Threesology Research Journal
Research into the "Threes" Phenomena

~ The Study of Threes ~

To start off this initial Threesology page more slowly than I did in my first attempt, let me provide some links to other web sites since the materials provided are excellent sources of information for the novice as well as serious researcher. But please understand that they are works-in-progress. It goes without saying that you should query the individual authors if you would like to contribute additional information related to their particular research focus... and it should be noted that the authors may not necessarily refer to themselves as a "Threesologist, Triadologist, Treblest, Treist, Triologist, etc.," since their professional venues are otherwise directed and may have developed a listing of "threes" merely as a curiosity shelved into some form of collector's box, cabinet or dresser drawer.

Professor L.B. Croft:

People in Threes Going Up in Smoke...
and Other Triplicities in Russian Literature and Culture

His article has brought much to the table of threes research considerations: For example, if it is true that the Russian peoples use more "threes" than other groups/cultures (at least in terms of what is being expressed in literature), are there identifiable influences which have created this circumstance such as diet, genetics, etc.? Do Russian infants babble in "chunks-of-three" more so than the infants of other cultures? Are Russian children exposed to "threes" (fairy tales, education standards, etc.) more than any other culture's children?

His thesis needs to be explored more comprehensively and deserves the necessary funding to accomplish these (and other literary-focused) analytical ends.

Professor Alan Dundez

The Number Three in The American Culture

Dr. Dundez' chapter designated "The Number Three in The American Culture", can be found in a copyrighted 1967-1968 book entitled "Every Man His Way." I have included the chapter in its entirety, in 3 pages listed as:

#3 in the American Culture A
#3 in the American Culture B
#3 in the American Culture C

For threes collectors, this book is a "must have" piece of written threes history. (There is also a great need for the funding of a Threes-related museum and library as well as experimentally based research to test hypothesis derived from the issues of "threes-related" questions that need to be answered and not remain in the realm of speculative philosophy.)

Michael Eck

Book of Threes

Michael Eck's collection efforts have quite possibly been the most enduring on the internet. The persistence and clarity of his work is cherished by all those who have a sustained interest in threes research, and we heart-fully acknowledge our indebtedness. The site address has recently changed and is now updated on this and the contents page. However, the uniquely coined word "Triclopedia" should be made as an historical reference to Mr. Eck.

Simon Kelsey

  Triplicity- The Phenomenon of Threeness in Life

Mr. Kelsey's efforts are an interesting exploration into the threes phenomena as elucidating the need for adopting a comprehensive and comprehensible program-in-development criteria, the many facets of which are in the making. His research efforts are welcomed and I acknowledge that a host of the "threes" examples found on this site have come by way of his direct assistance. Discussions about threes between Mr. Kelsey and myself might well be of interest to some readers. Amongst the other pages I am writing, I will attempt to put together a collection of our exchanged e-mails and place them on a web page. There is so much yet to do... one life time seems particularly inadequate.

Dr. McNulty

List of Threes in human anatomy

Dr. McNulty's list is highly prized breath of refreshed air amongst those threes researchers who appreciate his (and others) efforts in compiling a list that illuminates a consistency not typically influenced (for the most part) by cultural fads, hearsay, or historical misrepresentations. His list has an expressed date of 1994 as its inception thus describing a longevity that others will no doubt pass on to succeeding generations.

With respect to the "threes" in human anatomy (which includes the many geo-metrically noted "triangular" configurations), such a list must be compared with other species' as well as denoting whether or not there is a change in our human threes-based anatomy over time. For example, what we of today might medically describe as a mutation might well be the formative structure of a new type of "three" that future generations of humans will have and may take for granted as most of us now take the various "threes" in our body for granted. Dr. McNulty's list is not meant to be exhaustive with respect to human physiology. Readers must keep this in mind because there are lots of other "threes" to be found.

There are other examples which can be found on the Contents page:

Threesology Research Journal Contents

For all the presumed intelligence being espoused on different web pages, there is a lack of serious discussion about the "threes phenomena" because people do not know how to think about it outside some already-established-model of reference just like people in the distance past didn't know how to think about collections of fossils, rocks, insects, sea shells, and numerous other accumulations of information that eventually became a science. There has been no comprehensive "philosophy of threes", but there have been several perspectives which have contained lists-of-threes as a supportive guesture of an idea such as Christianity because numerous threes can be found in the Bible.

But it should be no wonder that there is a lack of serious "thres" discussions. People do not know how to think about the recurring phenomena. It's like a civilization living near an active volcano and interpreting it to be a god, or living near an inactive one and simply ignoring it unless they can exploit it. The phenomena of threes is a subtle occurrence for many people. Even those of us interested in the topic will admit that there are so many in different varieties, that we too overlook them. Not for a lack of interest but because we are over-whelmed... particularly at the recognition that so very few people recognize the wide-spread prevailency. And even when people are made aware of the very many "threes" occurrences, they use some form of religious and superstitious tool of examination. Fortunately, there are a few who share the same interest in collecting different "threes" examples even if their accumulated reason(s) for doing so may be different.

Time Machine (4K)

The stark lack of serious "threes" discussions is a testament to a pervasive socially-imbued ignorance humanity experiences in different eras. It's like traveling in a Time Machine to the past and ending up in the Stone Ages or landing on another planet amongst bipedal primates who think themselves to be living in an advanced modern culture. Yet are unable to make heads or tails of my attempts to communicate by the usage of a simple one-to-one correspondence in order to establish a rudimentary basis of communication.

Such is the type of ignorance fashioned by a form of intelligence which works by way of varying exclusionary principles necessary for them to utilize varying forms of two-patterned based logic (male/female, night/day, yin/yang, ratiionalist/empiricist, good/evil, etc...); and they think themselves progressive by utilizing some attempted admixture to pretense a harmonisation and then pronounce it as a totally new third entity!

I have no idea what school they went to, but one plus one does not equal three, unless I was asleep throughout elementary school and beyond. And if your fractionate the one and the other, such as taking half of something and half of another, the combined result may be a revised whole, such as putting half of an apple pie with half of a cherry pie; but a half plus a half does not equal three! It might well be called an apple-cherry or cherry-apple pie, but such labeling does not obscure the fact that there is no third pie. You still have four halves. Mixing the halves does not make a third or fourth pie or every mother would do this in order to stretch their food budget. Yet, this is the logic running rampant throughout different perspectives. This is not fuzzy logic nor fuzzy mathematics, this is an unrecognized dementia, which no doubt encourages the usage of a ludicrous Electoral system in American Presidential politics! Imagine being able to mix half a gallon of gasoline from one gas station with half from another and thinking you have produce three gallons of gas! The planet Earth is a nut house with psychotics in charge of the keys to the various padded cages!

It's no doubt you may at sometime or another encounter those whom are very good at discussing their two-patterned logic perspective which may be supplied with awards and funding by those who agree with their expressed knowledge because it is how they also perceive the world. They nonetheless are like a caged animal having established a territorial claim within a cage that they can peer out from; but prefer that you join them within their respective cages so that you can be convinced, with their caged logic, that they are its master.

