Threesology Research Journal: Hybrids, Hybrination, Hibridization
Hybrids in Language
page 23

~ The Study of Threes ~

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If we hear a crow caw three times or a dog bark three times or are awakened at night by three knocks, is it because the sequence of a given sound is actually a "three pattern" or because our left hemisphere is interpreting it as such because we have been conditioned to predominantly use the left hemisphere to interpret sensory data due to a three-patterned ear structure and our schooling plus personal experiences have predisposed us to have an unacknowledged preference for interpreting in one way more than another; even if we do not ourselves customarily resort to an identification thereof with an enumeration?

In understanding how patterns identified on one side of the brain (such as the enumerated "2" and "3" relates to the same numbers on the opposite side of the body as described by the heart and lungs in the image above, we need to realize that a stroke in one hemisphere of the brain affects the opposite side of the body. Hence, there is a connectiveness that is commonly overlooked with respect to the correlations I am making. Here are some representative references to how a person is affected, depending on which hemisphere has the stroke:

The effects of a right hemisphere stroke in the cerebrum may include:

  • Left-sided weakness or paralysis and sensory impairment
  • Denial of paralysis or impairment and reduced insight into the problems created by the stroke (this is called "left neglect")
  • Visual problems, including an inability to see the left visual field of each eye
  • Spatial problems with depth perception or directions, such as up or down and front or back
  • Inability to localize or recognize body parts
  • Inability to understand maps and find objects, such as clothing or toiletry items
  • Memory problems
  • Behavioral changes, such as lack of concern about situations, impulsivity, inappropriateness, and depression

The effects of a left hemisphere stroke in the cerebrum may include:

  • Right-sided weakness or paralysis and sensory impairment
  • Problems with speech and understanding language (aphasia)
  • Visual problems, including the inability to see the right visual field of each eye
  • Impaired ability to do math or to organize, reason, and analyze items
  • Behavioral changes, such as depression, cautiousness, and hesitancy
  • Impaired ability to read, write, and learn new information
  • Memory problems

3 brain stroke areas (181K)
Effects of Stroke

ABSTRACT - Studies of hemispheric lateralization have identified that certain types of mental processes occur differentially in the left versus right hemispheres or the brain. The left hemisphere is more specialized for the processing or information sequentially, verbally, and logically while the right hemisphere operates spatially, intuitively, and holistically. Differences in the extent to which individuals emphasize certain forms of processing has led to the development of a taxonomy which characterizes integrated, mixed, right-dominant, and left-dominant information processors. Results of a study or individuals categorized within this taxonomy indicate that those readily engaging both hemispheres during processing (integrated processors) demonstrate greater overall recall or the verbal and visual portions or a series of print advertisements when compared to individuals preferring a more modality specific form of processing. Results for affective and cognitive reactions to the advertisements were mixed, but were consistent in direction with the memory predictions. (Hemispheric Lateralization: [the Relationship of Processing Orientation With Judgment and Recall Measures For Print Advertisements] by Susan E. Heckler and Terry L. Childers (1987)

The two hemispheres of the human brain are not equivalent. Relative functional differences between the left and the right side of the brain, so-called functional hemispheric asymmetries, have been observed for several cognitive functions (Corballis, 2009). For example, most individuals show a right-hemispheric dominance for visuo-spatial processing (e.g., Vogel et al., 2003) and a left-hemispheric dominance for production and processing of language (e.g., Bethmann et al., 2007; Ocklenburg et al., 2011a). In addition to these functional hemispheric asymmetries, anatomical differences between the two sides of the brain (e.g., in volume or size of a certain area), so-called structural hemispheric asymmetries, have can be found in a wide range of brain regions (e.g., Amunts, 2010). Several explanations for the emergence of hemispheric asymmetries have been given, including an enhancement of an individual’s ability to perform two different tasks at the same time (Rogers et al., 2004), an increase in neural capacity due to an avoidance of unnecessary duplication of neural networks (Vallortigara, 2006) and the greater speed of uni-hemispheric processing since no inter-hemispheric transfer via the corpus callosum is needed (Ringo et al., 1994).

