Threesology Research Journal
Lists of Twos

(The Study of Threes)

During a research of the "threes phenomena", other patterns come to be viewed, regardless of how we may react to them... whether as a thorn in one's side, a confirmation of some consideration, or as an anomaly. One of these patterns is a grouping-of-two, though words such as pairs, couple (coupling), opposites, contrasts, (mirror) image, reflection, twin, twain, two-some, 'something and something else', counter-part, "significant other" (one's spouse), this or that, you and I/me and you, etc., might be used in accordance with the language of a given subject area or context of appearance.

Patterns-of-two do not offer an exception to the "three", but are a part of a "Rule -of- Three" in terms of a Singularity - Duality - Plurality context... with the most predominant plurality being a pattern-of-three. It's as if all of humanity is experiencing a 'cognitive limit' as did primitives of long ago whose counting sequences had, in their own language equivalent way, a word for the quantity 'One', a word for the quantity 'Two', and anything beyond this they had a word such as "Many", though we of today might well include other words such as much, more, other, etc... One of these alternative listings is the word "family". The word "family" means "many" when we cite the usage of a single person, a couple, and beyond these two would be a "family", as defined as a basic father - mother - child complex. We do not use an alternative word to designate the addition of other children. And, it can be noted that we use the phrase "extended family" to denote an even larger group of members who are considered to be closely associated. It is similar to the usage of "large" in that we do not have another word, but instead resort to a type of 1,2,3 recount by way of using X-large, XX-large, XXX-large. These examples are expressing cognitive limits. The human brain is using a very primitive and repetitive architecture. Despite all the words we might use, they do not conceal the primivity of thought processing taking place. The may be the result of some brain-maturational effect, and/or environmental (etc.) which keeps us locked into this brain echo, exercise, hang-up, babbling sequence, undulation, reverberation, cadence, or whatever you want to call it.

No doubt it was very strange long ago for someone to use a word such as "three" to designate a specific quantity when all others were using a word such as "Many", even though they reserved the usage of the word "Many" to represent a quantity of four or more. As time went on and specific words were developed for the quantities up to ten, we find that the quantity "eleven" was initially referred to as one and ten. While we of today use the words "eleven" and "twelve" instead of "one and ten", and "two and ten", the word "thirteen" and the other "teens" show remnants of the older counting system. The "thir" can either refer to third or three, with the "teen" being a reference to "ten". Hence, we find three and ten, four and ten, five and ten, etc... At the value of "twenty", the composite of "two and ten" might well be indistinguishable to some readers whose minds do not permit them to readily animate linguistic variations over large expanses of time. In other words, the ability to decipher some instances of modern usage from older forms takes a bit of imagination in order to break the "code" into an understandable translation.

Interestingly, in terms of American Democracy being defined in a general way by a usage of a "separation of powers"/"checks and balances" provision in the structure of a three-branch government... it is a cognitive limit. The usage of a word such as "Cenocracy" as a value inclusive of and yet expanded from this convention will no doubt be looked upon as queerly by some as did the usage of a word which designated a specific value of three in an early counting sequence as was mentioned previously. In other words, it is the beginning of a transition away from the old cognitive limit being used by the tripartite structure. It does not do away with the old system, per sey, it enhances it through a significant alteration. The term "Cenocracy" refers to a new way of counting Equality. It is a new cognitive mathematics that established systems will adapt to, just as are Americans who are being slowly transitioned into the usage of the metric system. A new social self- governance system is slowing making its way into the social mindset. The landscape of politics will change dramatically in the years to come because of different standard of equality being practiced.

With respect to the "two", one might also encounter instances of a prefix such as "bi" as in bicycle or "di" being used as in a dimer chemical compound. Of course there are other references concerning some two-patterned grouping that could be used, and those using them may not necessarily be conscious of their usage of such. We should also point out that if we were to include the example of "pairing" with respect to couples, the list would be in the millions, since most people only "pair" with one other person; not to mention that most births amongst animals involve either the generation of a male or female and not a mixture thereof. Most people are monogamous, in that they have only one mate... even though some may have multiple partners, such partnerships typically occur after another partner has or will eventually be totally replaced by another 'one'.

It should also be mentioned that in some instances, historians tend to exclude someone whose presence and accompanying actions were no doubt an integral contribution such as in the case of the Wright Brothers' sister and in the case of DNA, though Watson and Crick were initially given sole credit for the discovery of the design:

A 3-stranded DNA helix was initially offered by James Watson and Francis Crick in 1951. It was copied from ideas based on molecular structures developed by Linus Pauling. It was Rosalind Franklin who initially offered the correct design of a 2-stranded form that she was never given credit for until the 21st century. The efforts and contributions of women are frequently overlooked... even though it is colloquially noted that behind every great man is a (greater) woman.

In the case of Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Watson; while we might refute the contribution of Holmes' housekeeper Mrs. Hudson as a dominant third entity, it is difficult to exclude the recurring contributions (whether good or bad) that were made by Inspector Lestrade of Scotland Yard. And since I am not intimately familiar with all the following "twos" examples, I can not speak on the possible existence of other "overlooked" three-patterns. In other words, patterns can often be found if we look for them with a particular mind-set in hand. Like different pieces of string encountered over a short or long period of time, it all depends on if our intent is to join them together into a ball of string, throw them away, or separate them according to some created formula for a proposed independent or collective usage.

The first example is a list of "twos" called pairs from the Wikipedia and some other associated two-patterned grouping lists. After-which I include a short list of what has been referred to as Persistent Dichotomies being taught and identified in psychology courses... but, interestingly, it is not being contrasted with the presence of Persistent Trichotomies, or its philosophical/psychological implications of mental growth and brain maturation that impact all other subject areas as well. While multiple "threes" examples have been noted by others, conclusions or at least considerations thereof have resorted to explanations based on superstition, religion, or some other antiquated supposition. While there is a preponderance of evidence to suggest otherwise, additional ideas are not routinely considered. However, one idea that has been offered which differs from those of the traditional past, is that the recurrence of "threes" (to which we might well add "twos"), is the notion of cultural predispositions... yet why there are such predispositions is not also being explored in reference to changes in preference either due to the culture itself or another culture's imposition, such as in the case of America's influence on cultures which are forced to except a continuing Military occupation and thus a persistent exposure to an American "threes enumerated" mindset.

Note: some of the information at the bottom of the page is duplicated on other pages at this site.

List of mythological pairs

(From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)

For a complete listing of pairs see Lists of pairs.

Altair and Vega (couple from Chinese mythology) 
Amphion and Zethus (twins) 
Apollo and Artemis (twins) 
Balin and Balan (siblings) 
Castor & Pollux (astronomical; juxtapositions); also (twins) The twin stars in 
Gemini; see also Dioscuri; see also Leda and the Swan 

Damon & Pythias (companions) 
David and Goliath (opponents) 
Deucalion and Pyrrha (couple) 
Diarmuid and Gráinne (couple) 
Hagbard and Signy (the Romeo and Juliet of the Vikings) 
The Dioscuri (twins; rivals/opponents) 
Hero and Leander (couple) 
Hansel & Gretel (siblings) 
Hun-apu and Ixbalanque (twins) 
Izanami and Izanagi (couple) 
Ixchel and Itzamna (lovers) 
Kaliyan & Kalicchi (First couple in Kali Yukam, as per Akilam) 
Sampooranathevan & Paradevathai (couple as per Akilam) 
Lancelot & Guinevere (couple) 
Lucifer & Diana (Stregheria; couple) 
Leda & the Swan (couple) 
Mainyu & Mazda (conceptual; rivals/opponents) 
Paris & Helen (Greek; couple) 
Pelléas et Mélisande (couple) 
Persephone & Hades (Greek; couple) 
Philemon & Baucis (couple) 
Pyramus and Thisbe (couple) 
Rama & Sita (Hindu; couple) 
Romulus & Remus (siblings) 
Samson & Delilah (Biblical; couple) 
Scylla & Charybdis (See also Scylla & Charybdis) 
Tristan & Iseult (couple) 
Troilus & Cressida (couple) 
Zeus & Ganymede (couple) 
Eros & Psyche (couple) 
Selene & Endymion (couple) 

Retrieved from ""


This is a list of famous pairs of sportsmen.

Troy Aikman & Michael Irvin (NFL players) 
Gene Alley & Bill Mazeroski (Pittsburgh Pirates MLB players; double-play combination) 
Luis Aparicio & Nellie Fox (Chicago White Sox MLB players; double-play combination) 
David Beckham & Ryan Giggs (Manchester United football (soccer) players) 
Derek Bell and Jacky Ickx; (Anglo-Belgian racing drivers and multiple Le Mans winner) 
Derek Bell and Al Holbert; (Anglo-American racing drivers) 
Mark Belanger & Bobby Grich (Baltimore Orioles MLB players; double-play combination) 
Gerhard Berger and Ayrton Senna; (Formula One drivers) 
Jonas Björkman & Max Mirnyi (tennis players; regular doubles partners) 
Serge Blanco & Philippe Sella (French rugby union players) 
Frank & Ronald de Boer (Dutch football (soccer) players; twins and Dutch internationals) 
Ben Bostrom and Eric Bostrom; (US motorcycle racers; brothers) 
Bob & Mike Bryan (US tennis players; twin brothers who form a prominent doubles team) 
David Campese & Mark Ella (Australian rugby union players) 
Peter Collins and Mike Hawthorn; (Grand Prix drivers) 
Dave Concepción & Joe Morgan (Cincinnati Reds MLB players; double-play combination) 
Bob Cousy & Bill Russell (Boston Celtics NBA players) 
Bobby & Jack Charlton (English football (soccer) players; brothers and England internationals) 
Bobby Moore & Geoff Hurst (English football (soccer) players) 
Johan Cruijff & Johan Neeskens (Dutch football (soccer) players) 
Daunte Culpepper & Randy Moss (NFL players) 
Marcel Desailly & Laurent Blanc (French football (soccer) players; central defenders 
for the France team that won the 1998 FIFA World Cup and Euro 2000) 

Alfredo Di Stéfano & Ferenc Puskás (Real Madrid football (soccer) players) 
Slava Fetisov & Alexei Kasatonov (USSR national team ice hockey players) 
Ken Flach & Robert Seguso (US tennis players and longtime doubles partners) 
Walt Frazier & Earl Monroe (New York Knicks NBA players) 
Ekaterina Gordeeva & Sergei Grinkov (Soviet figure skaters; husband-and-wife pairs team) 
George Gregan & Stephen Larkham (Australian rugby union players; most international 
appearances in the sport's history for a halfback partnership)
Peter Gregg and Hurley Haywood; (American racing drivers and multiple Daytona winner) 
Wayne Gretzky & Jari Kurri (Edmonton Oilers and Los Angeles Kings NHL players) 
Wayne Gretzky & Mark Messier (Edmonton Oilers and New York Rangers NHL players) 
Ruud Gullit & Marco van Basten (Dutch football (soccer) players) 
Naseem Hamed and Brendan Ingle; (boxer-trainer) 
Elvin Hayes & Wes Unseld (Washington Bullets NBA players) 
Phil Hill and Olivier Gendebien; (racing drivers) 
Jason Johnson & Mark Johnson (AFL players) 
Magic Johnson & James Worthy (Los Angeles Lakers NBA players) 
Magic Johnson & Kareem Abdul-Jabbar (Los Angeles Lakers NBA players) 
Michael Jordan & Scottie Pippen ( Chicago Bulls NBA players) 
Paul Kariya & Teemu Selänne (Mighty Ducks of Anaheim and Colorado Avalanche ice hockey players) 
Jim Kelly & Andre Reed (Buffalo Bills NFL players) 
René & Willy van de Kerkhof (Dutch football (soccer) players; twins who are both 
in the FIFA 100, Pelé's 2004 list of the 125 greatest living footballers) 