Biographical Institutionalism (12K)

And like an institutionalized slave or convict having been brought up with a similar tunnel-visioned perspective their entire life, to take them out of their caged element is tantamount to a death sentence; so they will use any and all means at their disposal to convince you, to intimidate you, to manipulate you, by way of some privation or reward, that they are right so that you will be a participant in their life's journey. But, once you are made aware of the threes phenomena, you cannot help but witness there still remains a distinct absence of a "threes" acknowledgment and application in their two-patterned inside/outside perspective. And if you bring up the topic and show them the very many examples of threes in different subject areas; in one way or another they are dismissive of the phenomena and place it into a dark corner of irrelevance for everyone to avoid because their designed territoriality of perceptions do not permit any extended excursion into this principality of consideration. The "Threes" idea is forbidden by way of a practiced exercise in defining it in terms of an association with a mediaevalistic orientation and comprehension related largely to ancient alchemy, religion and superstition.

As a Threesologist, I take note of other patterns, both enumerated and otherwise, all of which exhibit some level of occurrence like a fever:

  1. Continuous (frequently occurring)
  2. Intermittent (may or may not be dependent on time, place and design)
  3. Remittent (sporadic)

One of these alternate patterns are dualisms which can either be contentious (oppositional) or complementary, that may alternatively be described as dichotomies or patterns-of-two. Such a pattern persists in various forms. The following are but a few examples to which I will add but one: Nature - Nurture. The list comes from:


  • Conscious mentalism - Unconscious mentalism: Emphasis on awareness of mental structure or activity vs. unawareness; coincides with rationalism - irrationalism dichotomy.

  • Behaviorism - Mentalism: Proper study of psychological focuses on objective content or on subjective content.

  • Determinism - Indeterminism - Nondeterminism: Human events completely determined by antecedents and explicable vs. determined but incompletely explicable vs. not determined.

  • Empiricism - Rationalism: Major, if not exclusive source of knowledge is experience vs. reason.

  • Functionalism - Structuralism: Psychology should describe adaptive activities vs. elemental classes and contents.

  • Mechanism - Vitalism: Activities of living beings completely explicable by physiochemical constituents vs. not so explicable.

  • Molecularism - Molarism

  • Monism - Dualism: Fundamental principle or entity in universe is of one kind vs. two kinds, mind and matter.

  • Nativism - Empiricism: Thought and behavior emerges from innate structures vs. emerges from experiences.

  • Subjectivism - Objectivism: Introspective accounts of experience do, or do not, constitute valid data.

  • Universalism - Relativism: Is the world an objective entity, the same for everyone, or is it relative to the perceiver?

The foregoing is a marvelous list but there are other examples in the outline. The outline even provides some patterns-of-three examples and may well introduce you to the "Third Force" topic. However, it doesn't provide a reference to the Monism (one) - Dualism (two) - Pluralism (three) pattern of overall thinking, which is succinctly described as the one - two - many pattern. And in particular, it does not provide you with a similar list of trichotomies... since "threes" are very much a part of our historical thinking. The students taking the professor's class are being deprived of a very real thinking pattern, particularly when it is quite pervasive and documented by cultural anthropologists. The students should be up in arms and protest against such a discrepancy in their education. It's time for a Revolution!

Philosopher (4K)

The once mighty sages of ancient Greek philosophy, while good at their vocation, did not know what to make of fossils... at least we have no largely established record that they made any detailed sense of the fossils they encountered. Such is the case with present day philosophers and the very many "threes" related materials, of which the following links provide examples thereof. Like wet nurses of now distant times and places, we "threes" researchers have frequently resorted to spoon feeding small portions of the Threes knowledge to those, in a moment of (shriek!) open-mindedness, have looked outward through the spaces between their fingers covering their eyes by the established so-called comprehensive logic they have come to use as a tool of reasoning... so long as it is used within a given area of exploration.

Some may view my collection as a type of kitchen drawer tool box and general hardware supply repository simply referred to as "stuff". Reflectively, I view my collection as a box of toys that may contain rocks, sticks, grass, insects and the like as an add-on accouterment or appurtenance for a given period of intellectual play time. And like so many kids such as Da Vinci, Edison, and others; when I tire of one toy I go play with another one... Hence, some may refer to my type of collectivity as being that of a generalist, esoteric, or even mad-man. ...And when I get tired of the many "threes" toys I've collected, at least those I may be currently working on, I go in search of another. I even mix and match and create new mediums in which to place the toys in order to acquire a different perspective.

But all you would-be Pandoras should be fore-warned: If you think the collection is a hodge-podge of this and that without rhyme or reason, you better steer clear of my save-for-a-rainy-day (inclement weather) attic and basement collections. Within the varied assortments lay examples that will be considered antiques by some browsers, while other rummagers will think this or that example as the oddity of an eccentric hoarder that had seen something that is all but obvious to an inexperienced eye.

Still others will be ever vigilant for clues to as yet unrevealed treasures that they believe I have hidden away like many a person experiencing dementia in their later years (they feel they must hide their treasures because they think someone is stealing from them when they can not find something due to having forgotten where they placed it). I recall one such rummager using the word "quirky" (on their web page) to describe my television/movie listings of threes.

It should also be noted, for those detractors of the "Threes Phenomena Research" efforts, that the "research" is presently foremost limited to gathering information in terms of extensive examples from a variety of subject areas. However, a few of us have begun presenting ideas that do not typically have a schematically drawn-out experimental procedure for an in-the-laboratory defined level of measurement... although ideas may well use information culled from sources where testability of particular threes examples did occur. We find this same type of "chalkboard research", mental experiment, or sidewalk/porch swing philosophy taking place in various areas that develop their own theories, such as anthropology, archeology, chemistry, economics, political science, etc., and only a few develop into an actual means of testability (though ideas fostered in chemistry are frequently put to the test in a laboratory.) A lot of ideas related to Threes Research remains in the theoretical realm of supposition.

However, it should be noted that while we can find myriad examples of threes occurring in different places under different guises throughout history... along with varying applications, present interest in the "three" is more concentrated and does not limit itself to defining the phenomena as being representative of a singular idea consistent with those views which claim the "three" represents some theological perspective such as the Trinity.

With respect to concentration in a particular religious context, for example, while we can find various "threes examples" scattered about in different sections of the Old Testament, the "threes phenomena" is more concentrated in the New Testament. Whether you claim such an event is the result of a conscious or unconscious act influenced by (one or more) gods or indicates a development change in human cognition due to social/environmental/genetic pressures, is beside the point for a generalized merit of discussion. The fact remains is that the concentration has and is continuing to occur.