Historically, the scientific exploration of hemispheric asymmetries started with a seminal paper by a French surgeon called Broca (1861), who described a patient called Monsieur Tan because the only syllable he was able to generate was "tan." Post-mortem analysis of this massively speech-impaired patient’s brain revealed a large lesion in the left posterior inferior frontal gyrus, an area now known as Broca’s area. This result indicated for the first time that the left hemisphere is highly relevant for language production. After this initial discovery in the language system, hemispheric asymmetries were thought to be uniquely human. In contrast to this view, left–right asymmetries of brain and behavior have now been observed in all vertebrate classes including mammals (Corballis, 2009), birds (Rogers, 2008; George, 2010; Güntürkün and Manns, 2010), reptiles (Bisazza et al., 1998; Bonati et al., 2008, 2010; Csermely et al., 2010, 2011), amphibians (Bisazza et al., 1998; Vallortigara, 2006), bony fishes (Vallortigara and Rogers, 2005; Lippolis et al., 2009; Dadda et al., 2010a), as well as cartilaginous, and jawless fishes (Concha and Wilson, 2001). Recent evidence for asymmetrical organization in only distantly related invertebrate species, ranging from Octopus vulgaris (Byrne et al., 2002) to the honey bee Apis mellifera (Rogers and Vallortigara, 2008; Frasnelli et al., 2010) and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (Taylor et al., 2010) – just to name a few examples – revealed that lateralization is indeed not restricted to humans, but constitutes a fundamental principle of nervous system organization.

Lateralization is highly relevant for animal behavior and possibly survival. For example, chicks recognize familiar birds better with the left than with the right eye (Vallortigara, 1992) and react faster to a predator approaching from the left than from the right side (Vallortigara, 2006), while most species fish show a consistent tendency to turn preferentially to one side when facing an obstacle while fleeing from a predator (Bisazza et al., 2000). These discoveries yield tremendous possibilities regarding the employment of model species in order to investigate the ontogenesis and phylogenesis of human brain asymmetry. Unfortunately, there has never been a strong integration of research in humans and non-human animals in the field of hemispheric asymmetries, a circumstance that may be rooted in the assumption of human exceptionalism that dominated the field from early on (Taylor et al., 2010). In the present review, we argue that an interdisciplinary comparative approach, combining findings from psychology, biology, neuroscience, and genetics, provides a uniquely powerful tool in order to advance understanding of the ontogenetic and phylogenetic processes responsible for lateralization. (Hemispheric Asymmetries: The Comparative View by Sebastian Ocklenburg and Onur Güntürkün, Jan. 26, 2012)

The cerebral hemispheres of the human brain have unique properties of information processing; an asymmetry labeled as hemispheric lateralization that implies that cognitive functions are differentially represented in the brain (Josse and Tzourio-Mazoyer, 2004; Vallortigara and Rogers, 2005). The most commonly studied lateralized functions are language and spatial functions, which display respectively left-hemispheric and right-hemispheric superiority. Initial evidence for dominant language processing within the left hemisphere was provided by Broca (1861) and Wernicke (1874), followed by experimental and clinical research that confirmed that language production and comprehension generally rely more heavily on the left than right hemisphere (Springer et al., 1999; Szaflarski et al., 2002). Moreover, language production and aspects of semantic processing are processed within the anterior left hemisphere, including the inferior frontal gyrus, whereas language comprehension is regulated within the posterior temporo-parietal region of the left hemisphere (Price, 2000). In contrast to language functions, spatial processing as required for attention or orientation predominantly activates the fronto-parietal areas of the right hemisphere (Marshall and Fink, 2001). However, right-sided lateralization of spatial abilities has been observed to be less consistent than left-sided lateralization of language processing, which may be due to differences in the intrinsic organization of both systems (Seydell-Greenwald et al., 2014). (Individual Differences and Hemispheric Asymmetries for Language and Spatial Attention by Louise O’Regan and Deborah J. Serrien)

