight/nightlight (starlight) periods...
  • Active volcanoes, frequent earthquakes, tornadoes, etc...
  • High and/or low radiation (ultraviolet, etc...)
  • Frequent meteor bombardments
  • Terrain types:
    1. example: primarily molten/watery landscape
    2. example: primarily clay-like landscape
    3. example: primarily sand/silicate-like landscape
  • Gaseous environment:
    1. example: methane
    2. example: nitrogen
    3. example: helium
  • etc...
  • etc...
  • etc...

In one of the first experiments at attempting to devise early Earth conditions which may have led to the genesis of life, Stanley miller developed the following experiment illustrated by the image to the left:

Stanely Miller's Experiment

---EXOBIOLOGY: Stanley Miller---
Revising the miller experiment

In his experiment, Stanley Miller used electrodes to simulate the electrical discharges of thunder storms which are thought by some to have been abundantly prevalent on the early Earth. Others have used different sources of catalytic energy such as ultraviolet radiation to mimic the Sun's heat as well as heat sources to mimic volcanic heating.

However, I have not come across any literature which describes an appreciation of those early Earth conditions which illustrate an accelerated spinning Earth, and the effects of the Sun's three distinct irradiating "moments" (dawn- noon- dusk) upon the Earth, as is illustrated by the above- right image. In other words, we do not readily find references to more sophisticated experiments that need to include conditions involving:

  • A fast spinning Earth. (Like blood being spun in a centrifuge or cake batter subjected to a hand-held mixture... unless God used a big spoon/fork.)

  • Reversing magnetic polarity of the Earth. (It's no wonder why some people change their minds so much.)

  • Intermittent "churning" (or kneading)f mixtures in an earthquake form of 'eggbeating' in which the mixture falls into an (earthquake) opened crevice and then is brought to the surface again by mountain forming processes as well as water pattern flowing from beneath the surface into creeks, streams, rivers, lakes and oceans.

  • etc...

I mention the rate of the Earth's rotation as having an affect on the development of life because a fast spinning Earth would have been affected differently by the Sun and Moon. In particular, after recognizing that DNA uses a triplet codon system and considering that this view may not just be a representation of the Three- patterned perspective which crops up most prevalently in Indo-European views, but may also indicate that the "three" in DNA is a formula brought about by some environmental condition; it is necessary to consider that the accelerated rate of the early Earth's rotation promoted a three-patterned circumstance. Such a circumstance is indeed found in the three-patterned stroboscopic irradiation of the Sun with respect to the "flashing effect" of the Sun's three "moments" known as Dawn- Noon- Dusk. And let us not forget to mention that the path of the Sun from dawn to noon to dusk is triangular, as can be seen with time-elapsed photography.

While we attempt to develop experiments in our desires to mimic the conditions of Early Earth, it is of value to identify conditions which may have played an influence on the basic formulaic design such as the existence of a triplet codon system in DNA. No less, we again find a repeat of the "three-patterned formula" in nucleotides, which are composed of:

  1. A nitrogenous base
  2. A sugar
  3. A phosphate linkage.

Surely there must have been some three-patterned circumstance to influence such a design parameter.

While looking at a simple example of the basic elements which make up a human body:

  1. 75% water
  2. 24% carbon
  3. 1% minerals

We might also want to look upon the human body as a type of microcosmic representation of Earth's conditions (though other parallels could be made in addition to the following examples):

Human Body attributes Earth "body" attributes
Electrical charge
body heat (98.6°)
iron blood
high carbon structure
low/ high percentage mineral properties
saline solution used in life-saving medical procedures
Solar/Volcanic heat
iron core
abundant carbon resource
low/ high mineral deposits
saline (salty) solution sustains ocean life
Hearing (sound responsive)
Seeing (photo-responsive)
Touch (tactile responsive)
Taste ("flavor" responsive)
Smell ("fragrance" responsive)
etc...(responsive to temperature, magnetic fields, etc...)
Left/Right-handed distinction
Female Menstrual cycle
Changing moods
Earthquake, meteor, volcanic, etc., sounds
various forms of irradiation
geophysical, etc., movements
acidic, salty?, sweet? compounds
sulfur, methane, etc...
"subtle" influences
"Forward/Backward" geomagnetic turns
Cycle of the Moon
Changing seasons