Indeed, whereas past efforts at collecting "threes" generally took place by those interested in making comparisons with some trinity-based religious perspective, the collections of threes have grown immensely; as well as discussions about such, when collectors and philosophers were not attempting to correlate the very many threes examples with some religious disposition. Religious ideas very often enslave the mind because they do not permit the individual to consider that which may at first seem to be anti-thetical to their belief. Letting go of one's religious constraints does not mean becoming immoral or having to disbelieve in a god. Religions try to own morality and god. All of these three are separate issues that religious authority has forced into a singularity that they want to control. Religious authority are enslavers who want you to pay tithing so that they will have an income in order to be able to pursue their (religious) philosophy without having to work... yet members of the congregation must work (or else be retired) as well as pay taxes. It is a very great hypocrisy.


Here is a short list of "threes" in various three-patterned alignments:

  • Seconds, Minutes, Hours (commas are used)

  • Up - Down - In between (hyphens are used)

  • First base, Second base, Third base (we typically use the word "home" and not "fourth" base. The usage of "Home base or plate" instead of a numerical designation, highlights an overlooked 3 -"to"- 1 ratio. The "Home base or plate" can be viewed as an "odd" man out, where "odd" is not meant to convey an odd, instead of even number.) And please note I put parenthesis around the word "to" in order to hint of its relationship to the number "2", thereby rendering the sequence of 3 - 2 - 1.

  • Eeeny - Meeny - Miney (Moe) (the first three rhyme, while the next "Moe" doesn't. However, Moe rhymes with Toe and Go in this child's counting sequence):

    Eeeny - Meeny - Miney (Moe)
    Catch a Nigger by the (Toe),
    If he hollars let him (Go),
    My mother told me to pick the very best one... And for those wondering, in my neighborhood, when the black kids played with us, the word "nigger" would be alternatively changed with the word "whitey". In our youthful minds, the words "nigger" and "whitey" had nothing whatsoever to do with prejudice. They were just words. All the kids played together and had fun. It was only when some older kids wanted to play that the words took on some derisive quality.

  • While "Wynken and Blyken" rhyme, "Nod" doesn't. This may refer to an early number concept formation where "two" was a cognitive limit prior to the development of a third quantitative value. See: --- One Two Many ---

  • Line in a square, Square in a square, X in a square (upper right hand of computer screens).

  • Two bits (1 quarter), Four bits (2 quarters), Six bits (3 quarters) [there is no "dollar bits" notation in this cheer-leading expression.]

  • Hip, Hip, Hooray!

  • Cinderella, Drisella, Anastasia (Cinderella fairy tale.)

  • 3 kittens who lost their mittens, 3 magic beans of Jack and the Beanstalk, 3 attempts to name Rumplestiltskin, Old King Cole and his fiddler's three, etc...

  • Tic - Tac - Toe (3 in a row)

  • Horizontal, Diagonal, Vertical (3 moves in checkers and chess.)

  • Kings, Queens, Jacks (3 face cards).

  • Id, Ego, Superego (Freudian psychology divisions sometimes used in the form of Child, Parent, Adult).

  • Executive, Legislative, Judicial (U.S. Federal government branches. In a Cenocratic government, the legislature would contain the Senate, House of Representatives, and the Peoples Legislative Branch).

  • There are other historical triangles than just the Bermuda Triangle.

  • Nouns are frequently called Persons, Places and Things.

  • Small - Medium - Large clothing sizes used in America.

  • X large, XX large, XXX large (U.S. Clothing sizes which indicate a repeat of a 1, 2, 3 segmenting fashion instead of developing a separate 'fourth' category.)

  • Knife - Fork- Spoon (Three basic eating utensils.)

  • Bowl, Cup (glass), Plate (Three basic containers used when dining.)

  • Sausage, Ham, Bacon (Three basic alternative breakfast meats.)

  • Pancakes, Waffles, French toast (Three common alternative breakfast meals or supplements.)

  • A "Combo" (combonation) Meal in a fast-food restaurant typically consists of three items such as, for example, a Hamburger (sandwich) - Frenchfries (secondary food accompaniment) - Soft drink (beverage)

  • Most people (I can only assume), flush the toilet once. A few flush it twice. and a small number flush three times: Once before, Once during, Once afterwards.

  • Some men urinate by holding their penis with two hands. Others use one hand. And some use no hands.

  • Me, Myself and I

  • Thee, Thine, Thy (adding "Thou" makes it a 3 to 1 ratio. However, Thee - Thine - Thou all use vowels in the third letter placement. The "Thy" would thus be the 'odd man out' [in most vowel circumstances] with respect to a 3 to 1 ratio. One might also say it is the only representative with three letters.

  • Red, Yellow, Green street lights.

  • Most(?) people hold a pen or pencil with three fingers.

  • Human (female) pregnancy is divided into three trimesters.

  • The A - B - O is a widely used blood typing system.

  • DNA and RNA have triplet codon (coding) systems.

  • Proteins have Primary - Secondary - Tertiary structures with the Quaternary as a composite matrix (of these three). It also describes another 3 to 1 ratio.

  • Unicycles, Bicycles, Tricycles

  • The Third Eye is sometimes referred to as the Mind's Eye.

  • We also have references to a "Third Ear".

  • A person's mouth is sometimes referred to as a third hand.

  • A cane is sometimes referred to as a third leg.

  • Etc.

I used the word "alignments" to denote different ways in which a "three" reference can be displayed. Commas may be used, hyphens, spaces, long sentences, paragraphs, or even symbols such as the triangle or the "Line - Circle - Triangle" as a triadic formula. Numbers could be used with or without letters or some other personal doodle which include the conventions of brackets, parenthesis, etc. Groups of three may occur as well as single item references such as the Earth being the third planet from the Sun.

All the varieties ("species") of "three" will need to be categorized, with various examples no doubt overlapping boundaries just as some animal species such as birds spending both time in the air and on the ground, while other animals burrow under the ground and spend time on it. Other life forms spend time both in the water and on land. You will no doubt find examples of "threes" that are likewise multi-functional... being very much a product of adaptability and change. You will find some examples that are quite old and some that are just being born. Some will endure while others are short-lived. Some may give evidence of a past development while others suggest a long development. Others may be recognized as occurring intermittently.

For example, it is surmised that the reason for a multiplicity of life forms is to provide a greater viability (as well as expressiveness) for DNA and it is not any single life form, such as we humans, that is of prime importance. In other words, we humans, just like all life forms, are little more than different types of vehicles; different forms of trial and error to ensure the viability of DNA, and/or RNA and/or Proteins. This too, in a manner of speaking, is a characteristic of the Threes phenomena. It occurs in diverse subject areas under different guises. As far as we know, underlying all life forms is some three-based biological constituent.

For many people, the concept of "threes" is something quite new. Whereas they, after seeing a list of threes, may recognize many of the examples, but the usage of such a cataloguing method is somewhat out of the ordinary, if not strange to them. Indeed, a colleague of mine has made the comparison to "threes" research and UFOs:

There are many more people interested in UFOs than threes... in fact one could describe threes as being an "alien" concept to most people.

Humorously, this may mean that those of us interested in the "Threes Phenomena" have some sort of Alien connection, if not "Triune brain" Alien Agenda. HA!