Harry Kewell & Mark Viduka (Australian international football (soccer) players) 
Karch Kiraly & Kent Steffes (Beach volleyball team that won Olympic gold in 1996) 
Jürgen Klinsmann & Rudi Völler (German football (soccer) players) 
Raymond Kopa & Just Fontaine (French football (soccer) players) 
Sandy Koufax & Don Drysdale (Los Angeles Dodgers baseball pitchers) 
Michael & Brian Laudrup (Danish football (soccer) players; brothers who are both in the FIFA 100) 
Mario Lemieux & Jaromír Jágr (Pittsburgh Penguins NHL players) 
Roberto Mancini & Gianluca Vialli (Italian football (soccer) players) 
Peyton Manning & Marvin Harrison (NFL players) 
Roger Maris & Mickey Mantle (New York Yankees MLB players) 
Joe Montana & Jerry Rice (NFL players) 
Kazuyuki Morisaki & Koji Morisaki (Japanese Sanfrecce Hiroshima football (soccer) players) 
Ilie Nastase & Ion Tiriac (Romanian tennis players) 
Martina Navratilova & Pam Shriver (US tennis players; the dominant women's doubles team of the 1980s) 
Gary & Phil Neville (English football (soccer) players) 
Kenji Ogiwara & Tsugiharu Ogiwara (Japanese nordic combined skier) 
Hakeem Olajuwon & Ralph Sampson, the "Twin Towers" (Houston Rockets NBA players) 
Shaquille O'Neal & Kobe Bryant (one-time teammates on the Los Angeles Lakers of the NBA 
See also: Shaq–Kobe feud
Leander Paes & Mahesh Bhupathi (tennis players from India; regular doubles partners) 
Jean-Pierre Papin & Eric Cantona (French football players) 
Gary Payton & Shawn Kemp (Seattle SuperSonics NBA players) 
Brian Piccolo & Gale Sayers (Chicago Bears NFL players; see also Brian's Song, a 
famous made-for-TV film about their friendship) 

Paul Pierce & Antoine Walker (Boston Celtics NBA players) 
Terry Porter & Clyde Drexler (Portland Trail Blazers NBA players) 
Ramadhin & Valentine (West Indian cricket players, subject of song) 
Roberto Carlos & Cafu, Brazilian football (soccer) players 
David Robinson & Tim Duncan (San Antonio Spurs NBA players) 
Romário & Bebeto (Brazilian football (soccer) players) 
Ronaldo & Ronaldinho (Brazilian football (soccer) players) 
Babe Ruth & Lou Gehrig (New York Yankees baseball players) 
Jamie Salé & David Pelletier (Canadian figure skaters) 
Brad Scott & Chris Scott (AFL players) 
Andriy Shevchenko & Serhiy Rebrov (Ukrainian soccer players) 
Stan Smith & Bob Lutz (US tennis players) 
John Stockton & Karl Malone (Utah Jazz NBA players; teammates for nearly 20 years) 
Chris Sutton & Alan Shearer (English football players, known as SAS) 
Isiah Thomas & Joe Dumars (Detroit Pistons NBA players) 
Alan Trammell & Lou Whitaker (Detroit Tigers baseball players; double-play combination) 
Rory & Tony Underwood (English rugby union players; brothers and England internationals) 
Omar Vizquel & Roberto Alomar (Cleveland Indians MLB players) 
Ben & Rasheed Wallace (one-time teammates with the NBA's Detroit Pistons; not related) 
Doc Blanchard "Mr Inside" and Glenn Davis "Mr Outside" (Army college football players 
and Heisman Trophy winners) 

Jerry West "Mr Outside" and Elgin Baylor "Mr Inside" (Los Angeles Lakers NBA players) 
Mark Woodforde & Todd Woodbridge, The Woodies (Australian tennis players; arguably 
the top doubles team of the late 20th century) 

Dwight Yorke & Andy Cole (Manchester United football (soccer) players; forwards 
for Manchester United that won the Premiership, FA Cup and the Champions League in 1999) 

Steve Young & Jerry Rice (NFL players) 
Venus and Serena Williams (U.S. tennis stars, sisters) 
Tom Brady & Randy Moss National football league
Retrieved from ""


This is a list of scientists who are known in their field as a pair.

Frederick Banting and Charles Best (colleagues) co-discoverers of insulin 
Geoffrey and Margaret Burbidge (colleagues; couple) 
Pierre and Marie Curie (colleagues; couple) 
James D. Watson and Francis Crick (Biology) 
G. H. Hardy and John Littlewood (Number theory) 
Kernighan and Ritchie (colleagues) Computer scientists 
Masters and Johnson (colleagues) 
Leonor Michaelis and Maud Menten (colleagues) Michaelis-Menten kinetics and enzyme kinetics 
Albert Abraham Michelson and Edward Morley (colleagues) Michelson-Morley experiment 
Irène Joliot-Curie & Frédéric Joliot (couple) 
Lise Meitner and Otto Hahn (pre-war collaboration on nuclear fission) 
Waltraut Seitter and Hilmar Duerbeck (German Astronomers, colleagues, couple) 

Retrieved from ""


This is a list of twins, siblings resultant from a multiple birth.

Twins in acting

Darcey and Stacey Silva, Reality TV Personalities, "The Twin Life" 
Nathan and Carl Hughes (1987-) , UK & Ireland , 
Shawn and Aaron Ashmore (1979–) 
Eric and Brandon Billings (1992–) 
Conrad and Bonar Bain (1923–) 
Gayle and Gillian Blakeney (1966–) 
The Borden Twins, Marilyn (1932–2009) and Rosalyn (1932–2003) 
Nicholas Brendon and Kelly Donovan of Buffy the Vampire Fame 
Madison and Miranda Carabello, appear on Medium as the youngest Dubois child, "Marie Dubois". 
Shawn and Taylor Carpenter (1995–) 
Charles and Max Carver 
Andrew and Steven Cavarno (1992–) 
Christopher and Timothy Christy, American pornography actors, 
Dennis (1934–1991) and Phillip Crosby (1934–2004), sons of singer Bing Crosby 
Christian and Joseph Cousins (1983–) 
Brittany and Cynthia Daniel (1976–) 
Jessica and Jesse Davis (1984–) 
Colleen and Suzanne Dengel (1992–) 
The Dolly Sisters, Rosie (1892–1970) and Jenny (1892–1941), American vaudeville performers 
Amanda and Caitlin Fein (1992–) 
Christopher and Kevin Graves (1989–) 
Lindsay and Sidney Greenbush (1970–) 
Amanda and Jessica Gunnarson (1989–) 
Bruce and Seth Hall, American actors and former models. 
Deidre and Andrea Hall (1947–) 
Jacob and Zachary Handy (1993–) 
Jon and Dan Heder (1977–) 
Jill and Jacqueline Hennessy (1968–) 
Kara and Shelby Hoffman (2002–) 
Logan and Skyler Hudson 
Linda and Terry Jamison, former comedians/performance artists now better known as 
The Psychic Twins 

Hunter and Scarlett Johansson (1984–) 
Paige and Ryanne Kettner (1991–) 
Brent and Shane Kinsman (1997–) 
Bryan and Denny Kirkwood (1975–) 
Daniel and Jean Lautrec, Hungarian porn stars 
Loredana and Raffaella Lecciso (1972–), Italian actors. 
Jason and Jeremy London (1972–) 
The Love twins, Lacey and Lyndsey Love (1983–), American porn actors. 
Brianna and Brittany McConnell (1993–) 
Erin and Caitlin Moore (1987–) 
Tia and Tamera Mowry (1978–) 
Erin and Diane Murphy (1964–) 
Jeni and Kyndi Niquette (1988–) American film and television actresses. Members 
of the Screen Actors Guild. Best known for their national Clean & Clear commercial 
and MTV music video. 

Liam and Aidan O'Donnell 
Mary-Kate and Ashley Olsen (1986–) actresses 
Jennifer and Katherine Ostroth (1988–) 
Peter and David Paul 
Ryan and Kyle Pepi (1993–) 
James and Oliver Phelps (1986–) 
Pier Angeli (1932–1971; born Anna Maria Pierangeli) and Marisa Pavan (1932–; born Marisa Pierangeli) 
Connie and Cassie Powney 
Kathryn and Megan Prescott (1991–) 
Giovanni Ribisi and Marissa Ribisi (1974–) 
Daryl and Evan Sabara (1992–) 
Liz and Jean Sagal (1967–) 
Nicholas Brendon and Kelly Donovan (1971–; born Schultz) 
Sophia and Whitney Schuring (1998–) 
Jason and Kristopher Simmons (2002–) 
Alicia and Annie Sorell 
Dylan and Cole Sprouse (1992–) 
Jennifer and Michele Steffin (1981–) 
Connor and Garret Sullivan 
Sullivan and Sawyer Sweeten (1995–) 
Elliott and Luke Tittensor (1989–) 
David Tom and Nicholle Tom (1978–) 
Brenna and Bronwyn Tosh (2002–) 
Harry Treadaway and Luke Treadaway (1984–) 
Blake and Dylan Tuomy-Wilhoit (1990–) 
Wendi and Brenda Turnbaugh (1977–) 
Keaton and Kylie Rae Tyndall (1992–) 
Paul and Peter Allen Vogt (1964–) 
Amy and Emily Walton (2000–), played Bethany Platt in Coronation Street. 
Malika Haqq and Khadijah Haqq (identical) – actresses 


Joy, Leanna and Monica Creel, actresses 

Twins in the arts

Os Gêmeos, Brazilian graffiti artists 
Moses Soyer and Raphael Soyer, American painters 
Masashi Kishimoto and Seishi Kishimoto, manga artists 

Twin authors and writers

Ann Landers (1918–2002; née Friedman) and Abigail Van Buren (1918–; née Friedman), 
American advice columnists 

Julius (1909–2000) and Philip Epstein (1909–1952), American screenwriters 
The Guptara Twins, brothers Suresh Guptara and Jyoti Guptara, authors of the Insanity Saga 
Anthony (1926–2001) and Peter Shaffer (1926–), English playwrights 
Andrew Sean Greer (The Confessions of Max Tivoli) and Michael Greer 
Ross (1925–1975) and Norris McWhirter (1925–2002), compilers of the Guinness Book of Records 
Elyse Schein and Paula Bernstein, (1968) authors of Identical Strangers: A Memoir 
of Twins Separated and Reunited, Random House, 2007
Linda and Terry Jamison, authors of Separated at Earth: The Story of The Psychic Twins  
Alex and Brett Harris (1988- ), Co-Authors of "Do Hard Things: A Teenage Rebellion 
Against Low Expectations" Published by Random House in 2008 and founders of the 
movement The Rebelution.
Austin Grossman (Soon I Will Be Invincible) and Lev Grossman (The Magicians), (1969-)

Twins in business

David and Frederick Barclay (1934–) are British businessmen. Their Press Holdings 
company owns The Business and The Spectator magazines, The Telegraph Group Limited. 