In short, do properties of the human body reflect properties of the Earth during (and after) the early formation of biological development? Did these early properties of the Earth act as a blueprint from which biological life was fashioned? Did God, (several gods, one or more aliens, etc.,) use the conditions of the early Earth as the only(?) primary(?) resource center from which biological life on Earth was fashioned in accordance with because of some sort of prevailing inter-galactic rule-of-thumb that requires experimenters to do experiments within the context of a given environment because it is felt that only by using environment-specific materials can a biological- based experiment become sustainable?

There are a variety of items we might consider to have had an influence on the development of early life, particularly if we include the notion that our attributes of reception such as hearing, seeing, smelling, etc., are merely complex forms of characteristics that early life processes were endowed with and only grew as a means to take better advantage of available influences in the environment. For example, because our eyes appear to be a dominant characteristic, does this suggest that there was (or is) a dominant photo-influence in the environment? No less, does the characteristic of hearing suggest that there existed an early form of biologically important sound(s) {air pressure}, and that instead of looking for an example related to the notion of "Music of the Spheres," we should be looking for an example related to the notion of "Music of the Macro-molecules?"

Does the present-day usage of a musical triad represent a symbolic reference to an underlying influence of sound on the development of the RNA- DNA- Protein complex? Is the following diagram a simplistic allusion to a "sheet of music" related to the genesis of life's symphony?:

What came first?

***One of the central questions of current molecular biology is which of the three fundamental biopolymers arose first? Was it RNA? Was it DNA? Was it Protein?

3 origin theories can be realized by consideration of the three biopolymers:

  1. RNA or DNA or Proteins came first. (single origin hypothesis)
  2. RNA or DNA and Proteins came first. (double origin hypothesis)
  3. RNA, DNA, and Proteins came first (simultaneously?). (triple origin hypothesis)

The dual and triple origin hypothesis suggest a simultaneous or somewhat of a simultaneous development that may have occurred in separate environments and somehow became mixed.

If we look at the number of strands of each of these, we find RNA is predominantly single stranded, DNA is predominantly double stranded, and Proteins may have a primary~ secondary~ tertiary structure, with a composite called the quaternary. Clearly, each of these has a "1" and a "2" in that we can find some RNA with a double strand and some DNA with a single strand. If the numerical quantity of strands is indicative of placement of arrival on the biological scene, then one might want to conclude that they may have all arrived, in some form, simultaneously. However, if we consider that there is an environmental influence on biological development to follow a three- patterned course, then it is clear that RNA was too primitive to proceed to a full expression of a three-patterned structure. It is also clear that while DNA did achieve a full 2-patterned expression of development because it is predominantly double stranded, it too is primitive in the sense it did not achieve a full 3-patterned expression in the number of strands. The full expression of a "3" was achieved by the 3-stranded Protein.

The initial development of all three substances may have occurred in an overlapping fashion with RNA coming first, DNA coming second, and Proteins coming third in the sense of the ability to proceed further in a 1~ 2~ 3 development, and not in the sense of a chicken versus egg controversy. Nonetheless, we might want to consider that Proteins came first and it is because of its pristine arrival that it was able to acquire the full measure of a 1-2-3 developmental plan that was available long ago, but was not available for DNA which was influenced by a 2-patterned environmental influence and RNA which arrived when environmental circumstances only offered a single format floor plan. In other words, there once existed a three-patterned environmental circumstance which influenced a three-patterned floor plan for proteins, but that on the arrival of DNA, only a two-patterned environmental influence which was then followed by a one-patterned environmental influence, which would offer an explanation of why we can find double and single stranded forms of RNA and DNA. Yet the fact that DNA makes RNA makes Protein, may suggest that some form of DNA did come first:

--- "DNA makes RNA makes Protein" ---

However, the occurrence of an overlapping development suggests a necessity of development during a specific period under particular circumstances that we might be able to recreate in a controlled setting. A simultaneity of development with an observable progressive complexity might be unraveled to expose an underlying simplicity that must occur in a simultaneous and overlapping fashion in order for the progressive design of complexity to develop (as a sort of "emergent" property). In some fashion, this could be equated with a punctuated equilibrium.