It's not that many of these same (non-Alien) people wouldn't be interested in a "threes" perspective, they simply are not familiar with the idea. Most people have a routine diet in food, drink, entertainment, daily activity and intellectual focus, and do not even recognize how often a "three" pattern re-occurs. Yet even if they did take a moment to consider the prevailency of "threes" in their life, it is within the narrow scope of their individual life such a circumstance would be examined. Such a consideration would not typically venture into physiology, psychology, mathematics, comparative religion, sociology, biology, physics, etc... during an extended "moment" of exploration. And then to mention that we are on the third planet from a source of solar irradiation, would strike no additional cord of further consideration.

Such people might be said to be unable to "think outside the box", which is a colloquial expression referring to some presumed mental rigidity-labeled status quo, commonality, common sense, political correctness, normal, etc. Similarly, within the script of an old movie entitled "Chato's Land" starring Charles Bronson, one of the characters tells another that he has "a box on his head", with respect to a certain sensibility being expressed; though the context and content are well removed from a threes discussion. However the character, in my view, got what was coming to him but the script writers took much too long in meting out his just due. Far too many scenes in motion pictures are prolonged. I have to fast-forward most movies to get through scenes that are like trying to listen for the growing of grass on a nearby hill... in other words, far too many scenes are dragged out... perhaps because the writers and directors fall asleep from the boredom of their own presumed "artistic" production.

Reading a list of "threes" is quite different from hearing someone speak about them. And I am not talking about someone who attempts to use various examples of threes as a tool to persuade you to purchase a product with cash, property or other-wise. There are many dubious uses of patterns-of-three aligned as a gimmick for commercialization of a product. However, though someone may use a pattern-of-three in a company logo, advertizement, etc., they may not actually be aware of how wide-spread "threes" really are, and only use such a pattern because it has become a standard model incorporated in the bag of tricks used by advertizing companies.

If you ever get a chance to listen to someone not only talk about patterns-of-three without reverting to a singular scenario as their primary objective (such as discussing one philosopher's particular perspective), but also invite you to participate in a discussion (or simply just listen in), take the time to do so. To the open-minded person, it is an eye opener that may well stir additional moments of reverberating after-thoughts. But don't be surprised if a "threes" researcher deliberately disagrees with your view. Even though they may personally agree with you, they may play the devil's advocate to try to evoke more considerations.

In establishing a philosophy of "threes," a framework for cataloguing various patterns-of-three or at the very least, some interpretation of "threeness" must be adopted. Typically, and I admit that I am one of those who have engaged in such a compilation, what we find is an encyclopedic array of three-patterned examples from a variety of subject areas. I am not at all attempting to be dismissive about such an activity. It is important since it can provide examples that might not otherwise be seen by those engaged in perspectives centralized towards a singular focus.

I owe a debt of gratitude to all those who came before me and are living today (as well as those who have passed from this world); that have engaged their personalized efforts in such an enterprise. Without their work my own would be countless miles behind where I am today... like a sailor on a raft amidst an ocean beneath a starless sky. Yet it must be said that present "threes" research efforts exercise what may be referred to as a hunter-gatherer approach in an attempt to satiate a gnawing hunger that could be described as an insatiable sweet-tooth.

If we continue with an anthropological narrative in attempting to make a description of threes research efforts and at the same time allocate a proposal that there will be successive developments, then the next stage might well be a pastoral or agricultural/farming one, unless we opt for some type of "punctuated" (unexpected/mutated) event. However, it may not be too advantageous to make a point by point correlation since our efforts at hunting and gathering "threes" via the internet or excursions to a library might well be interpreted to be more sedentary activities than someone actively searching for game in a forest, jungle, or meadow. Nonetheless, a correlative distinction should be made with respect to an accumulation of "food" that we taste and quickly spit out, chew on for a while but then set aside, or ravenously devour as a delicacy.

Though some may venture to consider that human consciousness arose by way of more and more sensory data being stored and overlayed into patterns that predisposed the human brain's functioning to forge a type of structure we might want to describe as a conceptual framework; we can not be certain that a mere compounded collection of "threes" from a variety of subject areas or perceptions would do the same on its own merits instead of being lumped into an already put-to-use type of kitchen "junk/stuff" drawer. In other words, instead of the development of a new intellectual framework for understanding the overall threes phenomena, inasmuch as perhaps redesigning old architectural drafts used traditionally; more and more threes examples would simply be lumped into being explained by an old perspective related to religion, standard philosophy, or currently used scientific paradigms.

Before entertaining a three-patterned philosophy of mind, like so many philosophers have done... whether or not they were/are aware of such a usage, I think it is necessary to establish a framework which examines a more fundamental approach to the conceptual development of mental activity via the development of biology, since basic biology precedes intellectual activity... unless one cares to suggest some of who (or what) we are as an individual is the result of reincarnated or spiritual predispositions predating one's biology. But I will leave such a consideration up to the individual reader's own flavor of metaphysics.

The following list of philosophical "threes" comes from this page:

Threes Poster, 5th column

St. Augustine's Philosophy: Memory ~ Understanding ~ Will
Comte's Philosophy: Great Being ~ Great Medium ~ Great Fetish
Hegel's 3 Spirits: Subjective Spirit ~ 0bjective Spirit ~ Absolute Spirit
Plotinu's Philosophy: One ~ One Many ~ One and Many
Aristotle's 3 Unities: Unity of Action ~ Unity of Time ~ Unity of Place
Sir F. Bacon's 3 Tables: Presence ~ Absence ~ Degree
Thomas Hobbes's 3 Fields: Physics ~ Moral Philosophy ~ Civil Philosophy
Immanuel Kant's 3 Critiques: Pure Reason ~ Practical Reason ~ Judgment
Averroes's 3 Commentaries: Little ~ Middle ~ Great
Karl Marx's 3 isms: Communism ~ Socialism ~ Capitalism
Woodrow Wilson's 3 isms: Colonialism ~ Racism ~ Anti-Communism
Hippocrates's Mind Disorders: Mania ~ Melancholia ~ Phrenitis
Emile Durkeim's 3 Suicides: Egoistic ~ Altruistic ~ Anomic
D. Liesman's 3 Social Characters: Tradition-directed ~ Inner-directed ~ Other-directed
Erich Fromm's 3 Symbols: The Conventional ~ The Accidental ~ The Universal
Pythagoras's "fusion" idea: Monarchy ~ Oligarchy ~ Democracy
(into harmonic whole)
M.L. King Jr.'s "Middle Road": Acquiescence ~ Nonviolence ~ Violence
Kierkegaard's 3 Stages: Aesthetic ~ Ethical ~ Religious
Husserl's 3 Reductions: Phenomenological ~ Eidetic ~ Religious
St. Augustine's 3 Laws: Divine Law
Natural Law
Temporal, or positive Law
Witness Stand "Laws": Tell the Truth
The whole Truth
Nothing but the Truth
Titus Carus's 3 Ages: Stone Age ~ Bronze Age ~ Iron Age
Feuerbach's 3 Thoughts: God, 1st Thought
Reason, 2nd Thought
Man, 3rd Thought
Magnus's 3 Universals: Ante Rem ~ In Rem ~ Post Rem
Max Weber's 3 Authorities: Traditional ~ Charismatic ~ Legal-rational
F.  de Sausure's 3 "Signs": Sign ~ Signified ~ Signifier
Charles Pierces 3 "Signs": Qualisign ~ Sinsign (token) ~ Legisign
John Keynes's 3 Eras: Scarcity ~ Abundance ~ Stabilization
George Mead's 3 Distinctions: Self ~ I ~ Me
Thrasher's 3-group Gangs: Inner Circle ~ Rank & File ~ Fringers
Jesus Christ's 3 Praises: In the name of the Father ~ Son ~ Holy Spirit
Samuel Clemmons' 3 lies:
(Mark Twain)
Lies ~ Damned Lies ~ Statistics
Abe Lincoln's 3-For-All Some: Of the People
By the People
For the People

