Threesology Research Journal
The Triplet Code

~ The Study of Threes ~
http://threesology.org



Like several home pages before, let me begin by offering a few links:



Here are three links for Dr. Dundez's article "The Number Three in the American Culture" which appeared in an old 1967-1968 book entitled "Every Man His Way" (which is a collection of different Cultural Anthropology readings):

And let me acknowledge the greatly valued assistance of Simon Kelsey whose own research and exploration efforts into the Threes Phenomena has offered invaluable insights and provided numerous links from which were derived ideas that have led to a greater understanding. I am indebted to him.


Note: there are many models of a "triplet code" in that patterns-of-three occur in many different subject areas. But like so many patterns, they are not collated into a collection which then approximates some theoretical consideration involving the different formulas thereof (numerical, word, geometric, etc...), which can be differentially perceived by our different sense "organs", including those which may occur to only a few in stark or subtle ways, such as the concept "subtle energies". Sometimes the "triple" profile is pretty straight forward and at other times it requires a bit of expansion beyond the conventions of typical pattern association... such as using a 'comparative subject' approach and then relating the whole to some centralized processing such as human cognition which has its many different influences... but nonetheless tend to create an atmosphere of limitation... of conservation in our usage.

In this page let us turn our focus to the "Triplet Code" now widely recognized as being a constituent part of both DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and RNA (ribonucleic acid). While they are both ribonucleic acids, DNA has one oxygen molecule less that may or may not refer to the oxygen level of the Earth's early environment so many billions of years ago when DNA was being developed— the idea of an "RNA world first" notwithstanding. With respect to the development of oxygen and its later increase on Earth, those who indulge in having an aquarium become familiar with those plant species particularly useful in oxygen production, and those animal species which thrive in such enclosed (protective/isolated) environments (... i.e. "timeless niches"):

Plants and animals used for aquariums

Nonetheless, when someone asks a biologist or geneticist to explain why their exists a triplet code instead of some other number value, a typical response is to say:

Link to movie about triplet code

Once the DNA double helix had been discovered, the next big challenge was to work out how the four letters of DNA could code for each of the twenty amino acids that make protein. The first question was how many DNA letters coded for each amino acid? If it was one DNA letter for one amino acid then you could only code for a maximum of four amino acids. Two letters in every possible combination could code for up to sixteen amino acids. Still, not enough. But three DNA letters provide more than enough combinations to code for all twenty amino acids. So three was the answer. It was a triplet code.

Triplet Code

While for some readers the above is a definitive answer, from a threesological point of view... I like to flip this idea around and say that the number of amino acids is the result of a triplet scaffolding that came to be erected and the development of amino acids were forced to accommodate this structure. Hence, the present reasoning in genetics and biology is simply backwards, just like the once held "official" idea that the Sun revolved around the Earth. However, this metaphor appears to agree with the old notion in that if we label the Earth with the 'triplet' designation due to its third position, while the Sun and the other planets being viewed as the amino acids... then we do in fact have them revolving around the Earth since they are beholden to the triple form of scaffolding which determined the limitation of overall amino acids, not to mention the fewer list of those necessary for our bodies since they can not be manufactured internally. However, in casting the "Triplet code" into the lime-light of the present discussion, let us not forget to mention that amino acids are paired on a metaphorized rung-like ladder.. except in the case of a single strand where the metaphor doesn't work too well.



While on the subject of pairing let us mention the notion of "wobbling" which generally refers to a non-standard (i.e. third) amino acid that may be used instead of the more common pairing. Here are some references:

Wobble in the Genetic Code

According to the genetic code, the cell would need tRNAs with 61 different anticodons to complement the available 61 codons. However, due to the degeneracy of the genetic code, the third base is less discriminatory for the amino acid than the other two bases. This third position in the codon is referred to as the wobble position. At this position Us and Cs may be read by a G in the anticodon. Similarly, As and Gs may be read by a U or y (pseudouridine) in the anticodon.

The tRNAs also contain a series of unusual modified nucleotides. One of these nucleotides is inosine (I). If the tRNA contains an I in the anticodon at the wobble position, this tRNA may read codons having As, Us or Cs in the third position.

Transfer RNA wobble
Nucleotide
at 5' end of
anticodon
Nucleotide
at 3' end of
anticodon
G > U or C
C > G
A > U
U > A or G
I (indosine) > A, U or C
Amino acid codon counts
Nobel Prize.org

Generally speaking, amino acids can be grouped into several different two or four-patterned ways that we can describe either as representative models of limitation or conservation related to environmental influences that appear to be undergoing an incremental deterioration due to planetary events humanity can't do anything about. In other words, though some readers may focus primarily on the "three" denoted by a triplet code, a threesological point of view is inclined to see where "accessory" (non-three) patterns occur in relation to the "three", in order to discern whether or not they are part of yet another pattern-of-three such as a "2-3-4" sequence that may alternatively be recognized as a 3-to-1 ratio if another number (1 or 5 or non-numerically sequential) is sighted.