Strand Quantity RNA DNA Proteins
Single stranded = MAJOR minor Simple
Double stranded = minor MAJOR Intermediate
Triple stranded = no Press here for a link to:
Maybe triple stranded???
3 to/in 1 array = A-C-Q + Uracil A-C-Q + Thymine Si-In-Co

(By combining the Simple + Intermediate + Complex protein structures, this 3-into-1 formula is called a quaternary.)

3 to 1 ratio of important biological molecules:

3 polymers each made up of repeating units of subunits called monomers. (This is a 3 to 1 ratio: 3 polymers/monomers)

  1. 1 of 3. Proteins, function = enzymes (biological catalysts)/metabolism, transport of molecules, DNA & RNA synthesis, structure of cell.
  2. 2 of 3. Polysaccharides, function = energy source.
  3. 3 of 3. Nucleic Acids, function = storage and expression of genetic material.

  4. 1 non-polymer (not made up of smaller subunits).

  5. 1 of 1. Lipids, Phospholipids = made up of fatty acids, glycerol, phosphate and are the main structural component of cell membranes. (Cell membrane is a lipid bilayer.)

--- Biochemistry/Functional Anatomy ---

3-dimensional complex protein structures can be described by 3 + 3 (six) levels of structural organization: Primary, Secondary, Super- secondary, Domain, Tertiary and Quaternary.

With respect to the elements and biological life:

It is said that life consists mostly of four chemical elements: Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Nitrogen... frequently referred to by the four letters "CHON." These four elements, (sometimes along with the elements Sulfur and Phosphorus,) are said to make up 99% of all living systems. (It must be asked, if 99% of all living systems have actually been experimentally as having such, or is this comment merely a "guesstimation" [educated guess]?)

Table of basic life Elements

Elemental Composition:
Carbon C C C C
Hydrogen H H H H H
Oxygen O O O O O
Nitrogen N N
Phosphorus P
Sulfur S
Component of Life:--- DNA, RNA, ATP Carbohydrate Fat Protein Water
Organism Composition:
Lettuce 1.2 2.1 0.4 1.3 95%
Celery 1.2 3.0 0.4 1.4 94%
Mushroom 0.9 5.1 0.4 3.6 90%
Oyster 2.1 2.4 1.5 6.0 88%
Codfish 1.5 0 3.5 12.0 83%
Bacterium 3.7 1.3 2.5 17.5 75%
Cow 2.2 0 4.2 19.6 74%
Chicken 1.8 0 11.0 21.2 66%
Pig 2.7 0 20.2 20.1 57%
3 "name" variations of the so-called four basic elements of life:
  1. CHON-
  2. HONC- such as "honk a horn"
  3. OCHN- an acronym for "Oh, see him now" (but might also be viewed as a sneeze)

(The table data was adapted from page 107 of J. William Schopf's book "Cradle of Life.")

If we include the letters P and S (for phosphorus and sulphur), additional "words" could be derived:

  • etc...

Here is another type of listing:

The Biogenic Elements:

  • atomic carbon (C) which comes mainly from Carbon Dioxide (CO2);
  • atomic hydrogen (H) which can be generated from water (H2O) and molecular Hydrogen (H2);
  • atomic oxygen (O) from water (H2O);
  • atomic nitrogen (N) from molecular Nitrogen (N2);
  • atomic sulphur (S) from hydrogen sulphide (H2S); and
  • atomic phosphor (P) obtained from the phosphatic anion (PO43-); together with
  • monovalent and divalent metals like sodium (Na), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn); as well as
  • anions like that of chlorine Cl-.