H.O.B. note: Lincoln had removed the word "All" from a phrase he garnered from a preacher named Theodore Parker. Whether he did this intentionally or absent-mindedly, I don't know. However, there is a dramatic difference by adding it or omitting it; given the present circumstance that the people do not have the Referendum, in which they can vote on issues themselves and the result being made into law. Here is the phrase as cited in a wiki-pedia article on the Gettysburg address, though I had encountered Mr. Parker's phrase years ago before wiki-pedia came into being:

(Lincoln's Law Partner William Herndon): I brought with me additional sermons and lectures of Theodore Parker, who was warm in his commendation of Lincoln. One of these was a lecture on 'The Effect of Slavery on the American People' ... which I gave to Lincoln, who read and returned it. He liked especially the following expression, which he marked with a pencil, and which he in substance afterwards used in his Gettysburg Address:

'Democracy is direct self-government, over all the people, for all the people, by all the people."

Jean Chevalier & Alain Gheerbrant
A Dictionary of symbols ©1969
(page 997) ISBN 0-631-19265-4

Zoologists have noted many triads within the human body. It would seem as if every important function of an organism possesses this basic structure. Such observations illustrate the fundamental meaning of the triad as the living wholeness of types of relationship within a complex single structure. It is a mark simultaneously of a being's unique identity and of its internal multiplicity, of its relative stability and of the mobility of its components, of its immanent independence and of its dependence. The triad is as useful a channel of dialectic in the logical exercise of thought as of movement in physics and of living matter in biology. The basic rationale of this universal phenomenon of threes must no doubt be sought in a metaphysics of composite and contingent being and in a global view of the manifold oneness of being - appearance, development and destruction (or transformation); or birth, growth and death; or again, in Astrological tradition, increase, culmination and decrease.

3-part Logic

Thesis ~ Antithesis ~ Synthesis
Indulgence  ~ "Middle Way" ~ Ascetism
Major Premise  ~ Minor Premise ~ Conclusion
Contradiction ~  Excluded  Middle ~ Identity Principal
What is real
How change comes
What is mind
Marxian "Dialectology":
Unity of opposites
Quantity & quality
Negation of negation
How we know
What is truth
What is mind
Nature of good
Nature of beautiful
Nature of religious
Quality (1st-ness)
Relation (2nd-ness)
Representation (3rd-ness)

3-part syllogism expressed by some children:

Fuzzy Wuzzy was a bear
Fuzzy Wuzzy had no hair
Fuzzy Wuzzy wasn't Fuzzy was he?

While the above list of philosophical "threes" is a framework, of sorts, it is more in line with a "thrown together assemblage" of interpretations about different philosophers viewpoints, that they themselves may not have had. Many Philosophers, regardless of topic, may not have intentionally used a "pattern-of-three" and such a pattern is seen only by one or more readers thereof as part of an analytical interpretation. The distinction for such a usage may be due to someone else's interpretation. In fact, a particular person may repeatedly have used one or more "threes" and not been consciously aware of such a usage. In certain instances we might find a pattern-of-three being attributed to a person's ideas as developed by way of an interpretation made by someone else because they feel/think such would be helpful to others... yet they also may not be aware they are using a pattern-of-three, even though their usage is more explicit and innumerated. This is not bad nor wrong, but should be a threes example pointed out as a later development that is characteristically identified (and made use of) by someone else.


In a biological framework utilizing a three-patterned schema, an approach has to begin somewhere, with the proviso that it may have to be altered since analysis of an assumption may have to be accepted or refuted when new information comes to light. With this said, let us say that life begins with DNA, RNA and Proteins. With respect to current views held around the world, all three contain an identifiable "three" label, in the sense that DNA and RNA utilize a triplet coding (codon) system, and proteins have a Primary- Secondary- Tertiary structure, with collagen (the most important protein in mammals), having a Triple helix structure. However, upon identifying that collagen has a triple helix structure, let us also note that DNA and RNA are said to have double helix structures. Thus, our biological "threes" framework begins to branch (or perhaps I should say begins to "root") itself into more basic structural components. This is an important consideration since it directly relates to research involving which of these three "macromolecules" (DNA, RNA, Proteins), arose first on the pristine scene of biological development. Necessarily so, it also points out that "threes" can have a developmental line of ascent beginning with less than three. Hence, we are inclined to acknowledge a 1 - 2- 3 (overlapping) developmental sequence. Such an overlapping is easily recognized when we note that the so-called quaternary (four) structure in proteins is due to a compilation of the primary, secondary, and tertiary structures. Thus, we might more appropriately define this as a 3 (in)to 1 ratio.


The following information comes from:

Bio-physiological 3s page 2

One of the central questions of current molecular biology is which of the three fundamental biopolymers arose first?

  1. Was it RNA?

  2. Was it DNA?

  3. Was it Protein?

3 origin theories can be realized by consideration of the three biopolymers:

  1. RNA or DNA or Proteins came first. (single origin hypothesis)

  2. RNA or DNA and Proteins came first. (double origin hypothesis)

  3. RNA, DNA, and Proteins came first (simultaneously?). (triple origin hypothesis)

The dual and triple origin hypothesis suggest a simultaneous or somewhat of a simultaneous development that may have occurred in separate environments and somehow became mixed.

For additional related comments:

--- The RNA World by Brig Klyce ---

What came first?

If we look at the number of strands of each of these, we find RNA is predominantly single stranded, DNA is predominantly double stranded, and Proteins may have a primary ~ secondary ~ tertiary structure, with a composite called the quaternary. Clearly, each of these has a "1" and a "2" in that we can find some RNA with a double strand and some DNA with a single strand. If the numerical quantity of strands is indicative of placement of arrival on the biological scene, then one might want to conclude that they may have all arrived, in some form, simultaneously.