When speaking of limitation or conservation, the idea of genetic code "degeneracy" may come to mind. It can be defined for example as:

  • A code in which several code words have the same meaning. The genetic code is degenerate because there are many instances in which different codons specify the same amino acid. A genetic code in which some amino acids may each be encoded by more than one codon. Degenerate code definition
  • Degeneracy of codons is the redundancy of the genetic code, exhibited as the multiplicity of three-base pair codon combinations that specify an amino acid. The degeneracy of the genetic code is what accounts for the existence of synonymous mutations. Codon Degeneracy
  • In the context of making and analyzing codes, the term “degeneracy” refers to having excess codes that produce the same message. A non-degenerate code, like Morse code, is one for one: each code is unique, producing one and only one output. The genetic code, by contrast, is many-to-one in some cases. For instance, six different codons can produce the amino acid leucine. This would be like having six combinations of dots and dashes to produce the letter A in a "degenerate" version of Morse code. Other amino acids can be coded by 4, 3 or 2 codons, while two (methionine and tryptophan) each have only one unique code. Evolution News and Science Today

Instead of "degeneracy" one might conjure another word such as for example "unstable". Much like we find three general classes of atomic particles as stable- unstable- highly unstable, one might also do this for amino acids. In any respect, the instability coupled to a circumstance of limitation says something about the environmental conditions all of biology is being subjected to. The "degeneracy" is like taking advantage of possible alternatives, like someone cast into a desperate situation having to become a generalist at times, instead of relying on a specificity of ability or resources. Whereas the genetic code at present is fairly stable, this may not be the case as we venture forward in time towards more unstable conditions such as over-population, severe weather conditions, political turmoil, etc... not to mention the burning out of the Sun, slowing rotation of the Earth, and receding of the Moon.


While some readers may find it useful to use the presence of an other-than-three occurrence to refute the notion of a "threes" occurrence as some sort of undistinguished rule-of-thumb which keeps cropping up, it is necessary for us to consider that the recurrence of ALL the number references which can be compiled are a model representing a consideration we are overlooking as an environmentally influenced specificity that is subject to change... and is presently changing on subtle levels... due to ongoing incremental environmental deteriorations that life is forced to adapt to, and we use "rationalized adjustments" in our belief systems as a means to shrug off the obvious... the obvious once it is recognized.

Hence, a 2, 3, 4 formula of modeling for the same information is linked to perception... a perception that is governed by an environmentally enforced conservation of enumeration... or whatever labels of symbolism we use. Whereas we humans can develop different enumerated models according to our preferenced perceptions of a given subject's information, all the models put together represent a limitation... a conservation whose cause needs to be looked more closely at. If it is environmental, and the environment is incrementally deteriorating, we need to identify the factors related to the type and degree of deterioration taking place and not simply shrug it off and claim that it will occur (as if due to a regulated slow pace) over a long period of time we need not be worried about or even research. This attitude is a "much, more, many" type of linguistic form of primitive counting like looking at the stars and saying their are billions of them, but then have no interest in studying them except to create romanticized references to such in poems, art, music, etc...

Here are a few two-patterned references noted when reading about amino acids while involved with chemistry:

  • positive/negative charges
  • acid/base
  • polar/non-polar
  • amino/carboxyl R-groups
  • Neutral/polar
  • Neutral/non-polar
  • L (Levorotary- rotating left... counter-clockwise)/ D (Dextrorotary- rotating right... clockwise] All naturally occurring amino acids exist as L-amino acids.)
  • Enantiomer: Either one of a pair of compounds (crystals or molecules) that are mirror images on each other but are not identical: Wordweb dictionary.

Another problem... that is, non-"3" specific pattern showing itself during a "threes" research exploration, is that the standard "Triplet Code" reference of DNA and RNA actually reflects the presence of 3-to-1 ratios, in that each of them has Adenosine, Cytosine, Guanine, and their discriminators respectfully called Thymine (for DNA) and Uracil (for RNA):

~ Item ~ ~ Three the same ~ ~ One is different ~
DNA = Adenosine- Cytosine- Guanine Thymine
RNA = Uracil

Source: Let's Talk Peace page 2

Having three that repeat is like having a mathematically definable set. An example of this is the standard usage of (ones-tens-hundreds) followed by a comma in order to distinguish the beginning of yet another set noted as (thousands-ten thousands-hundred thousands). It is a set-of-three followed by a comma (as a point of demarcation) used to designate the beginning of a potential new set-of-three, even if only the first place in thousands is used.