Twins in crime

Albert and Ebenezer Fox 
Jeena and Sunny Han, see Han twins murder conspiracy. 
Ronnie and Reggie Kray 
June and Jennifer Gibbons 

Twins in filmmaking

John (1913–1985) and Roy Boulting (1913–2001), British filmmakers 
Nicola and Teena Collins, (born c. 1978), British filmmakers, former actresses 
Allen and Albert Hughes (1972–), American filmmakers 
George and Mike Kuchar, American underground filmmakers 
Mark and Michael Polish, American filmmakers 
Mary-Kate and Ashley Olsen, American actressess 

Twins in the military

Johnny and Luther Htoo (born c. 1988), Burmese guerrillas 
Gene C. McKinney and James C. McKinney of the U.S. Army. James was assigned to take 
over Gene's duties as Sergeant Major of the Army, the highest-ranking NCO in the 
Army, while Gene was under investigation.

Twins in modeling

Shane and Sia Barbi, American models. 
Brewer twins, Derek and Keith Brewer, models. 
Carlson Twins, Kyle and Lane Carlson, fashion models. 
Aaron Carter, American singer and model, and Angel Carter, American model. 
Richard Gutierrez, Filipino actor, model, host, and Raymond Gutierrez, DJ, host, model. 
Ikki Twins, Vikki and Rikki Mongeon, American models who appeared in A Double Shot at Love. 
Naima and Nia Mora, American models. 
Mary-Kate and Ashley Olsen (born 1986), American actresses and entrepreneurs. 
Paige and Ryanne Kettner (born 1991), American actresses and models. 
Kristina and Karissa Shannon, the Playboy twins (two of Hugh Heffner's girlfriends). 
Rosie and Renee Tenison (born 1968), twins of African-American descent. 

Twins in music

Natalie and Nicole Albino, members of Nina Sky 
Didem and Sinem Balik, Turkish opera singers 
George Barnett and Jack Barnett, members of four-piece band These New Puritans. 
Mike and Pete Bishop, members of The Bishops 
Keven "Dino" Conner and Solomon "Shazam" Conner, members of H-Town 
Brian and Brandon Casey, members of R&B group Jagged Edge 
Alex and Nels Cline (1956–), American avant-garde musicians 
Kelley and Kim Deal, members of The Breeders 
Lamb and Lynx Gaede, members of Prussian Blue 
Marge and Mary Ann Ganser, members of the 1960s girl group The Shangri-Las 
Robin (born 1949) and Maurice Gibb (1949–2003), British-born Australian musicians, 
two of the three Bee Gees 

Matt and Luke Goss, singers in Bros 
John and Edward Grimes, The X Factor contestants, Series 6 
Monica and Gabriela Irimia (1982–), pop duo The Cheeky Girls 
Emi and Yumi Ito (1941–), Japanese pop duo The Peanuts, also known for appearances 
in the Mothra and Godzilla movies of the 1960s 

Yusuke and Hisato Izaki, members of Flame (Japanese Group) They have also done some 
acting in movies such as Devilman and Crows Zero 

Ryan and Gary Jarman (born 1980) of the British indie band The Cribs 
Ben and James Johnston, members of the Scottish rock band Biffy Clyro 
Herbert and Harold Kalin of the Kalin Twins 
Kinya and Seiya Kamijo, members of Japanese rock band Penpals 
Tom and Bill Kaulitz (1989–), identical twin members of the German rock group Tokio Hotel 
Kessler Twins, Ellen and Alice Kessler, German entertainers. 
Heather and Jennifer Kinley, members of country music duo The Kinleys 
Felisha and Fallon King, members of Cherish 
Ryan and Dan Kowarsky, Canadian singing duo RyanDan 
Nathan and Matthew Leone, of post-hardcore, emo, alternative rock band Madina Lake 
Brittney and Bridget Livingston of Triple Image 
Evan and Jaron Lowenstein, American musicians known as Evan and Jaron. 
Edele Barrett and Keavy Lynch (1979–), of pop group B*Witched 
Benji and Joel Madden, (1979–) of the American pop punk band Good Charlotte 
Sam and Amanda Marchant, pop duo Samanda 
Wendy and Susannah Melvoin (1964–), French-American singers known for their association with Prince 
Jacob and Joshua Miller, members of Nemesis Rising 
Mihaela and Gabriela Modorcea, members of Indiggo 
Gunnar and Matthew Nelson of the band Nelson 
Peter and Paul Okoye, Only Members of Nigerian hip hop artists P-Square 
Jacob and Joshua Olds, members of Family Force 5 
Lisa and Jessica Origliasso, Australian pop duo The Veronicas 
Simone and Amedeo Pace, members of Blonde Redhead 
Charles (1948–) and John Panozzo (1948–1996), Styx 
Güher and Süher Pekinel, Turkish duo-pianists 
Tegan and Sara Quin, identical Canadian musicians 
Charlie and Craig Reid, Scottish alternative rockers The Proclaimers 
Lee and Tyler Sargent, members of Clap Your Hands Say Yeah 
Denny and Kenny Scott, members of Swirl 360 
Walter and Wallace "Scotty" Scott, lead singers of The Whispers 
Tom and Dan Searle, guitarist and drummer respectively for UK band Architects 
Jeremy and Louis Sheets (1985–), members of Set To Fail 
Toni and Trisha Sherwood, members of 11:30 
Stuart and James Steele, members of Exit Ten. 
Gyða and Kristín Anna Valtýsdóttir, former members of Icelandic group Múm 
Janice and Jill Vidal, Hong Kong singers 
Chandra and Leigh Watson, members of The Watson Twins 
Andy Williams and his twin brother Jez Williams from British alt rockers Doves.

Twins in politics

Angela Eagle and Maria Eagle, British members of Parliament 
Jaroslaw and Lech Kaczynski, Polish former prime minister and president respectively; 
formerly child actors


Twins in reality television

Amanda and Michelle Babin, America's Next Top Model Cycle 7 
Jana and John David Duggar, Jedidiah and Jeremiah Duggar, featured along with their 
15 siblings on 19 Kids and Counting 
Cara and Madelyn Gosselin, featured along with their sextuplet siblings on Jon & Kate Plus 8 
John and Edward Grimes, series 6 of The X Factor, 2009 (1991—) 
Ron and Richard Harris (Aswirl Twins), America's Next Top Model Cycle 6,7,11 
The Ikki Twins, Vikki and Rikki star as the "World's Hottest Twins" in MTV's A Double Shot at Love 2008 
Leigh and Leslie Keno (1957–), furniture experts, Antiques Roadshow appraisers, Find! hosts 
Amanda and Sam Marchant (1988–), known as "Samanda", contestants in Big Brother (UK, 2007) (1988–) 
Greg and David Mathew, joint winners of Big Brother Australia in 2005 (1982–) 
Adria Montgomery-Klein and Natalie Montgomery-Carroll, Big Brother 5 (US) 
Becky and Jessie O'Donohue, reality TV contestants (Fear Factor, American Idol) and models (1980–) 
Raghu Ram and Rajiv Laxman, producers of MTV Roadies 

Twins in royal families

Alexander Helios (b. 40 BC) and Cleopatra Selene II (40 BC-6) 
James II of Scotland (1430–1460) and Alexander Stewart, Duke of Rothesay (1430-1430) 
Princess Louise Élisabeth of France (1727–1759) and Princess Henriette of France (1727–1752) 
Philipp, Landgrave of Hesse (1896–1980) and Prince Wolfgang of Hesse (1896–1989) 
Prince Christoph of Hesse (1901–1943) and Richard Wilhelm Leopold (1901–1969) 
Archduchess Michaela and Archduchess Monika of Austria (1954–) 
Princess Aisha and Princess Sara bint Al Faisal (1997–) 
Prince Alexander and Prince Philip of Yugoslavia (1982–) 
Prince Aymeric and Prince Nicolas of Belgium (2005–) 
Princess Helene and Prince Sergius of Yugoslavia (1963–) 
Jacques, duc d'Orléans and Michel, comte d'Evreux (1941–) 
Prince Jaime, Count of Bardi and Princess Margarita of Bourbon-Parma (1972–) 
Prince Jean and Princess Margaretha of Luxembourg (1957–) 
Lucilla (148–182), daughter of Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius; twin brother Gemellus Lucillae died young 
Princess Maria Gabriella and Princess Maria Teresa of Orleans-Bragança (1959–) 
Princess Sofia and Prince Umberto of Bulgaria (1999–), twin children of Konstantin-Assen, Prince of Vidin. 

Twins in science

Alex and Michael Bronstein, co-inventors of a three-dimensional face recognition technology 
Mark E. and Scott J. Kelly, first astronaut twins 
Stewart and Cyril Marcus, gynecologists – inspiration for the David Cronenberg film Dead Ringers 