At this point, a few readers may thus form an excursion into the realm of physics since these three macromolecules could not be possible without the three basic components of atoms, namely electrons - neutrons - protons. While such an excursion will eventually have to be addressed, let us leave it for another time and continue to proceed from a biological perspective. For some, the logical step is to include the three domains of life, namely, Archaea - Bacteria - Eucaryota (an idea designed by Carl Woese in 1977) which has, in some perspectives, superseded the old five kingdom system developed by Robert Whittaker in 1969, though the five kingdoms were based on 3 levels of organization. {Additionally, it should be noted, that there was an earlier two-kingdom system developed by Carl Linnaeus in 1735... thus providing us with a 2 to 3 maturational development example occurring in human thinking. An earlier "one" kingdom system may have been used by someone, but it is not historically indicated with any certainty.}

Today, some prefer to use a six Kingdom array: Plants, Animals, Protists, Fungi, Archaebacteria, Eubacteria. Others may want to take more of a general approach, for the point of mere inclusion in our list of threes, that life can be characterized as being either sea, land or air dominant, though overlappings can occur. Others may think that the natural course is to include the invertebrate animals (those without a backbone), since they came before we humans and must be included in the development of a biologically based "threes" framework. This framework should include the acknowledgment of Viruses to the three domains of life portrayal, thus providing us with another 3 to 1 ratio... a pattern that has relevance in later discussions in our attempts to identify that which may have set biology on a course of "threeness" and gives an indication of where the "3" is headed.


The following information comes from:

Threes Poster, 2nd column

*** The Arthropods are the largest phylum of invertebrate animals with jointed legs, a segmented body and an exoskeleton, including insects, crustaceans, arachnids and myriapods.

  1. In 1866 Ernst Haeckel proposed a Monophyletic theory of Arthropoda evolution.

  2. In 1894 Moseley proposed a theory of Arthropoda evolution.

  3. Tiegs and Manton (1958), Anderson (1973), and Manton (1973, 1977) have presented strong arguments in favor of a Polyphyletic theory of Arthropoda evolution.

This third theory is based on evidence derived largely from comparative embryology and functional morphology which heavily supports dividing the Arthropods into three natural groups, each with the rank of phylum. The term "arthropods" thus becomes an indication of a particular grade of advancement and no longer has taxonomic status. The 3 phyla of this theory are the Chelicerata, Crustacea and the Uniramia. This theory requires the acceptance of the idea that an extensive evolutionary convergence has taken place. (In other words, a "fusion" has/is taking place.)

Tiegs and Manton, to the idea of an original three-segmented head (seen in modern Onychophora), have added progressively, Mandibular, First Maxillary, and Second Maxillary (labial) segments, giving rise to the "Monognathous", "Dignathous", and "Trignathous" conditions, respectively. There has been found no trace of the Monognathous condition. The Dignathous condition is found in the Pauropoda and Diplopoda and Trignathous condition is seen in the Chiopoda (in which the second maxillae remain leglike) and the Symphyla and Hexapoda (in which the second maxillae fuse to form the labium).

The following is a diagram indicating the main features of adult limb structures in arthropods:

  1. biramous

  2. uniramous

  3. primitively biramous

...with the exite/outer ramus more proximally placed than in crustaceans.

arthro (8K)  
epi = epipodite; endo = endopodite; exo = exopodite; b = basipodite; c = coxopodite

As can be clearly seen in the simplified illustration, the Uniramia have (1) podite, the Chelicerata have (2) podites and the Crustacea have (3): Epipodite - Endopodite - Exopodite, in spite of the fact that the Crustacea are labeled biramous.


*** The Oligoneoptera (bees, wasps, ants, beetles, lice, flies, fleas, etc.) are characterized by the presence of a pupal stage between the juvenile and adult phases of development. Several theories (and attendant stage labels) have been proposed to account for the development of the pupal stage within the 3 distinct stage system. The differing theories, except for H.E. Hinton's (1963) which has attracted attention said to be due to its simplicity, revolve around arguments generally Centered on (1) "Suppression of the larval stage" (2) "Compression of the nymphal stage" and (3) "Expansion of the imaginal stage".


Again and again and again I am confronted by people who confuse a study in the "Threes Phenomena" with an interest in numbers, particularly the number 3 without distinguishing it as a symbol, quantity, or progressively developed concept representing an approximation of cognitive structure that may or may not be further distinguished from a "three" (quantity) value expressed by other life forms which appear to have some semblance of counting ability.

Let me set the record straight by saying there are separate issues involving the "threes phenomena", according to the way I am interpreting the information I have collected and sorted. This is not just another form of semantic distraction such as we find in the naming of objects involving the usage of long or short vowel sounds in pronunciation: for example,

  • Tomato: (to (mA) to/— to ma toe...
  • Potato: po (tA) to/— po ta to)...

where the same word is pronounced with either a long ("A") or short ("a") sound.

Hence, the "Study of Threes" is not an exclusive study of the number 3 as a numerical quantity; though such a study would be inclusive as yet another Threes Phenomena example such as in the development of the "3" as a symbol that has evolved from forms expressed by different cultures and the development of the "3" as representing a quantitative value alongside other values placed into a number sequence/series or individually.

A repetitive usage of the "three" may be little more than a reference to a planetary influenced environmentally designed biological predisposition. In other words, the Earth's third position from a source of solar energy coupled with an enlarging Sun and a slowing Earth's rotation over billions of years may have induced the development of a triple genetic coding system; which has influenced so many biological/anatomical "threes" which have played a part in so many ideas with a "three" pattern. However, it's not that we can't find exceptions to the "threes formula" such as the seven dwarfs of Snow White, which may well suggest the era in which the idea was initially formulated, it's that many exceptions are a part of a larger threes-based theory of developmental usage. While an other-than-three example may at first glance appear to refute a falsely presumed threes-based universality claim; it's that the "three" remains a recurring rule-of-thumb, however intellectually primitive one might care to define a reference concerning the "three."

As a Threesologist I work with several questions such as:

  • How wide-spread is the "Threes-Phenomena"?

  • Will re-defining "The Threes-Phenomena" assist in greater understanding and teaching?

  • Is the Phenomena increasing or is the increase simply due to increased reporting?

  • Are other similar number/symbol-identified phenomena increasing or decreasing?

  • What is the origin of the Threes phenomena?

  • Do Indo-Europeans use more "threes" than Asian or African Cultures?

  • Is there an increase in "threes" in Asian and African cultures after contact with Indo-Europeans? (And more so if a country "occupies" a country with a military base such as the U.S. in Germany, Japan and South Korea? What about occupations by France and England?)

  • Is there any culture, sub-culture or group using more "threes" than another or others?

  • Do the infants of Asian and African cultures express the same 1- 2- 3 babbling and language sequences but for one reason or another the adults suppress a further developmental usage thereof?

  • Are the "three" fusing into a singularity just as the three "moments" (dawn - noon - dusk) are fusing as the Sun expands and the Earth's rotation slows?