Set of three numbers follwed by a comma

Three additional number patterns you may or may not have included in your "threes" list:

  • Three are different: 1st, 2nd, 3rd... the rest are the same: 4th, 5th, 6th... (th-ending)
  • 24/7/365 (24 hours a day, 7 days a week, 365 days in a year): The numbers 1-8-9 are missing.
  • "Once" (Oice?)- Twice (Twonce?)- Thrice (Thronce?)... (after these three 'rhyming' similarites, there is the "s" in sixth-seventh, an absence in 8, 9, 10, ll, 12) followed by the "teens" and then the repetitions according to the segmented values of "twenty...1, 2, 3, etc...", thirty..., forty, etc., though "thirty and forty" exhibit a similarity of sound.

In looking at number "sounds", we have to research not only language and the physiological mechanics of its verbal production, but also the underlying mechanisms involved in the auditory processes, because hearing is a vital component as noted when a deaf person attempts to articulate.

Language development may be directly related to how we hear:

3-Patterned Ear Structure


Parts of the human ear (19K)
3 overall divisions: Outer ear~ Inner ear~ Middle ear
3 middle ear divisions: Tympanum~ Epitympanum~ Mastoid antrum
3 eardrum membranes: Cutaneum~ Collagen fibers~ Mucosm
3 semi-circular canals: Used for balance (equilibrium)
3 bones: (ossicular chain) Incus~ Stapes~ Malleus
3 main malleus ligaments: Anterior~ Lateral~ Superior
3 incus anchorage points: Malleus~ Stapes~ Bony fossa wall
3 cochlea sections: (Scala) Vestibuli~ Tympani~ Cochlear duct
3 extrinsic muscles (Auricularis): Anterior~ Superior~ Posterior
3 sound conduction paths: Electrical~ Mechanical~ Fluid
or: Bone (solid)~ Air (gas)~ Fluid (liquid)
3 nerve stimulation paths: Mechanical~ Chemical~ Electrical
3 outer hair cell rows
typical in mammals
but some sources give 3, 4, or 5
Neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) is synthesized by inner and outer hair cells of the developing organ of Corti. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is also synthesized. (Prestin is the motor protein of the outer hair cells.)
3 sound qualities: Pitch~ Volume (intensity)~ Tone
3 sound wave propagation processes: Diffraction~ Transmission~ Reflection
3 main forms of ossicular chain fixation: Fluid~ Mechanical~ Otosclerosis
3 classes of ossicular lever action: Force arm~ Resistance arm~ Fulcrum
3 acoustic distortion forms: Frequency~ Phase~ Amplitude
3 basic properties of vibrating bodies: Inertia~ Elasticity~ Dissipation
3 principal types of deafness: Conduction~ Nerve~Stimulation
3 types of hearing loss: Conductive~ Sensorineural~ Mixed
3 (inner ear) organs of balance: Semicircular canals~ Utricle~ Saccule
(collectively called the vestibular organ, which can be referred to as a {3-in-1} ratio.)

Let's Talk Seriously About Peace page 2
Language 3's page 1

By taking a visual tour of number-related sounds and compile a list as Stephen Chrisomalis has done on his The Phrontistery: Numerical Prefixes page, we see a limitation in our human cognitive stream of identification by using repetition, just as there is in infant babbling as described on the Language 3's page 1. In addition, we should note the usage of word references for 7, 8, 9, 10 that would have a parallel account in today's usage of the months except that Septem-ber and the rest are two months off in count (though in an older ten-month calendar amongst the Romans made them correct). (In other words, September is the seventh month in the old calendar and not the ninth as we of today practice time and date keeping.)

Table 1: Latin-Prefixed Numerical Words
Numeral Prefix Base Relation Music Multiple Yearly Sides Exponent
1 unus uni N/A unary (solo) (single) (annual) unilateral (million)
2 duo bi/duo binal binary duet duple/double biennial bilateral billion
3 tres, tria tri trial, tertial trinary, ternary trio triple/treble triennial trilateral trillion
4 quattuor quadri/quart quartal quaternary quartet quadruple quadriennial quadrilateral quadrillion
5 quinque quinque/quint quintal quinary,
quinquenary
quintet quintuple quinquennial quinquelateral quintillion
6 sex sex(t), se sextal senary/sexenary sextet sextuple sexennial *sexilateral sextillion
7 septem sept septimal septenary septet septuple septennial septilateral septillion
8 octo oct octal, octaval octonary octet octuple octennial octilateral octillion
9 novem nonus/novem nonal nonary nonet nonuple,
noncuple
novennial *nonilateral nonillion
10 decem dec(a), de decimal denary dectet decuple decennial *decilateral decillion
11 undecim undec, unde undecimal undenary *undectet *undecuple undecennial *undecilateral undecillion
12 duodecim duodec, duode duodecimal duodenary *duodectet duodecuple duodecennial *duodecilateral duodecillion