This study alters our fundamental understanding of the functional interactions between the cerebral hemispheres of the human brain by establishing that the left and right hemispheres have qualitatively different biases in how they dynamically interact with one another. Left-hemisphere regions are biased to interact more strongly within the same hemisphere, whereas right-hemisphere regions interact more strongly with both hemispheres. These two different patterns of interaction are associated with left-lateralized functions, such as language and motor abilities, and right-lateralized functions, such as visuo-spatial attention. Importantly, the magnitude of lateralization measured for individual participants in these regions predicted the level of cognitive ability for the respective function, demonstrating that lateralization of function is associated with improved cognitive ability. (Two distinct forms of functional lateralization in the human brain by Stephen J. Gotts, Hang Joon Jo, Gregory L. Wallace, Ziad S. Saad, Robert W. Cox, and Alex Martin).

While the next chart displays a spectrum of hearing ranges for different animals, let me point out not only that it does not include the ranges for multiple other types of life forms, but also that it can lead one to confine oneself to given ranges for given life forms; even if any or all of them have moments in which their typical range of hearing or feeling sound vibrations can expand or decrease without being able to explain the differences they perceive except through behavior which no one may see because a given animal isolates themselves during such episodes, or seeks out such episodes deliberately by engaging in a behavior such as self-isolation.

animal hearing ranges (300K)

In the context of describing animal hearing ranges (which, in some sense also describes vocal ranges) we need to specifically describe vocal ranges in terms of an ability to emit sounds which are interpreted to be human-like. The well-known reference to birds being able to sound like humans should also include other animals such as Beluga Whales, Orangutans, Orcas and Elephants.

  • Researchers have found that blue whales have been lowering the frequency of their calls over the last several years. Climate change, warmer waters, and ocean noise could be to blame.
  • Research has found that sperm whales seem to speak in distinct dialects.
  • Snapping shrimp stun their prey by closing the larger of their two claws shut at a speed of about 62 mph (100 kph). That action forms a giant air bubble that makes a loud snapping sound when popped. As loud as 200 decibels, the sound is enough to stun or even kill the shrimp’s prey.
  • When several Howler monkeys start yelling at dusk or dawn, they often can be heard as far as three miles away, telling other monkeys to stay away.
  • Bats use high-pitched calls and echoes.
  • The male kakapo (bird) emits a sonic boom-like noise during breeding season. This boom-ching pattern can go on continuously for up to eight hours every night for two to three months.
  • In a 2011 study in PLOS One, researchers found that these big cats have flat, square focal folds.4? (By comparison, humans and many other animals have triangular folds, or vocal cords.)
  • A recently rediscovered species of bush-cricket has a calling song as loud as a chainsaw that males use to attract females.
  • Unlike the calls of bats, the sounds of oil-birds are within the range of human hearing. The sound is nearly deafening when large groups of the birds gather to roost.
  • Relative to their size, water boatmen are the loudest animal on Earth.
  • Coquis are small tree frogs that are named after the male’s loud "ko-KEE" call. Their calls are as loud as 80 to 90 decibels, compared to a lawnmower, and have caused restless nights for residents and tourists.
  • Researchers found the song of the male white bell-bird (Procnias albus) averages 116 decibels. It can get as loud as 125.4 decibels. By comparison, a motorcycle or jackhammer is about 100 decibels and a chainsaw or thunderclap is about 120 decibels. (World's Loudest Bird Is Louder Than a Motorcycle)
  • An African cicada, Brevisana brevis, is the Worlds loudest insect. Its loudest song is almost 107 decibels when measured at a distance of 20 inches (50 cm) away. (Loudest)
  • It circled the Earth four times in every direction and shattered the ears of sailors 40 miles away. The Krakatoa volcano erupted with ungodly strength, sending ripples of sound heard thousands of miles away. Krakatoa is believed to be the loudest sound produced on the surface of the planet -- in human history, that is. (The loudest sound in mankind’s history) by Mihai Andrei, February 6, 2020.