  • Will infants (or insects, or some other biological form) be the first to "express" tell-tale signs of planetary influenced biological effects (yet we don't know how to interpret the "information" posed to us in an unfamiliar language)?

  • Are three-into-one "fusion" effects already being expressed in other, more simpler life forms, if not humans? (genetically, physically, socially, culturally, etc...)

  • ETC.

See additional 3 -to- 1 examples here: --- 3 -to- 1 ratios page a ---

A study in the "Threes Phenomena" as a distinction from a study involving a quantitative (numerical) value labeled "Three", needs to be a part of a researcher's tool box of considerations. There are a variety of comparisons one might make.

  1. For example, in the realm of theology, while the three topics of God, Religion and Morality are intertwined inseparately by what many readers might cite as the "common intellect", more intensified scrutiny of these three topics realizes they are issues which are commonly divisioned by most people and given a contextual (time, place, situational) proportion; and should be, at times, considered individually, but the used proportionality is approximated into a singular concept whole. Thus stated, God is not religion nor morality. Religion is not God nor morality. And morality is not Got nor religion. While some readers might occasion to present the notion that the inverse principals of each need not be stated, they should be in order to start from a simplification for those readers who are unfamiliar with such extensions of intellectual consideration.

    By combining the Three of Religion, God and Morality, the disguised Triunity is interpreted to be a natural-state rationality. It is a presumption which causes enormous grief and suffering throughout the world because of the wide-spread mis- interpretations, mis-representations and mis-understanding. It is difficult for many readers to even consider whether or not the topics of Religion, God and Morality are irrational concepts. Unfortunately, many readers might take offense and react emotionally in a knee-jerk fashion by citing some example they might be concerned with. It is difficult for them to have a philosophical discussion which is detached from their emotions. They confuse philosophical discussion with what someone actually believes. For them, what a person says is what they believe or otherwise, they are liars or manipulators who say one thing but do or believe another.

  1. A second example is the usage of a more familiar entity which is more advantageous for the initialized Threes Phenomena discussion at hand. This "Threes" entity is the Triune government structure known as the Executive, Legislative and Judicial branches. While most people typically don't emphasize a "Three" pattern nor use labels such as Trinity, Triune nor some made-up colloquialism such as as Triplexity, it none-the-less has THREE overall categorized parts called three branches. While these parts have numerous sub-categories variously described as departments, committees, offices, etc., they are all supposed to function cohesively, though retaining independent characteristics... despite the realities encountered when dealing with human interactions and contradicting entanglements that many of us are all too familiar with when appraising the society of humanity from an Anthropological, Sociological, or Historical perspective.

  1. As a third example, many of us would remark there are three basic sub-atomic particles to atoms (Electrons - Neutrons - Protons), but we would rarely refer to them as a Trinity, Triplexity or Triune structure. In this instance, the point to be made is that our research efforts may be so intensified towards apprehending examples of Threes which reference a specific label, that we overlook those examples which may list individual groupings of threes yet not make any overt usage of a "Three" label.

As researchers interested in the "Threes Phenomena" we can focus strictly on the quantitative aspects, and/or individual parts and how they inter-twine, if they do or not and how frequent or infrequent. An example of this can be found in the research of those following in the footsteps of Georges Dumezil with his Trifunctional analysis of Indo-Europeans. While some might prefer to interpret the "Trifunctionality" as an indication of a superior socio-religious design, others wonder why every culture did not adopt such a "strategy". Are the reasons biological, physiological, intellectual or otherwise? Are such peoples different types of hominids? Many different types of questions might be posed.

However, we must also be willing to identify non-"three" specific patterns for quantitative and qualitative comparison. Such comparisons may be part of a larger pattern whether or not the "three" might be viewed as the hub of a larger (more complex or simplified) wheel... even though such an analogy may be wholly inappropriate and misleading, thus being relegated to what may be considered a "primitive" thought. It is an activity all of us, as human animals in our overall global animal society engage in as a necessity of survival while living amongst so very many whose day to day existence is not that far removed from earlier hominid and primitive forms of cognition, not to mention the Schizophrenic-like Bicameralism suggested by Julian Jaynes in his book "The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind", though according to a Wikipedia citation about --- Bicameralism ---, the psychiatrist Iain McGilchrist, in his book The Master and His Emissary (ISBN 0300168925, paperback) , says that Jayne's hypothesis was "the precise inverse of what happened" and that rather than a shift from bicameralism there evolved a separation of the hemispheres.

--- I Hear Voices, page A

An example of such an aforementioned 'primivity of thought' is an attempt to align research into the Threes phenomena with the number 3 and some religious-based trinity, triad, Trimurti, or tri-godhead/person-hood. (Similarly, such as the over-valued Me - Myself - I trinitarian "personhood" used by American corporations to exploit U.S. Citizens to follow like lambs being led to an economic slaughter.) All religious-based patterns-of-three are not THE explanation for the existence of the Threes Phenomena, but are themselves little more than examples thereof. Religious-minded people can be extremely ego-centric because they are not exempt from the foibles of human characteristics, though many presume some infallibility clothed with that which they define as humility... and persuade others to believe likewise.

Like the centuries old ideas that the Sun revolved around the Earth or one's kingdom should be placed in the Center of a small-minded map because a particular king and their domain were felt to be central to all other things; the religious-minded frequently promote the idea that the concept of the Trinity (or a lack of a belief in such), is of a prime defining importance above and beyond all else. Yet, the concept of the "Trinity" is itself a "threes" example based simply on the perspective that it is a newly developed concept that is but a few centuries old. Ancient Egyptians (and others) did not have a Cuneiform character representing the "Trinity" concept with respect to their own religion(s), much less did they adhere to any specifically defined Christ-en doctrine though later-born religious perspectives superimpose their views on the past, pre-christian defined eras.

And, similarly, how often have you read about a "Trinity" presence being practiced by the Mesopotamians (approx. 5000 BC), Summerians (approx. 3000 BC), or some other civilization lumped into a "Babylonian" catch-all research box (that frequently resembles a child's sandbox)? Whereas you may well encounter a writer of near history describing three gods as being of prime importance and thus these three constitute a Trinity, the ancient peoples themselves did not have a formal nor informal "Trinity" concept... though they may have had one and took it completely for granted... even to the extent of not describing it for later historians. Generally speaking, the label "Trinity" is the result of compartmentalizing three individual items into a single representation. It signifies a change that has taken place in the human brain. Religions are little more than practiced survival mechanisms that wax and wane as human cognition changes due to brain growth and deterioration based on both external and internal pressures.