Twins in speech therapy

Poto and Cabengo 
June and Jennifer Gibbons 

Twins in sports

Dan and Ran Alterman (born 1980), Israeli triathletes 
Hamit and Halil Altintop, Turkish football (soccer) players 
Vasili and Aleksei Berezutski, Russian football (soccer) players 
Antônio Rodrigo Nogueira and Antônio Rogério Nogueira (born 1976), Brazilian MMA fighters 
Archil and Shota Arveladze (born 1973), Georgian international football (soccer) players 
Alberto and Carlos Arroyo, basketball players; Alberto in the BSN, Carlos in the National Basketball Association (NBA) 
McWilliams and McJoe Arroyo, Puerto Rican amateur boxers 
Herbert and Wilfred Baddeley, British tennis players 
Ronde and Tiki Barber (born 1975), National Football League (NFL) players 
Patrick and Pascal Barré (born 1959), French track and field sprinters 
Guillermo and Gustavo Barros Schelotto (born 1973), Argentine football (soccer) players 
Alec (born 1918) and Eric Bedser (1918–2006), England cricketers 
Sergei and Anatoli Beloglazov (born 1956), Soviet wrestlers 
Frank and Ronald de Boer (born 1970), Dutch international football (soccer) players 
Tom and Terry Brands (born 1968), American amateur wrestlers and Olympic medalists 
Bob and Mike Bryan, Bob and Mike Bryan (born 1978) – American professional tennis players. 
Josh and Daniel Bullocks (born 1983) National Football League (NFL) players 
Heather and Heidi Burge, American WNBA players 
Jim and Finlay Calder, Scotland rugby union international players 
José and Ozzie Canseco (born 1964), Major League Baseball players 
Dionísio and Domingos Castro (born 1963), Portuguese long-distance runners 
Pierre Caesar and Pablo Caesar, Caesar Twins, (born) 1980 Polish theatrical-gymnasts 
Adam and James Chambers (born 1980), English footballers 
David and Malcolm Changleng (born 1970), Scottish international rugby union referees 
Giulio and Nicola Ciotti (born 1976), Italian high jumpers 
Jarron and Jason Collins, American NBA basketball players 
Felipe and Manuel Contepomi (born 1977), Argentine international rugby union players 
Alissa and Amber Czisny, American figure skaters 
Philipp and David Degen, Swiss national footballers 
Jorge and Julio Dely Valdés, Panamanian international footballers 
Christoph and Markus Dieckmann (born 1976), German beach volleyball players 
Lukáš and Tomáš Došek, (born 1978) Czech football (soccer) players 
Jeroen and Henrico Drost, Dutch football (soccer) players 
Alexander and Vladimir Efimkin, (born 1981), Russian road racing cyclists 
Mark and Michael Evans (born 1957), Canadian rowers 
Caroline and Georgina Evers-Swindell, New Zealand world champions double sculls (rowing) 
Anthony and Saia Faingaa, Australian rugby union footballers 
Stephen and Matthew Febey, AFL footballers 
Bia and Branca Feres, (born 1988) Brazilian Olympic synchronized swimmers 
Peter and Chris Ferraro, National Hockey League players 
Antonio and Emanuele Filippini (born 1973), Italian football (soccer) players 
Miguel and Javier Flaño, Spanish football (soccer) players 
Daryl and Cheryl Ford, (born 1981), basketball players 
Jörg and Uwe Freimuth (born 1961), East German track and field athletes 
Ron Futcher and Paul Futcher (born 1956), English football (soccer) players 
Brianna and Nicole Garcia, The Bella Twins (born 1983), professional wrestlers. 
Kaokor and Khaosai Galaxy (born 1959), Thai world champion boxers 
Chris and James Gowans, SANFL footballers 
Joey and Stephen Graham, NBA basketball players 
Horace and Harvey Grant (born 1965), NBA players 
Michael and Marcus Griffin (born 1985), American NFL footballers. 
Adam and Joel Griffiths footballers who play for the Newcastle United Jets football club 
Tim (1951–1996) and Tom Gullikson (born 1951), pro tennis players, doubles champions 
Arnar and Bjarki Gunnlaugsson (born 1973), Icelandic footballers 
Paul and Morgan Hamm (born 1982), Olympic gymnasts 
Don and Ron Harris, Harris Brothers (born 1961), professional wrestlers 
Katrine Lunde Haraldsen and Kristine Lunde Borgersen (born 1980), Norwegian handball players 
Alvin and Calvin Harrison, American sprinters and Olympic athletes 
Hossam and Ibrahim Hassan, Egyptian footballers 
Earl and Dave Hebner, Total Nonstop Action Wrestling referees 
Richard Hills and Michael Hills (born 1963), English Jockeys 
David and Dean Holdsworth (born 1968), English footballers 
Matt Hughes and Mark Hughes (born 1973), American wrestlers and mixed martial arts fighters 
David (born 1937) and Peter Jackson (1937–1991), English footballers 
Sarah and Karen Josephson (born 1964), American synchronized swimmers 
Jenny and Susanna Kallur, Swedish hurdle runners 
René and Willy van de Kerkhof (born 1951), Dutch international footballers 
Daniela and Sandra Klemenschits (born 1982), Austrian tennis players 
Erwin and Helmut Kremers (born 1949), Germany international footballers 
Tai and Tasesa Lavea (born 1980), New Zealand former NRL footballers (Tasesa Lavea 
now plays rugby union in New Zealand) 

Darjuš and Kšyštof Lavrinovic (born 1979), Lithuania international basketball players 
Nathan and Ryan Lonie, AFL footballers 
Brook and Robin Lopez (born 1988), American basketball players 
Alistair and Stewart Lord, AFL footballers 
Henrik and Joel Lundqvist, Swedish ice hockey players 
Phil and Steve Mahre (born 1957), American alpine skiers 
Hamish and James Marshall, New Zealand cricketers 
Eissa Meer and Ibrahim Meer, UAE footballers, played together in the 1990 FIFA World Cup 
Coco and Kelly Miller (born 1978), WNBA players 
Colin and Keith Morgan (born 1973), Canadian twins and judoka's 
Kazuyuki and Koji Morisaki (born 1981), Japanese football (soccer) players 
Brett and Josh Morris, rugby league footballers 
Isabelle and Beatrice Mouthon (born 1966), French triathletes 
Mildred and Marianne Muis (born 1968), Dutch swimmers 
Akona and Odwa Ndungane (born 1981), South African rugby union footballers 
Phil Neville, English footballer, and Tracey Neville, English netballer 
Dennis and Gérard de Nooijer, Dutch footballers 
Amanda and Isabelle Nylander, Swedish figure skaters 
Emilia and Erika Nyström, Finnish beach volleyball players 
Kenji and Tsugiharu Ogiwara (born 1969), Japanese Nordic combined world champion skiers 
Amanda and Tess Oliveira, Brazilian water polo players 
Hiromi and Takami Ominami (born 1975), Japanese long-distance runners 
Janet and Ann Osgerby (born 1963), English swimmers 
Javier and Ricardo Otxoa Palacios (born 1974, Ricardo died in 2001), Spanish cyclists 
Ashley and Courtney Paris (born 1987), American basketball players 
Maksym (1988–2008) and Pavlo Pashayev (born 1988), Ukrainian footballers 
Borut and Darjan Petric (born 1964), Yugoslav swimmers 
Mike and Dan Pletch (born 1983), Canadian rugby union players 
Jolanta and Rasa Polikeviciute (born 1970), Lithuanian road cyclists 
Andreas and Thomas Ravelli, Swedish football players 
Ebbe and Peter Sand (born 1972), Danish football (soccer) players 
Hisato and Yuto Sato (born 1982), Japanese football (soccer) players 
Shu and Kei Sato (born 1977), Japanese professional wrestlers 
Chris and Brad Scott, AFL footballers 
Daniel and Henrik Sedin, Swedish ice hockey players 
Mike and Todd Shane, Shane Twins, professional wrestlers 
Antonio and Piero Selvaggio (born 1958), Italian long-distance runners 
Rafael and Fabio Pereira da Silva, Brazilian footballers 
Randy and Jason Sklar (born 1972), hosts of ESPN Classic's Cheap Seats 
Karyne and Sarah Steben, Steben Twins, trapezists 
Patrik and Peter Sundström, Swedish ice hockey players 
Ron and Rich Sutter (born 1963), Canadian NHL hockey players 
Vladimir and Valeriy Sydorenko (born 1976), Ukrainian boxers 
Tõnu and Toomas Tõniste (born 1967), Estonian sailboat racers 
Dick and Tom Van Arsdale (born 1943), former NBA basketball players 
Roel and Mansueto Velasco (born 1972), Filippino boxers 
Darryl and Shane Wakelin, AFL footballers 
Kevin and Kerrod Walters, rugby league footballers 
Mark and Steve Waugh (born 1965), Australian cricketers 
Dora and Cora Webber (born 1958), American women world champion boxers 
Cristian and Damiano Zenoni (born 1977), Italian football (soccer) players 
Marcin and Michal Zewlakow (born 1976), Polish international footballers 
Bengt and Björn Zikarsky (born 1967), German freestyle swimmers 
Dorota Mogore-Tlalka and Malgorzata Mogore-Tlalka (born 1963), polish-french alpine skiers 
Flavio Paixao and Marco Paixao (Born 1984) Portuges Footballers Both Playing At Hamilton Academical 

Twins with differing claims to fame...
This lists' twins who are notable in widely different fields.

Alexandra Paul, actress (most notably on Baywatch), and Caroline Paul, writer 
Charlotte Ronson, fashion designer, and Samantha Ronson, DJ and singer 
Xiah Junsu(Kim Junsu) member of the Korean Boyband Tvxq, Kim Junho Korean actor

Conjoined (Siamese) twins: See Conjoined twins 

Famous people with a twin

James Alexandrou, actor (twin sister Antoinette) 
Chad Allen, actor (twin sister, Charity) 
Carl Anderson singer/actor (twin died as an infant) 
Mario Andretti, racing driver (twin brother, Aldo) 
Kofi Annan, former United Nations Secretary-General (twin sister Efua) 
Lillian Asplund, last American survivor of the Titanic disaster (twin brother, 
Carl Edgar, died in the sinking) 