So far, so good. We can see that there are a few exceptions to the general rule, particularly for the numbers 1 and 2, and in some cases such as "quinary / quinquenary" where multiple forms exist. Since I'm not being hardline about "proper" forms, I'm including all the forms normally used, even when they don't strictly follow the rules. Up to 12, the Latin prefixes hold up pretty well; most of the forms exist; only "sexilateral", of all the hypotheticals, is less than nine. My theory is that it sounds too lewd to have been adopted as the term for something with six sides. Well enough, then.

Table 2: Greek-Prefixed Numerical Words
Numeral Prefix Polygon Polyhedron Angle Ruler Meter Group Event
1 en mono N/A N/A N/A monarch N/A monad N/A
2 dyo/duo/di di/dy N/A N/A N/A diarch, dyarch dimeter dyad biathlon
3 treis, tria tri triangle N/A triangle triarch trimeter triad triathlon
4 tessera tetra tetragon tetrahedron quadrangle tetrarch tetrameter tetrad tetrathlon
5 pente penta pentagon pentahedron pentangle pentarch pentameter pentad pentathlon
6 hexa hex hexagon hexahedron hexangle hexarch hexameter hexad *hexathlon
7 hepta hept heptagon heptahedron heptangle heptarch heptameter heptad heptathlon
8 okto oct octagon octohedron octangle octarch octameter octad *octathlon
9 ennea ennea enneagon,
nonagon
enneahedron *enneangle *ennearch *enneameter ennead *enneathlon
10 deka dec(a) decagon decahedron decangle decarch decameter decad(e) decathlon
11 hendeka hendec(a) hendecagon,
undecagon
hendecahedron *hendecangle hendecarch *hendecameter *hendecad *hendecathlon
12 dodeka dodec(a) dodecagon dodecahedron *dodecangle dodecarch *dodecameter dodecad(e) *dodecathlon

The situation with the Greek terms is a little more complex than with the Latin, but not excessively so. Latin prefixes are used for some words for polygons, although the Greek prefix is to be preferred. "Biathlon" should, by all rights, be "diathlon", "triangle" is used for a plane figure as well as angles (instead of 'triagon'), and there are very few terms for 1 and 2. Of course, this is partly because there's no such thing as a two-faced polyhedron, and not much point in describing a single athletic event as a "monathlon" ...

So far, we've stuck to the numbers 1 through 12. We have pretty solid sequences of words, although the words relating to 9 and 11 are, to be fair, extremely rare. But moving to the teens, decades, 100 and 1000, the words become much more sparse. Still, given the right adjectives and a little creativity, we can construct many hypothetical words that should be understandable. Table 3 lists the higher Latin numbers and prefixes. I'll stick to listing the numerical bases and adjectives of relation, and let you figure out the rest on your own, on the pattern described above. Most of the other terms aren't found in dictionaries (how often do you need to describe something that recurs every 60 years?), with the exception of those for 20, where terms like vicennial and vigintillion are sometimes used.


A reference from an old book that I have used in the past provides an additional reference to the 3-to-1 ratio idea within the domain of biology:

Mendelian inheritance is usually described as the process by which one of two alternate alleles of a gene is inherited from each parent so that the offspring has one of the following combinations: two dominant alleles, two recessive alleles, or one of each. If both parents are heterozygous, that is, have one of each allele, the three genotypes will occur among the offspring with the following probabilities:

  • one homozygous dominant,
  • two heterozygotes,
  • and one homozygous recessive.

Phenotypically the two heterozygotes will be indistinguishable from the homozygous dominant.

This results in the famous 3:1 ratio


James C. King, The Biology of Race, 1981, page 28)

Source: Three "to" One ratios page C



3 to 1 ratio image in a biology context
Source: Let's Talk Peace page 14

The "three to one" ratio idea appears to reference itself with the usage of a dichotomy, as if we are cognitively repeating an earlier sequence of counting. It gives the impression of being an even/odd distinction, though numbers begin with an odd "1", unless we consider "0" to be even and we start with it. Such a reference may lead some readers to think about computer programming and the usage of the basic "zeroes and ones" used as designators for the electron-based off/on sequencings (switching) which are occurring at faster and faster speeds, but have been noted as being limited and will require that we proceed from a bi-nomial configuration to a tri-nomial format.