However, it should be noted, for those readers not voicing objections at this point, that the notion of a "three" concept was becoming more manifest by some (but not all) ancient groups of people. Take for example the ancient Greeks and Romans. Time and again we encounter notions about three fates, three furies, three gorgons, etc... Yet, the usage of the words "three, triad, trinity, etc." must be distinguished with respect to who, when and where so that an ancient and modern usage can be noted. In this regard, a modern usage of the word "Trinity", "Triad", or "Three" may not have been used in the same context or same way as those in the past. For example, it appears the Old Testament characters collectively used less threes than the predominant New Testament character who is, namely, Jesus. The life of Jesus, as described in the New Testament, is replete with patterns-of-three:

--- Threes in the Life of Jesus ---

7swastika (1K)

The New Testament (hence, its writers), were born later in time than the Old Testament writers. In other words, the human brain had changed (in a particular way) as indicated by the increased usage of "threes", whether or not the user is/was aware of such; in contrast to a lesser usage of an earlier period (which may have involved a greater usage of some other "parallelable") identifier such as the number seven, forty, thousand, etc... The number seven (7) for example, in quantity and shape still resembles the once highly influential grouping of stars called the Big Dipper. It is this star grouping, when viewed during the two equinoxes and two solstices, which influenced the origin of the Swastika symbol.

No doubt ancient peoples may have thought they discovered some secret truth of Heaven and/or God when the individualized psychic content of different seasons was amalgamated (combined) into a geometric pictograph. All the Nazis did was to portray a mirror-image of the once viewed good symbol of Universal Brother/Sisterhood to make it represent their claims of Nationalistic superiority.

The Big Dipper (1K)

However, it was a superiority in the fact that it took the efforts of many nations to subdue it... along with its own missteps wrought by overzealous confidence brought on by the easy subjugation of an unprepared and disbelieving world population. It is a population that might well be that which triggers a World War III despite all the precautions taken by the combined military bravado of every militantly oriented group and individual; thanks to all the training provided by watching action movies and kids playing violent video games. The world may surely reap what it is presenting sowing. The so-called free enterprise system may lead to a free-for-all World War III conflict. Not only will it be nation against nation, but the biblical tenet of son against father, daughter against mother, etc., may well come to pass. There might well ensue a madness in which civic leaders (business, education, medicine, religion, government) become the object of concerted individualized attacks as expressions of the anger that is not being vicariously vented in participant or spectator sports, or other common channels of "aggression letting" (blood letting) such as domestic quarrels.

While a pattern-of-three is expressive of a particular quantity, the "three" in word or displayed in a numerical symbol/etching is not meant to be a definitive representation nor explanation; only a commonly recognized means of identifying and communicating a kind/form of structure that several people have recognized and begun to communicate about their similar observations of such. While mathematics uses numbers in its simplest forms of expression, it also uses non-number identifiers related to statements (.), queries (?), and ideas (!)... and the personalities of different mathematicians use the symbols according to their intellectual predispositions of practicality, philosophy or artistic pretensions. (Some mathematicians are quite artistically inclined.)

Unfortunately, as is so often the case in many human practiced activities that creates a history of mimicry and repetition to a state of habituation, our uses of mathematics places human imagination into a type of standardization like the three restrictive moves employed in the games of checkers and chess (Diagonal - Horizontal - Vertical). To think other than the conventional frequently causes alarm by those who expect and demand a strict observance to accepted game playing, whatever the game, and however it is defined. Whether an inherent pattern-of-three is recognized or not, it becomes a trinity by which all Standard Operating Modalities (Procedures) are measured. It limits interpretations, uses and explorations into other realms of consideration that may be of beneficial application. Hence, for example, "threes" organized ideas found in religion, physics, mathematics, biology, etc., become standardized acceptances that can become mental boxes that many become entrapped in.

In other words, the current form of mathematics is not the only form of mathematics available to human cognitive processes... it is but the current form most commonly recognized, taught, and used. Quite probably some of its diehard adherents might profess there is no need for nor possibility of creating anything else... that our present human mathematics, though perhaps in a primitive state, will ultimately provide us with the knowledge we seek. They feel that there is no genuinely original form of mathematics to be devised since that which we have is the stepping stone for all that will follow. They don't believe that a new species of mathematics is possible because they are unable to fathom mathematics as a fluid organism with a viability towards change that some might refer to as adaptation.

Instead of using the symbol (3) or word (three), we could intentionally attempt to conceal these references and focus on some relativistic quality such as some presumed internal functionality (like the three "functions" found in Dumezilian tripartite ideology: Priestly, Warrior, Artisan). Others already do this in their research, thereby obscuring (sometimes unconsciously, sometimes intentionally) their interest in a 3/three-based formula; whereby observers will not be inclined to reduce their genuinely sincere and serious research efforts to an elaborate interest in some form of numerology akin to some huckster's flim-flam marketing ploy to weasel some unsuspecting person into surrendering their last dollar, virtue, or self regard for personal survival. In short, a study in the threes phenomena is not a centralized study about the number three in general or specifically.

Current mathematics, such as the number three (3) being an integer in a series of progressively smaller and larger numbers, is just a form of expression that evolved (along an elementary route) as our human cognitive processes have evolved. Like the myriad branchings of our hominid ancestry, current mathematics is but a branch that may well be supplanted by another species of cognitive expression and inquiry. With respect to Threes Research, it is not specifically about the number 3, though the number as a quantity is related as a tool of identification. In some respects, our collections of "threes" examples are merely rudimentary notches, knots, or triangular (wedge) notations on a modern day clay tablet called the computer.

Interestingly, in the history of number development, there is a recurring reference to three number words being used (in a given culture's own language equivalent way):

  1. The word "One" for the quantity 1.

  2. The word "Two" for the quantity 2.

  3. The word "Many" for any quantity representing 3 or more.

Each of these are mile markers, so to speak, of cognitive limits that were reached before the human mind transitioned into a greater cognitive appreciation. In this same sense, the form of our current mathematics is a similar cognitive limit. From this perspective, it is little more than a primitive's sea shell -for- stone bauble bartering system of exchange. However, most researchers don't recognize this "three" development with other "three" developments occurring in other subject areas. Those researchers that do recognize the similarity of a basic "three" formula are not only acknowledging it as a possible fundamental structure in the development of human cognitive processing, but are asking why? How did this come about? Is that which influenced this pattern an environmentally influenced biological one?

Many of you coming to this site have no idea what a "Threesologist, Triadologist, Treblest, etc.," or a study in "Threes Phenomena" refers to. I have thus moved the previous Home page material to the "Home B" section because my enthusiasm for the subject frequently causes me to dive into it instead of taking a gradual approach; which is needed and necessary for the beginner.

A beginner would survey my living quarters and expect to see numerous patterns-of-threes examples as is sometimes shown in portrayed renditions of what some think Leonardo da Vinci's workshop would have been like with respect to his various artistic, engineering, architectural and scientific explorations. Yet a semi-enthusiast would recognize the space as being much too small and my received patronage quite unlike that which enabled Leonardo to exercise his talents on a project in the Sistine Chapel. The committed researcher, on the other hand, would realize the examples have been fused into a single source... namely me and the auxiliary memory device called a computer, along with its multi-tentacled partner called the internet.

Page updated: Sunday, April 13, 2014 4:18:12 AM
Page update posted: April 15, 2014

Your Questions, Comments or Additional Information are welcomed:
Herb O. Buckland