Conrad Bain, Canadian actor (twin brother Bonar) 
Gracia Baur, German pop singer (identical twin sister Patricia) 
Blaze Berdahl, American actress (twin sister Beau) 
Josh Bernstein, American explorer & TV host (identical twin brother Andrew) 
Nicholas Brendon, actor (twin brother Kelly) 
Jim Broadbent, actor (twin sister died at birth) 
Gisele Bündchen, supermodel (fraternal twin sister Patrícia) 
Gabrielle Carteris, American actress (twin brother, James) 
Karen Cellini (actress from the TV series Dynasty), has a twin sister named Kate 
Justin Chambers, American actor (twin brother Jason) 
Keith Chegwin, British TV presenter and former actor (twin brother, Jeff) 
Gary Cherone, American musician (fraternal twin brother, Greg) 
Montgomery Clift, actor (twin sister Roberta) 
Henry Cooper, British boxer (twin brother George) 
Bucky Covington, American Idol finalist (identical twin brother Rocky) 
Sophia Crawford, martial arts-actress (triplet brother and sister) 
Andrew Daddo, Australian actor (fraternal twin Jamie) 
Ann B. Davis, The Brady Bunch (twin sister Harriet) 
Fennis Dembo, former NBA player (twin sister Fenise) 
Tanja Dexters, Miss Belgium 1998 (twin sister Mieke) 
Philip K. Dick, American writer (twin sister Jane, died after birth) 
Vin Diesel, American actor (fraternal twin brother Paul Vincent) 
Duffy, Welsh soul singer (twin sister Katy) 
Marc Elliott, British actor (twin sister Sophie)[4] 
Karen Elson, English supermodel (fraternal twin sister Kate) 
John Elway, NFL quarterback (twin sister Jana) 
Theo Epstein, GM of the Boston Red Sox (twin brother Paul) 
Mike Espy, former U.S. Secretary of Agriculture (twin sister Michelle) 
Jerry Falwell, televangelist (twin brother, Gene) 
Joseph Fiennes, actor (twin brother, Jacob) 
Max Gail, actor (twin sister, Mary) 
Andy García, actor (parasitic twin brother removed from Andy's shoulder; died soon after) 
Eva Green, actress (fraternal twin sister Joy) 
Jerry Hall, American model and actress (twin sister, Terry)[1] 
Linda Hamilton, actress (identical twin sister Leslie, who played the "T-1000 Sarah" 
in Terminator 2: Judgment Day)
Victor Davis Hanson, author (fraternal twin brother Alfred) 
Jon Heder, actor (identical twin brother Daniel) 
William Randolph Hearst, newspaper magnate (twin died as an infant) 
Jill Hennessy, Canadian actress (twin sister Jacqueline – both appeared in the movie "Dead Ringers") 
Marilu Henner, actress (twin sister Crystal) 
John Hensley, actor (fraternal twin sister) 
Ryan Howard, Phillies Player (twin brother Corey) 
Matt Hughes, martial arts fighter (identical twin brother Mark) 
Marlon Jackson, singer (twin brother Brandon, died at birth) 
David Jason, actor (twin brother Jason died at birth) 
Chris Joannou, Silverchair bass player (twin sister Louise) 
Scarlett Johansson, actress (twin brother Hunter) 
Jay Kay, singer (twin brother died at birth) 
Cory Kennedy, American Internet celebrity (fraternal twin sister Chris) 
Ashton Kutcher, actor (fraternal twin brother Michael) 
David Kohan, TV producer (twin brother Jono) 
Kate Lawler, UK Big Brother 3 winner (twin sister Karen) 
Gigi Leung, singer (twin brother Keith Leung) 
Liberace, impresario (twin died as an infant) 
Tony Liberatore, AFL footballer with the Western Bulldogs (twin brother Fred) 
Cory Lidle, American former baseball player (twin brother Kevin) 
Thad Luckinbill, soap opera actor (twin brother Trent) 
John Maine, Major League Baseball pitcher (fraternal twin brother) 
Shawn Marion, NBA basketball player (twin sister Shawnett) 
Susie Maroney, Australian swimmier (fraternal twin Sean) 
Kim Mathers, Eminem's ex wife (non-identical twin Dawn) 
Victor A. McKusick, professor of genetics (twin brother Vincent was chief justice 
of the Maine superior court)
Naima Mora, America's Next Top Model (twin sister Nia) 
Alanis Morissette, Canadian rock singer/songwriter (twin brother Wade) 
Burt Munro, New Zealand motorcycle racer (twin sister died at birth) 
Olly Murs, British singer (fraternal twin brother Ben) 
Mandy Musgrave, American actress (identical twin sister Jamie) 
Gaute Ormåsen, Norwegian singer (fraternal twin brother Hogne) 
Jason Orange, member of Take That (twin brother Justin) 
John Osborne (writer), British author (twin sister Karen) 
Elvis Presley, (twin brother Jesse Garon died at birth) 
Parker Posey, actress (twin brother Chris) 
Richard Quest, CNN anchor (twin sister Caroline) 
Dack Rambo, American actor (twin brother, Dirk) 
Judy Reyes, actress (twin sister, Joselin) 
Marty Robbins, Country Music singer (twin sister Mamie) 
Isabella Rossellini, actress (twin sister Isotta Ingrid) 
J. D. Roth, actor (twin sister Heidi) 
Giovanni Ribisi, actor (twin sister Marissa) 
Judith Scott, artist (twin sister, Joyce) 
Teemu Selanne, hockey player (twin brother, Paavo) 
Sab Shimono, actor 
Lori Singer, actress (twin brother Gregory) 
Gabriela Spanic, Venezuelan actress (twin sister Daniela) 
Katy Steele, lead singer of Little Birdy, (twin brother, Jake) 
Curtis Strange, professional golfer, (identical brother Allen) 
Ed Sullivan, TV host (twin died as an infant) 
Sandra Sully, Australian journalist 
Kiefer Sutherland, actor (twin sister Rachel) 
Amanda Tapping, actress (twin brother Chris) 
Jim Thorpe, American athlete (twin brother, Charlie) 
Jon Tickle, UK Big Brother 4 
Garrett Tierney, musician (identical twin brother Shaun) 
Paul Tsongas, American politician (twin sister, Thaleia) 
Ronan Tynan, twin brother died as an infant 
Sarah Vowell, American author (twin sister Amy) 
Shayne Ward, (twin sister Emma) 
Billy Dee Williams, actor (twin sister Loretta) 
Ricky Williams, American football player (twin sister Cassie) 
Marvin Winans, gospel singer (twin brother Carvin) 
Will Young, British singer (fraternal twin brother Rupert) 
Paul McDermott, Australian comedian 
Carlo Colaiacovo, hockey player (brother Paulo) 
Tasha Smith (identical twin sister Sidra) – Actresses 

Famous parents of twins (and of other multiples)

Marc Anthony and Jennifer Lopez 
Lance Armstrong 
Adrienne Barbeau 
Julian Barratt 
Billy Beane 
Garcelle Beauvais 
Corbin Bernsen and Amanda Pays 
Francis Bouillon 
Fern Britton 
Matthew Broderick and Sarah Jessica Parker 
George W. and Laura Bush, parents of Barbara and Jenna Bush 
Nicky Byrne and Georgina Ahern 
Adam Carolla 
Justin Chambers 
Rob Cohen (triplets) 
Elvis Costello and Diana Krall 
Bing Crosby 
Marcia Cross 
Andrew Cuomo and Kerry Kennedy 
Geena Davis 
Jack Dee 
Patrick Dempsey 
P. Diddy 
James Doohan 
Tommy Dreamer and Beulah McGillicutty 
John Engler (triplets, born while he was Governor of Michigan) 
Melissa Etheridge and Tammy Lynn Michaels 
Roger and Mirka Federer 
Darren Fletcher 
Michael J. Fox and Tracy Pollan 
Nomar Garciaparra and Mia Hamm 
Peri Gilpin 
Raúl González 
Eddie Gutierrez and Anabelle Rama 
Marcia Gay Harden 
Steve Harvey 
Ron Howard 
Julio Iglesias 
Chris Jericho 
Jo Joyner[5] 
James Keach and Jane Seymour 
Joseph Patrick Kennedy II and Sheila Rauch Kennedy 
Martin Kove 
George Lazenby and Pam Shriver 
Martie Maguire 
Karl Malone 
Jason Manford 
Ricky Martin 
Steve Nash 
Ricky Nelson 
Chuck Norris 
Soledad O'Brien 
Jerry O'Connell and Rebecca Romijn 
Ronan O'Gara 
Peter Onorati 
Tito Ortiz and Jenna Jameson 
Al Pacino 
Jane Pauley 
Rodney Peete and Holly Robinson 
Brad Pitt and Angelina Jolie 
Otto Preminger 
Lisa Marie Presley 
Dennis Quaid 
Gordon Ramsay 
Molly Ringwald 
Julia Roberts 
Emily Robison 
Kenny Rogers 
Ray Romano 
Boris Sagal 
Joe Sakic 
Adam Savage 
Rita Simons[6] 
Charlie Sheen 
Donald Sutherland and Shirley Douglas 
Jane Swift – The first state governor in U.S. history to give birth while in office; 
had twins about a month after becoming Governor of Massachusetts 

Niki Taylor 
Margaret and Denis Thatcher, parents of Carol and Mark Thatcher 
Richard Thomas (triplets) 
Cheryl Tiegs 
Feodor Vassilyev (his first wife gave birth to 16 sets of twins, 7 sets of triplets 
and 4 sets of quadruplets) 

Kurt Warner 
Denzel Washington 
Ben Watt and Tracey Thorn 

Twin records

Alice and Nelly Clarke (born 1900), oldest twins in Britain 
Mary Crombie, longest-lived person born a twin (1890–2003), sister died at 94 
Heaviest twins at birth - The world's heaviest twins were born to John Prosser 
Haskin and Mary Ann Ward (USA) on Feb. 20, 1924. They had a combined weight of 27 
lb. 12 oz. (12.6 kg). Named John Prosser Haskin II and Patricia Jane Haskin. Mother 
(Ward) is a descendant of Maurice IV de Berkeley and Elizabeth le DeSpencer; also 
from Joan (wife of Gilbert IV "the Red" de Clare) daughter of King Edward I "Longshanks" 

Thomas and Grace Houghton-Burnett (born 2002), heaviest mixed sex twins born in 
the UK (Thomas 10 lb 1 oz or 4.56 kg, Grace 8 lb 2 oz or 3.69 kg); also heaviest 
twins born via normal delivery in the UK (rather than by Caesarean section) 

Gin Kanie and Kin Narita (born 1892), oldest twins in Japan and national icons, 
died 2001 and 2000 respectively 

James and Thomas Mollekin, Britain's tallest twins. Both are 6' 10" (208 cm) 
Daniel and Espi Dooley, heaviest conjoined twins, born in Australia, 8.56 kg 
Claire and Ann Recht, current volleyball players at American University in Washington, 
D.C., are the tallest living female twins, at 6' 7" or 2.01 m.Recht Twins 
Benny and Billy McGuire, heaviest ever twins at 814 and 784 pounds. Born in Hendersonville,
 NC, USA in 1947. Billy died in 1979, Benny in 2001. 
Michael and James Lanier, tallest living male twins, at 7' 6" or 2.286m Tallest Twins 

Twins in mythology

Castor and Pollux, the Gemini twins, aka the Dioscuri 
Helen of Troy and Clytemnestra, twin sisters of Castor and Pollux 
Cassandra and Helenus, daughter and son of King Priam and Queen Hecuba of Troy. 
Both were prophets who were always right, but Cassandra was cursed to never be believed. 
The Ashvins, divine twin horsemen in the Rigveda 
Romulus and Remus, mythical founders of Rome 
Lava and Kusha, twins of Lord Rama and Sita 
Apollo and Artemis, son and daughter of Zeus and Leto. Apollo is the god of the sun 
and Artemis is the goddess of the moon, hunting, and fertility. 
Heracles and Iphicles (twins from different fathers) 

Fictional characters who are twins


Fred and George Weasley, fictional characters in the Harry Potter universe. Also 
Parvati and Padma Patil and Gideon and Fabian Prewett, Fred and George Weasley's uncles.
Ruby and Garnet Barker from Double Act by Jacqueline Wilson 
Bert and Nan and siblings Flossie and Freddie Bobbsey are both mixed-gender fraternal 
twins from The Bobbsey Twins series of children's novels penned under the pseudonym 
Laura Lee Hope
Raistlin and Caramon Majere from the Dragonlance novels 
Alec and Jane Volturi from New Moon and Breaking Dawn Twilight (series) 
Dora and Nora Chance from Wise Children, by Angela Carter 
Jessica and Elizabeth Wakefield from Sweet Valley High, Sweet Valley Twins, Sweet 
Valley Kids, The Unicorn Club, Sweet Valley Junior High, Senior Year, Sweet Valley 
University, Elizabeth and Sweet Valley Confidential, all created by Francine Pascal 


Viola, the heroine of the Shakespeare play, Twelfth Night, has a twin brother, Sebastian 
In Shakespeare's play The Comedy of Errors two sets of identical twins are present: 
Antipholus of Syracuse and Antipholus of Ephesus; Dromio of Syracuse and Dromio of Ephesus 

TV shows...