The slow switiching speeds of early computers A slightly faster switching speed Though this looks fast, it is actually quite slow for most computers

The images represent increasing speeds of switching which have taken place in computer processing. While actual speeds are much faster, the images are ideally illustrative to make the additional point that the supposed "two" part switching becomes an almost indiscernible singularity. And though most readers may well focus on the "two" aided by the words on/off and 0/1, we must ask where the on and off states begin. That is, is there no 3rd "middle" state that is neither on or off? Or is the "middle ground" between the transition a type of terrain where off and on exist as one... or an actual territory whether neither occur... thus a third "moment" exists... whether we view it as negligible or not.

Source for the slow, medium, fast switches: Artificial Intelligence Series: Introduction


Journal of Theoretical Biology cover

Permit me to digress a moment into another subject area where the odd/even (paired) idea is valued as an applicable hypothesis in the Star Trek series of films, because when comparing larger sets of data from as many subject areas as we can, particular patterns that we symbolically label tend to show certain numbers coming up again and again, and that overall... there is a conservation of number usage (though words, phrases, sentences, paragraphs, etc... may be used in some cases), which we need to identify the reason(s) for since these quantities and patterns may change as the environment we live in continues to degrade. A change in them will give us an indication in the rate and type of disintegration. Indeed, is it possible to identify an ongoing degradation of one, another, or all species? Is it a topic not being pursued behind the "paywalls" of those contributing to the Journal of Theoretical Biology or other areas of similarly focused research? Taking data from different subject areas unveils a greater sampling of human cognition. Limiting our research to one subject is just as silly as limiting ourselves to one number pattern, when all of them together are also a pattern we should be cognizant of.

Raw Scores

Scores from IMDB as of 29th January 2006.

#TitleScore
1.Motion Picture5.9
3.Search for Spock6.3
5.Final Frontier4.7
7.Generations6.3
9.Insurrection6.3
2.Wrath of Khan7.6
4.Voyage Home7.2
6.Undiscovered Country7.0
8.First Contact7.4
10.Nemesis6.5

A Statistical "Proof" of the Odd/Even Star Trek Movie Rule

At present, the binomial (0's and 1's) as a set of arbitrarily assigned symbols... are being accentuated with a tripartite boolean logic. It is an artificial means of increasing the value of "two" for which many have already recognized as having limitations. A new generation of computing 'based' on a set-of-three symbols is at present thought to require an application of quantum mechanics because it affords the presence of "threes". Instead of the word "trinary" computing to go along with "binary" computing, the word "ternary" is used. In short, the transition for a "two" to a "three" mindset is the present orientation of humanity due to the primivity of our brain's evolution. It is a struggle that has a long history as noted in the caption following the two example images on boolean logic:

Boolean logic image 1 Boolean logic image 2
Pompeii dicers with different perspectives

Roman dicers from a fresco at Pompeii, playing what is thought to be an early version of backgammon. The cartoon-like captions above their heads describe a disputed call: the man on the left cries, "I've won!" while the one on the right objects, claiming, "It's not a three, it's a two."

Analogously, the two characters can be viewed as the right & left hemispheres of the brain. The right adamantly refuses to acknowledge the left's claim to a 3 and insists that the "3" the left sees is actually a 2. If the overall purpose of the "game" (life) is to achieve a "3" and yet there is a claim from some for a preponderance of "2" (with all its various guises), do we try to change the rules of the "game" or create a teaching methodology which enables the distinctions of "2" and "3" to be made identifiable and useful from all vantage points? (Even if the purpose of the game is defined by Earth-specific environmental circumstances.) The social problems created by an underlying 2 versus 3 contention has been going on for long enough... since Pompeii anyway. Let's not leave a similar picture of us for future historians who find it beneath the rubble of an extinct civilization.

Threes Poster Column 8

Here's an additional reference to transistor counts: Wikipedia: Transistor Count

Typical logic gate categories:

  • Dual Gate
  • Quad Gate
  • Single Gate
  • Triple Gate

The human mind continues to grapple with small numbers... with a conservation of number, even if the small numbers are multiplied exponentially. The exponential results are often quantified into bite-size (or byte-size) bits. Again, if this conservation of number is due to an environmentally-based physiological predisposition for the sake of a survival necessary equilibrium in incrementally deteriorating conditions, we must come to recognize how fast, by what means, and to what extent the deterioration is taking place since this will effect what is or is not produced in our theories and applications thereof.