--- Life in the Universe ---

I propose that it may be more useful for the expansion of our understanding of life by describing this "four" (CHON) perspective into a 3-to-1 ratio view, or (with the addition of Phosphorus and Sulfur) into a 3 X 3 formula. It is quite easy to assign Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Nitrogen as gases, as well as assigning Carbon, Phosphorus, and Sulfur as minerals, even though we can find these elements in different representative states. (Carbon, oxygen and nitrogen (C, O and N) can form double and triple bonds which give them very peculiar properties.) The usage of a "3" perspective would thus correlate well with the 3-patterned gaseous content constant on this 3rd planet: 78% Nitrogen~ 21% Oxygen~ 1% all other gases. The usage of a "four" perspective may in fact be a lingering remnant of a style of thinking used in antiquity such as we find in the concept of the four humors, the four basic substances (earth, water, fire, wind) and the four directions.

Another "four" perspective that can be altered into a 3-to-1 ratio view is the four-base nucleotide configuration often cited for RNA and DNA. Each of these has three identical nucleotides called Adenine, Guanine, and Cytosine and the so-called forth nucleotide for RNA is Uracil and for DNA it is called Thymine. Clearly, there is a distinct 3 component to 1 component ratio. And in addition to this 3-to-l perspective, we find each nucleotide composed of the three components Nitrogenous base~ Pentose sugar~ A Phosphate group. Such an addition only serves to emphasize our need to consider the usage of a "three" perspective over the usage of a "four" orientation.

For those interested, here is a college-level reading source of basic ideas:

Origins of Life, The central concepts, David W. Deamer/ Gail R. Fleischaker, 1994. ISBN 0-86720-181-9

For those of you who prefer to disbelieve in the develpment of life by way of chemical evolution processes here is a page with a creationist viewpoint:

--- The Myth of Chemical Evolution- Impact --- by David Rosevear, No. 313 July 1999

While there are those who choose to accept the "poof, shazam, abracadabra" theory often described by those believing in simplistic notions involving God, most of us hold the theory of God in one hand and try to see how it fits with the idea of what mechanism, what route, what means was used to develop life... which we hold in the other hand... Then again, from a Threesological perspective, life may have developed by way of a rock- scissors- paper route. And I don't mean the Sunday journal.

Creationists feel that life by way of evolution renders the human species as being nothing more than a product of chance and that because humans describe themselves as being intelligent, this intelligence implies an origin of intelligent design with a purpose. However, others think that the theory of God (and various ritualistic practices thereof) is merely a mutation that reflects the idea that humanity does in fact experience historical moments of group insanity that are perpetuated through the process of breeding with like-minded individuals. The following paragraph is a typical argument used by creationists to support their views. I took it out of context from the above link:

...Three consecutive bases act as a codon to transfer information to specify a particular amino acid, or to start or stop a sequence. This information on a string of DNA (gene) is responsible for the formation of a particular protein. Since there are four bases, there are sixty-four codons (64), which pass information rather like the letters and punctuation of a written message. This is a precise mechanism. Information transfer is checked at a rapid rate by proteins for random changes, known as mutations, which lose information. No mutation could lead to an increase of information, so neo-Darwinism cannot be a mechanism for macroevolution.

It is a tenet of Information Theory that information only comes from an intelligent source, so genetic information must have been created. Information not only implies meaning, but purpose.

This is the opposite of chance. As a carrier of information the DNA molecule is 4.5x1013 (45 trillion) times more efficient than the silicon megachip, which was made by teams of designers. Incidentally, a stereo-chemical basis for the relationship between any particular three nucleotides and the amino acid for which they code has not yet been elucidated.

Your Questions, Comments or Additional Information are welcomed:
Herb O. Buckland