Chip and Skips from Camp Lazlo 
Chuck and Leon from Rocko's Modern Life 
Dave and Pingpong from Camp Lazlo 
Peter and Susan Barlow from Coronation Street 
Patty Lane and her cousin Cathy Lane from The Patty Duke Show 
Buffy and Jody Davis from Family Affair 
Sherri and Terri from The Simpsons 
Patty and Selma Bouvier from The Simpsons 
Tom and Annie Edison, The Edison Twins 
Emily and Katie Fitch from Skins 
Phil and Lil DeVille from the Children's TV Show Rugrats 
Parker and Porter Scavo from Desperate Housewives 
Jeffery and Michael Barone from Everybody Loves Raymond 
Lifty and Shift from Happy Tree Friends' 
Allie Horton and Johnny DiMera from the daytime soap opera Days of our Lives. Johnny 
and Allie are twins as well as maternal half siblings, as they have two different fathers. 
Marlena Evans and Samantha Evans, also from Days of our Lives 
Phoebe Buffay from Friends and Ursula Buffay from Mad About You 
Penny and Mindy Meadows from Ugly Betty 
Susan and Mary Test from the TV series Johnny Test 
Sam and Melanie Puckett from iCarly. 
Tomax and Xamot from G.I. Joe cartoon series 
Yuki and Agoo from Lola and Virginia. 
Zack and Cody from the The Suite Life of Zack & Cody and spin offs. 
Tia Landry and Tamera Campbell from Sister Sister 
Leo and Lexa Pierce from Mutant X (TV series) 
Bebe and Cece from The Proud Family 
Brandon and Brenda Walsh from Beverly Hills 90210 
Lemonjella and Orangejella LaBelle from Detention 
Jetfire and Jetstorm from Transformers: Animated 
Twin Panda from My Gym Partner's a Monkey 
Sheldon and Missy in The Big Bang Theory 