Here are a few examples of "triplet structures" you may or may not be familiar with:

  • Earth is the 3rd planet from the Sun
  • 3 in atomic particle configurations: Proton- Neutron- Electron

  • 3 Basic rock formations: Igneous- Metamorphic- Sedimentary



  • 3 key processes of the rock cycle: crystallization, erosion and sedimentation, and metamorphism (Rock Cycle Processes)
  • 3 to 1 ratio perspective of rock cycle processes (involving the three types or classes of rock):

    1. Sedimentation which produces sediments
    2. Lithification which produces sedimentary bedrock
    3. Metamorphism which produces metamorphic bedrock
    4. Melting and crystallization which produce igneous bedrock

  • 3 to 1 ratio of basic geological processes using a dichotomous internal/external to Earth differentiation (3 internal/1 external):


  • 3-to-1 ratio states of matter: (Solids- Liquids- Gases) + Plasma



  • 3 sentence ending punctuations: Period- Question Mark- Exclamation Point
  • 3 college degrees: Bachelor's- Master's- PhD
  • 3 University Awards: Cum laude - Magna cum laude - Summa cum laude (Threes Poster column 5)
  • Various religious trinities exist


  • 3 to 1 ratio of the four gospels: (Matthew, Mark and Luke are called the synoptic gospels and John is idiosyncratic.)

  • Various philosophy trinities exist

3-part Logic

Thesis ~ Antithesis ~ Synthesis
Indulgence  ~ "Middle Way" ~ Ascetism
Major Premise  ~ Minor Premise ~ Conclusion
Contradiction ~  Excluded  Middle ~ Identity Principal
"God-ology":
Omnipresent
Omnipotent
Omniscient
"Metaphysics-ology":
What is real
How change comes
What is mind
Marxian "Dialectology":
Unity of opposites
Quantity & quality
Negation of negation
Epistemology:
How we know
What is truth
What is mind
Axiology:
Nature of good
Nature of beautiful
Nature of religious
Ontology:
Quality (1st-ness)
Relation (2nd-ness)
Representation (3rd-ness)

Threes poster column 5
Let's Talk Seriously About Peace page 7

  • 3 types of covalent chemical bonds: single- double- triple


  • 3 to 1 ratio of bonds related to CHON but is somewhat reversed to be read as the "HONC (1234) rule":

The HONC rule
Slider Base Presentations: Molecular bonding
Quadruple bonds don't occur
Covalent Bonding (slide #36)>

  • 3 main types of chemical bonds perspective: Covalent- Ionic- Hydrogen


3 main types of chemical bonds

  • 2 Types of chemical bonds perspective: Weak and strong


  • 2 types of chemical bonds perspective: Primary and Secondary


  • 4 types of chemical bonds: Ionic- Covalent- Polar- Hydrogen

Four extreme types of bonding
Chemistry Explained: Bonding
The bonding tetrahedron

  • 3 classes of exceptions to the octet rule (Chemical Bonds, Lewis Symbols, and the Octet Rule):
    • Molecules with an odd number of electrons
    • Molecules with one or more atoms with less than an octet
    • Molecules with one or more atoms with more than an octet

  • 3 branches to the U.S. government (though a Peoples Legislative Branch is needed which would make the current 3 branch system a 3-to-1 configuration):

  • 3 US clothing sizes: Small- Medium- Large
  • 3 US school grade variations: A+, A, A- (plus, neutral, minus)
  • 3 US public school levels: primary, secondary, tertiary (Elementary- Middle/Jr. high- High school)
  • 3 typical grades of gasoline, with diesel as a fuel oil... thus giving us a 3-to-1 ratio
  • 3 divisions to clocks: Seconds- Minutes- Hours
  • 3 animal nutrition types: Carnivore (Meat eating)- Omnivore (Plant and Meat eating)- Herbivore (Plant eating)

  • 3 divisions of insects: Head- Thorax- Abdomen
  • 3 classes in honey bee societies: Worker- Queen- Drone


3 part body plan of insects 3 classes of honeybees Honey Bee producer

  • 3 general classes in human societies: Upper- Middle- Lower (Divisions sometimes multiplied by sub or inter-categorization, like adding X-large, XX-Large, XXX-large to the category of "large")

3 general class divisions to human society

  • 3 classes to the old guild system


3 divisions to old quild system

These three divisions can be used to illustrate the presence of political guilds in society today:

  • 3 reading frames for every strand of genetic material
  • 3 STOP codons and 1 START codon in amino acids



  • 3 main types of cells perspective versus a perspective which sees two types of basic cells:

Three types of cells perspective
Cells and Cell Processes
Two types of cells perspective
Basic Cell types

  • 3 components of nucleic acids: a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base
  • 3 Germ layers: Endoderm- Mesoderm- Ectoderm

  • 3 life domains: Archaea- Bacteria- Eucaryota


Three domains of life system

  • etc...