In nature we find that many of the so-called Natural laws or as yet discovered phenomena exhibits a limitation... or conservation, such as the conservation of energy, (which, by the way is interconnected with the conservation of momentum, angular momentum and mass); and involves the 3 laws of thermodynamics... and yet, the recurring pattern of "three" has not itself been constructed into a set of three laws which incorporates all such conceptualized occasions of Natural phenomena as itself being a representative model of a cognitive orientation identifying limitations described as conservations, even though the triplet code of DNA is not typically considered to be a limitation or conservation and neither is the periodic table of elements.

With respect to speech and hearing limitations, a few examples are in order for illustrative purposes:

animal hearing ranges image 2 (104K)

piano keys (112K)

Loudest animals (186K)

Loudest_sounds (51K)

Like a person isolating themselves from others or some thing (job routine, friends, family, neighborhood, city, etc...) in order to predispose themselves to some new perception or a common occurrence which they have not been able to spend any appreciable time absorbing; different people, different life forms may well engage either accidentally or purposely in an activity to investigate a perception... a feeling that may have only exhibited itself very briefly, but briefly often enough so as to create a suspicion that "there is something there" one can sense the existence of but have not yet been able to savor enough to gain a deep enough impression thereof for conscious constructive purposes. The seek out the glimpse, the hint, the vague perceptualness of that which tinges their consciousness but as yet has not actual identity and does not fit in with any type of label or formula that others may suggest as an explanation... however plausible, rationale and convincing a person may be at a given moment of discussion or reading something they have written, or heard about. No less, one struggles with the idea of whether the shadow of the impression being thought about is little more than a vague memory or a self-created illusion which provides a personal sort of mission to explore.

"It's almost as if" is a common expression for me to use when I encounter such a perceptual hint. This is how I not only view language, as a shadow of something else waiting to emerge out of some cacoon, but also humanity. I think all of present humanity is but an echo (and not some religion-defined image). And because I am using the word echo, though shadow could be used as well, I wonder how I might find the source. It is a question that I pose to all subjects. What is the source of language? What is the source of the Universe? What is the source of the supposed God? What is the source for wanting to source? Etc... Here I am in the twilight years of my life (according to the short life spans typically seen on my father's side of the family), and I am as curious as a child. Indeed. What is so great about humanity? And does our language enable us to adequately ask, explore, and describe that which we think we are talking about, or has language created a reverberation of thought and thought processing whereby most of us merely echo one another, albeit in personalized ways? Where then is originality of thought? Of purpose? of Discovery? Language can as well be a fetter as it can be a key to such fetters. The only trouble is, which do our words actually illustrate?

The centre portion of the larynx is reduced to slit-like openings in two sites. Both sites represent large folds in the mucous membrane lining the larynx. The first pair is known as the false vocal cords, while the second is the true vocal cords (glottis). Muscles attached directly and indirectly to the vocal cords permit the opening and closing of the folds. Speech is normally produced when air expelled from the lungs moves up the trachea and strikes the underside of the vocal cords, setting up vibrations as it passes through them; raw sound emerges from the larynx and passes to the upper cavities, which act as resonating chambers (or in some languages, such as Arabic, as shapers of sound), and then passes through the mouth for articulation by the tongue, teeth, hard and soft palates, and lips. If the larynx is removed, the esophagus can function as the source for sound, but the control of pitch and volume is lacking.

In other forms of animal life, sounds can be produced by the glottis, but in most, the ability to form words is lacking. Reptiles can produce a hissing sound by rushing air through the glottis, which is at the back of the mouth. Frogs produce their croaking sounds by passing air back and forth over the vocal folds; a pair of vocal sacs near the mouth serve as resonating chambers. In birds the larynx is a small structure in front of the trachea; it serves only to guard the air passage. (Larynx)

Reptiles, amphibians, and mammals all have a larynx, while birds have a syrinx. (The bird voice box is one of a kind in the animal kingdom (The "syrinx" isn't found in any other animal groups), by Elizabeth Pennisi, 5 OCT 2018.

Comparative syrinx and larynx (359K)

Vocal folds are found only in mammals, and a few lizards. As a result, many reptiles and amphibians are essentially voiceless; frogs use ridges in the trachea to modulate sound, while birds have a separate sound-producing organ, the syrinx.