Luke Skywalker and Princess Leia Organa from Star Wars. Also, Leia's eldest children, Jaina Solo and Jacen Solo in the Expanded Universe (Star Wars). Sharpay and Ryan Evans from High School Musical are fraternal twins. Viola and Sebastian Hastings from She's the Man. Austin Powers and Dr. Evil in Goldmember. Shido and Bado from the anime Saint Seiya. Sharon and Susan from the original The Parent Trap, released in 1961. Hallie Parker and Annie James are the main characters in The Parent Trap remake in 1998. Camryn and Alex from Twitches and Twitches Too. Conner and Murphy MacManus, main characters in The Boondock Saints. Mudflap & Skids the twins from Transformers: Revenge of The Fallen.
Yoh and Hao Asakura from Shaman King Cagalli Yula Athha and Kira Yamato from the Anime Mobile Suit Gundam SEED and Mobile Suit Gundam SEED Destiny Jeanne-Marie and Jean-Paul Beaubier (Aurora and Northstar) from Marvel Comics. Desire and Despair of the Endless from The Sandman Neil and Lyle Dylandy (both codenamed "Lockon Stratos") are identical twins from Gundam 00 Risa and Riku Harada from the Anime and Manga D.N.Angel Kagami and Tsukasa Hiiragi from the manga and anime Lucky Star Kaoru and Hikaru Hitachiin from the manga and anime Ouran High School Host Club Karin and Yuzu Kurosaki from the manga and anime Bleach Lien-da and Kragok from Sonic the Hedgehog Pietro and Wanda Maximoff (Quicksilver and Scarlet Witch) from X-Men and The Avengers titles from Marvel Comics. Garth Ranzz (Lightning Lad) and Ayla Ranzz (Lightning Lass) in Legion of Super-Heroes Mion and Shion Sonozaki from Higurashi no Naku Koro ni Suiseiseki and Souseiseki from Rozen Maiden Zan and Jayna, alien twins better known as The Wonder Twins from DC Comics. Games... Solid Snake and Liquid Snake from the Metal Gear Solid series Kouji Minamoto and Kouichi Kimura from Digimon are identical twin brothers Alfred Ashford and Alexia Ashford from Resident Evil Code: Veronica Dante and Vergil from Devil May Cry series Mio and Mayu Amakura from Fatal Frame II: Crimson Butterfly Palom and Porom, twin characters in Final Fantasy IV Billy Lee and Jimmy Lee from Double Dragon List of sibling pairs... This list includes certain twins which are also covered in List of twins, provided said twins have at least one additional older or younger sibling. Siblings are arranged alphabetically by last name, then listed from oldest to youngest. Sócrates and Raí, who are generally known by those names only, are listed in order of age. Ben Affleck and Casey Affleck; actors Mabel and Jack Albertson; actors Phylicia Rashad and Debbie Allen; actresses (Debbie is also a singer, dancer and choreographer) Don and Jim Ameche; actors Vijay, Anand, and Ashok Amritraj; tennis players (Ashok is also a Hollywood producer) Dana Andrews and Steve Forrest; actors Claude & Nicolas Anelka; French footballer and agent Haruchika, Nobuatsu and Takuma Aoki; Grand Prix motorcycle racers Natalie and Nicole Appleton; singers, members of All Saints James Arness and Peter Graves; actors Rosanna, Alexis, Patricia, Richmond, and David Arquette; actors (Rosanna is also a film director/producer; Alexis is also a musician & cabaret performer) Ron and Scott Asheton; musicians, members of The Stooges Adele and Fred Astaire; actors, singers, dancers Sean and Mackenzie Astin; actors, sons of actors Patty Duke and John Astin Francis Edward Bache, composer and musician; Walter Bache, pianist and conductor; and Constance Bache, composer, pianist and teacher. Kevin and Michael Bacon; actor and composer-musician, respectively John and Mary Badham; motion picture-director and actress, respectively Lionel, Ethel, and John Barrymore; actors Justine and Jason Bateman; actors Shirley MacLaine and Warren Beatty; actors John and Jim Belushi; actors, comedians Lorne and Justin Berfield; actors Peter Billingsley and Melissa Michaelsen; actors Tony and Alex Black; actors Edwin and John Wilkes Booth; actors Ben and Eric Bostrom; motorcycle racers Jocelyn and Marlon Brando; actors Nicholas Brendon and Kelly Donovan; actors, identical twins Spencer and Abigail Breslin; actors Beau and Jeff Bridges; actors, sons of actor Lloyd Bridges Pavel and Valeri Bure; hockey players Kurt and Kyle Busch; NASCAR Sprint Cup Race Drivers George 43rd President of the United States, Jeb Former Florida Governor, Neil Businessman, Marvin Businessman, and Dorothy Bush author; Children of former President George H. W. Bush and First Lady Barbara Bush Kirk and Candace Cameron; actors Christian and Neve Campbell; actors Richard and Karen Carpenter; musicians, singers Peter and Kitty Carruthers; figure-skaters Nick and Aaron Carter; singers Veronica and Angela Cartwright; actresses Gerald and Bob Casale; musicians, members of Devo Jason and Michael Castro; singer-songwriters Bobby & Jack Charlton; English footballers Erika and Dane Christensen; actors Steve Clark (tap dancer) and Jimmy Clark (tap dancer) of The Clark Brothers (tap dancers) Joan and Jackie Collins; actress and novelist, respectively Sean and Neil Connery; actors Roman and Sofia Coppola; filmmakers, children of Francis and Eleanor Coppola, cousins of Jason and Robert Schwartzman and Nicolas Cage Nikki and Matthew Cox; actors Joan and John Cusack; actors Dalvin DeGrate and DeVante Swing; musicians, members of Jodeci Olivia de Havilland and Joan Fontaine; actresses Keegan and Owen de Lancie; actors, sons of actor John de Lancie Elizabeth and Kathleen Dennehy; actresses, daughters of Brian Dennehy Emily and Zooey Deschanel; actresses, daughters of cinematographer Caleb Deschanel Donna de Varona and Joanna Kerns; swimmer and actress, respectively Matt and Kevin Dillon; actors Magnus and Candida Doyle, musicians, members of Pulp Bismarck and Jannie du Plessis, South Africa international rugby players Hilary and Jacqueline du Pré; British flautist/memoirist and famous cellist, respectively Haylie and Hilary Duff; singers, actresses Griffin and Dominique Dunne; actors, children of author Dominick Dunne Eliza and Nate Dushku; actors Buddy and Vilma Ebsen; actors, dancers Cindy and Lisa Eilbacher; actresses Bob Einstein (AKA Super Dave Osborne) and Albert Brooks; actors, comedians, writers, sons of Parkyakarkus Al and Ike Eisenmann; actors Richard and Danny Elfman; film-maker and member of Oingo Boingo, respectively Phil and Tony Esposito; hockey players Fred and Richard Fairbrass; musicians, singers, members of Right Said Fred Dakota and Elle Fanning; actresses David and Michael Faustino; actors Mindy and Corey Feldman; singer-actors Stacy and Dana Ferguson; actresses Ralph and Joseph Fiennes; actors Max and Dave Fleischer; animators Andy and Grant Flower; Zimbabwe cricketers Jane and Peter Fonda; actors, children of actor Henry Fonda Edward and James Fox; actors Magda, Eva, and Zsa-Zsa Gabor; actresses and socialites Noel and Liam Gallagher; musicians, members of Oasis Leif Garrett and Dawn Lyn; actors Melissa and Sara Gilbert; actors Cuba and Omar Gooding; actors, sons of jazz musician Cuba Gooding Sr Ilene and Todd Graff; actors Tony and Cammi Granato, ice hockey players Colin and Jonny Greenwood; musicians, members of Radiohead Melanie and Tracy Griffith; actresses, daughters of actress Tippi Hedren Wilhelm and Jacob Grimm; writers Michael and Mary Gross; actors Greg and Bryant Gumbel; television broadcasters Maggie and Jake Gyllenhaal; actors, children of Stephen Gyllenhaal Cedric "K-Ci" and Joel "Jo-Jo" Hailey; musicians, members of K-Ci & JoJo and Jodeci Matt and Jeff Hardy – professional wrestlers (see also Hardy Boyz) Melissa Joan and Emily Hart; actresses Murray and Anthony Stewart Head; actors Margaux and Mariel Hemingway; models, actresses, granddaughters of novelist Ernest Hemingway Christopher and Carrie Henn; actors Paris and Nicky Hilton; socialites Christopher and Peter Hitchens; authors, journalists Ron and Clint Howard; actors, sons of actor Rance Howard Season and Whip Hubley; actors Kate and Oliver Hudson; actors Lane and Booker Huffman – professional wrestlers (see also Harlem Heat) Sarah and Emily Hughes; figure skaters Frank and Jesse James; outlaws Steve Jobs, co-founder of Apple Computer; and Mona Simpson, novelist Don Johnson, actor; and Jamie Skylar, singer Wynonna and Ashley Judd; singer and actress (respectively), daughters of Naomi Judd Stacy and James Keach; actors John and Robert Kennedy; politicians Caroline and John Fitzgerald Kennedy, Jr.; children of President "JFK" and Jacqueline Kennedy-Onassis Jamie and Patsy Kensit; actors Randi and Robby Kiger; actors Jonathan and Jordan Knight; singers, members of New Kids on the Block Mark and David Knopfler; musicians, members of Dire Straits Martin and Chris Kratt; television hosts Sid and Marty Krofft; television producers Raymond, Thomas and Walter Kwok; chairmen of Sun Hung Kai Properties Terry, 1984 and 1996 NASCAR Cup Champion, and Bobby Labonte, 2000 NASCAR Cup Champion, NASCAR Sprint Cup Drivers Nick and Drew Lachey; singers, members of 98 Degrees Michael and Brian Laudrup; football (soccer) players Brandon and Shannon Lee; actors, children of martial arts-actor Bruce Lee Spike and Joie Lee; producers, actors Donovan Leitch (Jr.) and Ione Skye; actors, children of Donovan (Sr.) Carrie and Matt Levin; actors Damian and Gareth Lewis; actor/producer and writer/director, respectively Benji Madden and Joel Madden; members of Good Charlotte Michael and Virginia Madsen; actors Tom and Ray Magliozzi; radio hosts Costas and Louis Mandylor; actors, martial artists Cooper, Peyton, and Eli Manning; American football players, sons of Archie Manning Athan and Constantine Maroulis; singers, actors Garry and Penny Marshall; motion picture-directors Albert and David Maysles; documentary filmmakers John and Patrick McEnroe; tennis players Danica and Crystal McKellar; actresses Philip and Nancy McKeon; actors Shane McMahon and Stephanie McMahon-Levesque; Executive Employee's for World Wrestling Entertainment David and Marissa Mendenhall; actors Alyson and Amanda Michalka; singers (Aly & AJ) Alyssa and Corey Milano; actors (Alyssa is also a singer) Kylie and Dannii Minogue; singers Dominique and Christina Moceanu; gymnasts Mark and Bob Mothersbaugh; musicians, members of Devo Richard and Robert Mulligan; actor and motion picture-director, respectively Seth and Liliana Mumy; actors, children of actor/musician/singer/writer Bill Mumy Eddie and Charlie Murphy; actors and comedians Gary and Phil Neville (English football players) Fayard and Harold Nicholas; tap dancers (see also Nicholas Brothers) Rob and Scott Niedermayer; hockey players Jack Noseworthy and Katie Wright; actors Jerry and Charlie O'Connell; actors Chris and Collin O'Donnell; actors Tatum, Griffin and Patrick O'Neal; actors, children of Ryan O'Neal Eric and Susan Olsen; actors Haley Joel and Emily Osment; actors Hayden and Jansen Panettiere; actors Anthony and Candace Parker; basketball players Corey and Noelle Parker; actors Jim and John Paxson; basketball players Chuck and Wesley Person; basketball players Vicky and Debbi Peterson; singers, musicians, composers, members of The Bangles Michelle and Dedee Pfeiffer; actresses Joaquin and Summer Phoenix; actors Dennis and Randy Quaid; actors Sócrates and Raí, Brazilian international footballers Laird Macintosh and Heather Rattray; actors (she uses their actual family name) Fernand, Louis and Marcel Renault; industrialists, founders of Renault Simon and Phillip Rhee; martial arts-actors Maurice and Henri Richard, hockey players Natasha and Joely Richardson; actresses, daughters of Vanessa Redgrave, cousins of Jemma and Kelly Clark Eric and Julia Roberts; actors Chris and Rich Robinson; musicians, members of The Black Crowes Christophe and Olivier Rochus, Belgian tennis players Evan and Tracee Ellis Ross; actors Marat Safin and Dinara Safina; Russian (ethnic Tatar) tennis players Emilio and Javier Sánchez and Arantxa Sánchez Vicario, Spanish tennis players NB: Per Spanish naming customs, their first family name, inherited from their father, is Sánchez, and their second family name, their mother's maiden name, is Vicario. Emilio and Javier are internationally known as Sánchez, while Arantxa chose to add their mother's maiden name of Vicario to her professional name. Fred and Ben Savage; actors Maria and Maximilian Schell; actors, cousins of Catherine Schell Michael and Ralf Schumacher; Formula One drivers Jason and Robert Schwartzman; actors, musicians, sons of Talia Shire, grandsons of Carmine Coppola, cousins of Nicolas Cage and Sofia, Roman, and Christopher Coppola Ridley and Tony Scott; motion picture-directors Sterling and Shannon Sharpe; former American football players Elisabeth and Andrew Shue; actors Casey and Nina Siemaszko; actors Jessica and Ashlee Simpson; singers, actresses Marc and Lori Singer; actors Britney and Jamie Lynn Spears; singers, actresses Tori and Randy Spelling; actors, children of TV magnate Aaron Spelling Bruce and Pamela Springsteen; rock impresario and actress, respectively Rick and Scott Steiner – professional wrestlers (see also The Steiner Brothers) Amy and Ben Stiller; actors Guy and Dean Stockwell; actors Dorothy and Louise Stratten; models, actresses Masao and Naoto Suenaga; drifting drivers, competes in D1 Grand Prix Niki and Krissy Taylor; supermodels Meg and Jennifer Tilly; actors John and Nicholas Turturro; actors (also cousins of actress Aida Turtorro Rory and Tony Underwood; English rugby union wingers Reuben and Benny Urquidez; martial arts-actors Dick and Jerry Van Dyke; actors Alex and Eddie Van Halen; musicians, members of Van Halen James and Vincent Van Patten; actors, sons of actor Dick Van Patten Stevie Ray and Jimmie Vaughan; musicians Donnie and Mark Wahlberg; singers, actors Darrell NASCAR Broadcaster and Michael Waltrip NASCAR Sprint Cup Drivers Daytona 500 Champions NB: Darrell is the 1989 Daytona 500 Race champion while Michael won the race twice in 2001 and 2003. Also, Darrell is a three time NASCAR Cup Champion in 1981, 1982, and 1985. Gerard Way and Mikey Way; members of My Chemical Romance Maurice and Verdine White; musicians, members of Earth, Wind and Fire Dominique and Gerald Wilkins; basketball players Venus and Serena Williams; tennis players Ann and Nancy Wilson; singers, musicians, members of Heart Carnie and Wendy Wilson; singers, members of Wilson Phillips, daughters of Brian Wilson Brian, Dennis, and Carl Wilson – musicians; founding members of The Beach Boys Ricky and Cindy Wilson; composers, musicians, singers, members of The B-52's Tracy and Bridgette Wilson; actresses (Bridgette is also a singer) Jeff and Michael Wincott; actors Edgar and Johnny Winter; musicians Rob and Richard Witschge; football players Natalie and Lana Wood; actors Wilbur and Orville Wright; inventors [H.O.B. note: The two brothers should be mentioned along with their sister] Tina and Corey Yothers; musicians, actors, members of It's Magic and Jaded Malcolm and Angus Young; musicians, members of AC/DC John Savage; Robin, Gail and Jim Youngs; actors Jennifer and Lachlan Youngs; actors, children of John Savage Lisa and Billy Zane; actors David and Jerry Zucker; motion picture-writers and directors Joel and Edward Zwick; motion picture-directors And, of course: the Allman Brothers; the Bee Gees; the Coen Brothers; the Corrs; DeBarge; the Everly Brothers; the Farrelly Brothers; Hanson; the Isley Brothers; the Jacksons; The Brothers Johnson; the Kelly Family; Maserati Brothers; the Osmonds; the Pointer Sisters; the Shaw Brothers; Sister Sledge; the Smothers Brothers; the Wachowski Brothers; Wood Brothers et al. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- List of fictional detective teams This is a list of fictional detective teams from popular detective fiction. This list includes pairs of characters who appear in a series of novels or short stories, not characters who are teamed only for a single story. Where two detectives work together, they are listed as A and B; where a single detective is regularly accompanied by a non-detecting sidekick or chronicler they are listed as A with B. The author who created the team appears in parentheses. Elijah Baley and R. Daneel Olivaw - (Isaac Asimov) Tommy and Tuppence Beresford - (Agatha Christie) [H.O.B. note: the name "Tuppence" is thought by some to be derived from two words: "Two Pence", or two pennies] Nick and Nora Charles - (Dashiell Hammett) Bertha Cool and Donald Lam - (Erle Stanley Gardner as A. A. Fair) Lord Darcy and Sean O'Lochlainn - (Randall Garrett) Dalziel and Pascoe - (Reginald Hill) Grijpstra and de Gier - (Janwillem van de Wetering) Frank and Joe Hardy - (Franklin W. Dixon) Hawk and Fisher - (Simon Green) Sherlock Holmes with Dr. John H. Watson - (Sir Arthur Conan Doyle) Travis McGee and Meyer - (John D. MacDonald) Hercule Poirot with Arthur Hastings - (Agatha Christie) Nero Wolfe and Archie Goodwin - (Rex Stout) Sister Fidelma with Brother Eadulf - (Peter Tremayne) Randall and Hopkirk (Deceased) The ClueFinders Thomson and Thompson - The Adventures of Tintin (Hergé) Hldegarde Withers with Inspector Oscar Piper - (Stuart Palmer) Snooper and Blabber - Hanna-Barbera Sharky and George Scooby Doo and The Mystery Inc. Gangs - Hanna-Barbera Retrieved from "" ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- This category is for all kind of duos: music duos, actor duos, dancer duos, duos in sports, and fictional duos. A... Abda and Sabas Abib and Apollo Abraham and Onesimus of Kiev Achilles and Patroclus Adam and Eve Ahmed and Mohammed Hussain Ali Berzengi and Ferman Abdulla Anand-Milind Kalyanji Anandji Opie and Anthony B... The Bar Wizards Barlett and Steele Beaumont and Fletcher Ben & Jerry's Benevento/Russo Duo Shari Springer Berman and Robert Pulcini Big Chuck and Lil' John Bonnie and Clyde Bud & Travis C... Ellie Campbell (author) La Caution Charles and Eddie Barry and Sally Childs-Helton Clarinet-Cello repertoire CocoRosie Theodore Cole and Ralph Roe Corby & Baily Couple Cox & Forkum CunninLynguists Saints Cyril and Methodius D... David & David Delia Gonzalez & Gavin Russom The Delmore Brothers The Dolans E... Roxanne Ellis and Michelle Abdill James Harmon Brown and Barbara Esensten Eyedea & Abilities F... Sean Fletcher and Isabel Reichert Nicci French G... Galton and Simpson Gilbert and Sullivan Gora Badal Gordianus and Epimachus John and Benjamin Green Amy Grossberg and Brian Peterson H... The Hairy Bikers Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold Harmodius and Aristogeiton I... Ich + Ich Ilf and Petrov Illya Kuryaki and the Valderramas Informatik Bill and Bobbie Irvine J... Shankar Jaikishan Jake and the Phatman Jeffrey Price and Peter S. Seaman John Brancato and Michael Ferris Jondi & Spesh K... K Foundation Kate and Gin Khnumhotep and Niankhkhnum Kumataro Kido and Yagoro Tani Celia Kitzinger and Sue Wilkinson Kozyndan The Krankies Kris Kross L... The Last Shadow Puppets Laxmikant-Pyarelal Layla and Majnun Leopold and Loeb Lewis and Clark Expedition Lynne & Tessa M... Maggira Sisters Mark and Lard John and Richard Marriot Reuben and Rose Mattus Mitchell Johnson and Andrew Golden The Mommies Grace Monroe Morgan-McVey Abbas-Mustan N... Nathanson and Young Natural Born Killers Natural Selection (group) Andrew Nicholls and Darrell Vickers Kevin and Don Norte O... Kyle & Jackie O Owen and Mzee P... The Pendragons Perry and Croft Peter Rose and Anne Conlon Pierre et Gilles Platinum Weird R... Rankin & Chris Jewel and Blaire Restaneo Rob'n'Raz Robson & Jerome Thomas Rogers and Anne Rogers Ronald & Ruby Siegfried & Roy S... Salim-Javed Salim-Sulaiman Satan and Adam Scarlett and Black Scott Alexander and Larry Karaszewski Gaetano and Pietro Sgarabotto Shields and Yarnell Thomas Shipp and Abram Smith Shiv-Hari Simon James and Hill Sjöwall and Wahlöö Izzy Einstein and Moe Smith Sohni Mahiwal Somerville and Ross Spacedust Special Delivery Starring Sam and Dave Stenberg brothers Stuckey and Murray T... Tate and Brady Thomson & Craighead Caroline and Charles Todd Tom Gammill and Max Pross Tom and Chris Kastle Torvill and Dean Two Fat Ladies Two Guys from Andromeda Typically Tropical Tyquin Brothers (rugby league) U... The Ubin Twinz V... Brenda and Robert Vale Roland and Almita Vamos Vasilyev brothers Duo Vela W... Waltrip brothers The Weather Girls The Western Brothers The Wild Pair Sue Wilkinson William Pint and Felicia Dale Wisin & Yandel The Woodies Y... Yaren Ensemble Yin and yang Yusuf and Zulaikha Retrieved from ""