Did an underlying triple scaffolding actually precede the development of amino acids to which they were required to conform to? If so, what then could possibly have trigged the development of a triple scaffolding? And does this serve as the primary influence for the usage of other "three-patterned" configurations found in other subject areas? And what of those recurring patterns (in different subjects) which do not express a triple pattern such as are called dichotomies, pairs, dimers, bifacial, chirality, acid/base, quadratic, five, six, seven, etc.?

First, let's tackle the question of what may have influenced the proposed idea of a triple scaffolding that amino acids were forced to abide with as they came to develop. While we mostly speculate about early Earth conditions that the basic building materials of life were subjected to, there is at present only one distinguishable... or at least obvious event which expressed a recurring pattern-of-three. Taking into consideration a low or absent oxygen atmosphered coupled with a low or absent ozone and an increased rotation of the Earth, the present of the Sun's effects in terms of a three-patterned dawn- noon- dusk ("moments") interval may well have been that created a "branded" image. Hence, the triplet code is a brand name of where our particular type of genetics was manufactured.

Have changes in the rotation rate of the Earth influenced biological development in a fashion which replicates such an impression; thereby giving another "tweaking" of the definition to the phrase: That God made man in his image, by describing How God did it? Is it a three-patterned image (formula) somehow related to the changes in the Earth's rotation rate in relation to the auxiliary consequential effects?


Keep in mind that the faster accelerated rates occurred prior to the advent of recognizable life forms (plants/animals), but that the precursors of the building blocks of life (DNA, Proteins, RNA) were subjected to such.

Pattern-of-1

Overlapping daylight period was due to a vastly
accelerated rotation rate:
Pattern-of-2

Night/Day-sequence was due to
Earth's slowing rotation:
Pattern-of-3

Triangle image "Flashing"
of Dawn~ Noon~ Dusk
was due to further slowing:
 


rising Sun
fast spinning Earth  
 


rising Sun
slow spinning Earth

setting Sun
noon day sun


rising Sun
fast spinning Earth

setting Sun

These "patterns" are related to the intensity and duration of illumination as well as darkness, which are key influences of biological processes. Growth and sustaining life is dependent on periods of light and dark, how much sunshine, how much shade, etc... However, we cannot dismiss such things as planetary polarity reversals, electro-magnetic field strength/weakness and gravitation shifts as having no influence. With respect to gravity, it is speculated that one of the influences in the evolutionary development of the heart is due to changes in gravity, with more gravity requiring a stronger heart, and a change in gravity thus affects the types of species inhabiting the land at that time. We should also consider the possibility that isolated "pockets" or "pools" (niches, crevices, caves, etc.) of one or more phenomena may occur, thus inviting and nurturing the development of one or more species some may want to label as being mutations, but are merely habitat specific. Additionally, "pocket" or "pool" might refer to a small or large area.


Related source materials:
pyramid page 1
pyramid page 2
Sun rays page 1
Sun rays page 2 Triangular paths of Sun and Moon

Along with the 3-patterned strobe-like event of the Sun's three intense "moments" (or moments which created three distinctive environmental conditions), we find that both the paths of the Sun and Moon create triangular images that biological forms have been subjected to since before their first appearance. In other words, the path of the Sun and Moon do not exhibit "across the sky" (linear) nor "over the sky" (circular/dome) patterns except in human language references to inaccurate perceptions. This includes a recognition of the influential night/day, cold/warm, wet/dry, etc. dichotomies to be included in our developing equation of philosophy. However, while we can clearly identify some life forms expressing a "three" pattern such as the three-chromosome identity of highly valuable grains, we sometimes can not see such a pattern and may view the presence of some other pattern that catches our eye and others become convinced this particular pattern is to be used as a dominant theme of recognition. Also, let us make mention of the presence of a "three" as the result of an identifiable maturational sequence, such as that seen in what is called "incomplete metamorphosis" (egg, nymph, adult) and what is called "complete metamorphosis" which has four stages of development that we can alternatively refer to as 3-to-1 ratios, though other species can be viewed as having more than four stages.

Example of incomplete metamorphosis Example of complete metamorphosis

One might interpret the idea that multiple stages reflect something that is "complete" and hence, correct— and "incomplete" as being incorrect; whereby applying this to changes in a person that happen quickly as being unusual... or even suspicious and wrong. So if you become a genius over night, there is something wrong with you because you must proceed along a path of development agreeable to those who in society are enabled to decide what is the correct and proper course.

In biology, (metamorphosis refers to) striking change of form or structure in an individual after hatching or birth. Hormones called molting and juvenile hormones, which are not species specific, apparently regulate the changes. These physical changes as well as those involving growth and differentiation are accompanied by alterations of the organism's physiology, biochemistry, and behaviour.