There are nine cartilages, three unpaired and three paired (3 pairs = 6), that support the mammalian larynx and form its skeleton.

Unpaired cartilages:
  • Thyroid cartilage: This forms the Adam's apple (also called the laryngeal prominence). It is usually larger in males than in females. The thyrohyoid membrane is a ligament associated with the thyroid cartilage that connects it with the hyoid bone. It supports the front portion of the larynx.
  • Cricoid cartilage: A ring of hyaline cartilage that forms the inferior wall of the larynx. It is attached to the top of the trachea. The median cricothyroid ligament connects the cricoid cartilage to the thyroid cartilage.
  • Epiglottis: A large, spoon-shaped piece of elastic cartilage. During swallowing, the pharynx and larynx rise. Elevation of the pharynx widens it to receive food and drink; elevation of the larynx causes the epiglottis to move down and form a lid over the glottis, closing it off.
Paired cartilages:
  • Arytenoid cartilages: Of the paired cartilages, the arytenoid cartilages are the most important because they influence the position and tension of the vocal cords. These are triangular pieces of mostly hyaline cartilage located at the posterosuperior border of the cricoid cartilage.
  • Corniculate cartilages: Horn-shaped pieces of elastic cartilage located at the apex of each arytenoid cartilage.
  • Cuneiform cartilages: Club-shaped pieces of elastic cartilage located anterior to the corniculate cartilages.


Vocal impairment is a problem specific to humans that is not seen in other mammals. However, the internal structure of the human larynx does not have any morphological characteristics peculiar to humans, even compared to mammals or primates. The unique morphological features of the human larynx lie not in the internal structure of the larynx, but in the fact that the larynx, hyoid bone, and lower jawbone move apart together and are interlocked via the muscles, while pulled into a vertical position from the cranium. This positional relationship was formed because humans stand upright on two legs, breathe through the diaphragm (particularly indrawn breath) stably and with efficiency, and masticate efficiently using the lower jaw, formed by membranous ossification (a characteristic of mammals).This enables the lower jaw to exert a pull on the larynx through the hyoid bone and move freely up and down as well as regulate exhalations. The ultimate example of this is the singing voice. This can be readily understood from the human growth period as well. At the same time, unstable standing posture, breathing problems, and problems with mandibular movement can lead to vocal impairment. Comparative anatomy of the larynx and related structures by H. Saigusa (Japan Medical Association Journal, July 2011)

  • True/false vocal cords
  • Innervation of the Larynx
    • Muscous membranes
    • Above cords: internal laryngeal nerve
    • Below cords: recurrent laryngeal nerve (Functional Anatomy of the Thyroid & Parathyroid Glands Innervation of the Pharynx & Larynx, by Dr James Peerless June 2011. (time: 7:43))
  • Muscles of the larynx
    • Cricothyroid: superior/external laryngeal
    • All others: recurrent laryngeal nerve

Pharynx (368K)

Medicine, like psychology (Persistent Dichotomies), mathematics (Dualities and Simplistics in Mathematics page 3), and law (called Legal doublets, Story of Legal Doublets); are particularly focused on the use of observed dichotomies, but no concerted effort has been made to list them and contrast them to other numerically labeled patterns. Only a handful of two-patterned examples need be used as a short introduction to illustrate the presence of recurring cognitive patterning:

  • Intrinsic/Extrinsic muscles
  • abduction/adduction (body movements and motions)
  • health/illness
  • body/mind
  • superior/inferior
  • left/right
  • upper/lower
  • nature/nurture
  • plus/minus
  • add/subtract
  • multiply/divide
  • cubed/squared
  • chronic/temporary
  • Sympathetic/Parasympathetic (nervous system)
  • grey matter/white matter (brain)

The throat (pharynx) is a muscular tube that runs from the back of your nose down into your neck. It contains three sections: the nasopharynx, oropharynx and laryngopharynx, which is also called the hypopharynx.

Date of (series) Origination: Friday, 30th July, 2021... 6:38 AM
Date of Initial Posting (this page): Saturday, 22nd January, 2022... 11:50 AM