Let me add one "two" example to the following list: Nature - Nurture. The list comes from:


  • Conscious mentalism - Unconscious mentalism: Emphasis on awareness of mental structure or activity vs. unawareness; coincides with rationalism - irrationalism dichotomy.

  • Behaviorism - Mentalism: Proper study of psychological focuses on objective content or on subjective content.

  • Determinism - Indeterminism - Nondeterminism: Human events completely determined by antecedents and explicable vs. determined but incompletely explicable vs. not determined.

  • Empiricism - Rationalism: Major, if not exclusive source of knowledge is experience vs. reason.

  • Functionalism - Structuralism: Psychology should describe adaptive activities vs. elemental classes and contents.

  • Mechanism - Vitalism: Activities of living beings completely explicable by physiochemical constituents vs. not so explicable.

  • Molecularism - Molarism Small versus Large units of behavior.

  • Monism - Dualism: Fundamental principle or entity in universe is of one kind vs. two kinds, mind and matter.

  • Nativism - Empiricism: Thought and behavior emerges from innate structures vs. emerges from experiences.

  • Subjectivism - Objectivism: Introspective accounts of experience do, or do not, constitute valid data.

  • Universalism - Relativism: Is the world an objective entity, the same for everyone, or is it relative to the perceiver?

The foregoing is a marvelous list but there are other examples in the outline. The outline even provides some patterns-of-three examples and may well introduce you to the "Third Force" topic. However, it doesn't provide a reference to the Monism (one) - Dualism (two) - Pluralism (three) pattern of overall thinking, which is succinctly described as the one - two - many pattern. And in particular, it does not provide you with a similar list of trichotomies... since "threes" are very much a part of our historical thinking. The students taking the professor's class are being deprived of a very real thinking pattern, particularly when it is quite pervasive and documented by cultural anthropologists. The students should be up in arms and protest against such a discrepancy in their education. It's time for a Revolution!

Granted that many readers may want to suggest that a third, middle ground be added as a viable consideration, it is necessary to note that not only is there a persistence of dichotomies, but a persistence in the usage thereof. Why isn't there a persistence in the usage of a three-patterned array though many of us recognize the existence thereof? Is it that the brains of students, as a new generation, have a brain developing towards a greater usage of three-patterned observations but instructors, as an older generation have an "old" brain which is most comfortable teaching old brain information... like a stagecoach maker who would (assumedly) be more comfortable making stage-coaches than working on an assembly line putting a Cadillac together? Perhaps the field of Psychology (and other subject areas) needs to be made in another image... such as a trichotomous one which can encapsulate dichotomies because a focus on dichotomies has difficulty in doing so. The two-patterned attributes of the right hemisphere changes the existing three-patterned structures of the left hemisphere attributes into patterns-of-two, while the three-patterned attributes of the left hemisphere more easily appreciate the two-patterned structure of the right hemisphere attributes without needing to impose its "three"-value on them.

Paul MacLean's triune brain hypothesis distinguishes that the human brain is 3 brains in 1:

triune brain concept

To enhance our appreciation of brain development with respect to categorizing attributes that may help us to better distinguish between a criminal and non-criminal brain, we need to elaborate on a means to help us in differentiating characteristic related to these 3 different brain sections:

Attributes of the brain hemispheres show a distinctive (but somewhat overlapping) partitioning along a 1-patterned, 2-patterned, 3-patterned formula, with the earlier brain structures exhibiting a smaller numerically identifiable value, just as we find in the development of Primordial Germ Layers to the extent that we humans, as a complex organism, grow from 3 Germ Layers, and less complex organisms grow from fewer than 3 layers. See Brain Attributes pages starting here:

Brain Attributes page 1

Left and Right brain hemisphere attributes

***Note: Much of the brain illustration shown above was adapted from page 106 of Dean Falk's book entitled "Brain Dance," 1992.

3-patterned formula to brain hemisphere attributes:

When we look at the assigned culturally recognized attributes of the brain, we can see a distinct (over-lapping) 1-patterned, or 2-patterned, or 3-patterned arrangement:

Left Hemisphere
(Predominantly 3-patterned)


Major Premise
Minor Premise

Time Sequencing:
Past~ Present~Future


Right Body Side:
Tri-cuspid heart valve
Three-lobed lung
Right Hemisphere
(Predominantly 2-patterned)

Macro versus Micro
Whole versus Part
Inner versus Outer

Major Scale vs Minor Scale
Loud versus Soft (Quiet)
Consonance vs Dissonance

Visuospatial: (Art)
Background vs Foreground
Light vs Dark (Contrasts)
1 Dimension vs 2 Dimensions

Pain versus Pleasure
Positive vs Negative
Love versus Hate

Left Body Side:
Bi-cuspid heart valve
Two-lobed lung
Human Heart

The correlations of two and three being made on this page are not typical considerations. However, I did come across a single reference concerning the tricuspid valve:

--- Why does the right side of the heart have a TRICUSPID valve? ---
Human Lungs

In recognizing that the left lung is smaller than the right lung (which provides room for the heart), let us conjecture that this is due to some past earlier developmental sequence just as we find the 1-layer, 2-layer, 3-layer sequential development of the 3 primordial germ layers (Ectoderm- Mesoderm- Entoderm) in primitive to more complex organisms. Hence, difference in size (dimorphism) as well as a two/ or three prominence may provide another link towards understanding developmental processes. Does this mean that the recurring smallness of the female to the male in many species indicates that females came before the male in terms of species-specific evolutionary development during particular environmental circumstances? If so, will there be an increased development towards a 3 to 1 "fusion" ratio?

In ancient times, it was once thought that a male child was generated from the right testicle and a female child from the left testicle. This right side = male and left side = female is in keeping with the cross-referencing pattern related to brain hemisphere functioning controlling the opposite side of the body, as seen when a person has a stroke.

(Predominantly 1-Patterned)

(Self)-Preservation~ (Self)-Procreation~ (Self)-Preeminence

Note: this "self" is a misnomer since it is better identified as not necessarily being aware of ones-"self" as an entity. Neither is the "self" in this present context to be identified with a "self"-referential "I" or "Me", in terms of an ego-centricism.

Some additional two-patterned references found in music:
  • Tension and Release
  • Staccato and Legato
  • Slow and Fast
  • Ascending and Descending

An analogy to the above 3 divisions (Reptilian~ Mammalian~ Neo(New)-Mammalian) can be made with the ancient view of the world once held by Nordic peoples who thought the three roots and three limbs of the Yggdrasil tree held Earth, Hell, and Heaven together. In their own way, they were illustrating a fundamental organizational structure of the brain that matures along a 1 ~ 2 ~ 3 maturational development sequence. It is because of this underlying basic formula that humans tend to organize world views in a three-patterned manner, in singular and multiple representations thereof.

For those of you who have a penchant for taking the obvious for granted, please note that the Nordic peoples are part of the Indo-European family, and it is this (3rd born) family, more so than (2nd born) Asians and (1st born) Africans which has the greatest proclivity for developing three-patterned views of the world:

Yggdrasil tree

Note: When we use the left hemisphere attribute "analysis" to define qualities of the right hemisphere, we often-times assign an additional third criteria in one form or another. When we use the right hemisphere attribute 'viewing' (recognizing) to define qualities of the left hemisphere, we often-times alter the 3-part descriptions into 2-part 'portraits'. For example, (generally speaking):

Left "analyzing" Right: Holistic may acquire the additional term "Synergy" or "Unity"; Music can develop a Triadic structure; Art acquires a 3rd dimension and 3-color (trichromatic) theory; Emotion is assigned words such as Compassion, Patience, and Empathy.

Right "viewing" Left: Math may be seen as Give & Take; Logic may become a Mind/Body dichotomy; Time is related to Life & Death; Language is perceived as High & Low pitch.

Left "analyzing" Reptilian attributes may develop three criteria which distinguish a (3 in 1) singular nature, such as arousal, motivation, and emotion.

Right "viewing" Reptilian attributes may picture the basic drives as the seat of emotion whereby a type of kinship alliance is formulated in order to maintain the idea of a dual brain by not permitting the "Reptilian Brain" a separate entity status.

In adding to the above, we could include the following remarks (taken out of their original context):

"...To further complicate the process, it has been suggested that we have 3 major components in our brain function - instinct, emotion, and intellect. The 3 layers of function correspond to the major layers of brain matter that have been added as we evolved through various stages. Evolution didn't throw much away as humans evolved - our brains have added new layers on top of what was already there instead of the more difficult total restructuring or replacement. We still harbor a primitive reptilian brain at our cores that runs a lot of our subconscious systems like digestion, respiration and circulation. Along the way we picked up a number of only marginally compatible and integrated layers, evolving our conscious minds only with the addition of the outermost layer."

--- Perception and Behavior --- by Kort E Patterson

Initial Posting date: Tuesday, Dec. 9, 2014
Updated Posting: Thursday, Dec. 11, 2014

Your Questions, Comments or Additional Information are welcomed:
Herb O. Buckland