The immature forms, or larvae, are adapted to environments and modes of life that differ from those of the adult forms. These differences may be of significance in assuring that larvae and adults of the same species do not engage in direct competition for food or living space. Examples of metamorphosetis include the tadpole, an aquatic larval stage that transforms into the land-dwelling frog (class Amphibia). Starfishes and other echinoderms undergo a metamorphosis that includes a change from the bilateral symmetry of the larva to the radial symmetry of the adult. Metamorphic patterns are well-known in crabs, lobsters, and other crustaceans and also in snails, clams, and other mollusks. The larval form of the urochordate (e.g., the tunicate, or sea squirt) is tadpole-like and free swimming; the adult is sessile and somewhat degenerate.

Among the most dramatic and thoroughly studied examples of metamorphosis are the insects. Because development is not the same in all insects, it is convenient to group them into major categories according to the pattern of structural changes: ametabolous, hemimetabolous, and holometabolous. In ametabolous development there is simply a gradual increase in the size of young until adult dimensions are attained. This kind of development occurs in the silverfish, springtail, and other primitive insects. In more advanced insects (e.g., grasshoppers, termites, true bugs) a phenomenon known as gradual, or hemimetabolous, metamorphosis occurs. The hemimetabolous life cycle consists of egg, nymph, and adult. The nymph, or immature insect, resembles the adult in form and eating habits, differing in size, body proportions, and colour pattern. Rudimentary wings are visible and develop externally. Development is gradual through a series of molts (periodic shedding of the outer skeleton), the adult emerging from the final molt.

Complete, or holometabolous, metamorphosis is characteristic of beetles, butterflies and moths, flies, and wasps. Their life cycle includes four stages: egg, larva, pupa, and adult. The larva differs greatly from the adult. It is wingless, and its form and habits are suited for growth and development rather than reproduction. The change to the adult occurs during the inactive, non-feeding pupal stage. At this time the larva undergoes a transformation in which the wings appear externally, larval organs and tissues are broken down, and adult structures are developed. Hypermetamorphosis, a form of complete metamorphosis, occurs in some beetles, flies, and other insects and is characterized by a series of larval stages.

Source: "metamorphosis." Encyclopædia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite, 2013.

With respect to metamorphosis, here is another 3-to-1 ratio in that there are three "conveniently labeled" typical types (ametabolous, hemimetabolous, holometabolous) and one auxiliary form (holometabolous). Also note that there is a geometric-structural change in some from a bilateral (linear) symmetry to a radial (circular) one which aligns with the notion of a linear- circular- triangular developmental array such as seen in linear-shaped trees harboring low or sea level areas, circular-shaped (fully foliaged) trees at increased elevations, and triangular-shaped trees like the pine, at higher altitudes:

Linear, Circular, Triangular trees Linear, Circular, Triangular terrains

Linear, Circular, Triangular page 1

While the idea of amino acids having occurred as the result of some metamorphosis is not typically encountered, the idea of evolution within a primordial soup or porridge is. But irrespective of which word and accompanying notions you choose to use, both events occur within environmental constraints. And though you may not like the idea that the triplet code occurred due to some easily identifiable environmental event that is changing due to planetary degradations... you may or may not react negatively to the view that such a circumstance presents us with the possibility that the triplet code may be forced to adapt to three incremental changes involving heat energy, geo-dynamo, ocean waves, night/day circadian rhythms, winds, ozone, etc...:

  1. The Sun is burning out and is thought to proceed along a path of expansion to engulf the innermost three planets.
  2. The Earth's rotation is slowing.
  3. The Moon is receding.

Since humanity came onto the Earthly landscape during a specific time during the Earth's rotation, this may well signal that humanity is rotation rate-specific, in that as the rotation rate changes, humanity's ability to adapt to the change is limited. See this page for a reference to the discussion: Are Humans Rotation Rate Specific? page 1

No doubt some readers will jump on the bandwagon of those whose knee-jerk response to the above three incremental deteriorations is to claim that they are processes which will take billions of years. Yet, the situation is one in which one's perspective must be turned inside out to get a clearer picture. For example, while many minds look at the effects a speeding bullet (or any object) has on an obstruction, not too many observers visually hold the bullet in a motionless state and accelerate the obstruction (or target). What this proposes is that most view humanity as the virtually motionless obstruction in terms of its life span. However, if we contrast it to the life span of say a Redwood or other long-living tree, we thus more readily note that the human life span is relatively short and in addition, do not readily show tree-ring growth patterns related to environmental conditions. Metaphorically speaking, though such ring-like recordings are to be found in our evolutionary trek, comparing fossils alone is not enough of a tale-tell sign. Such a view requires that we take into consideration the changes in technology, speech, medical treatment, military armaments, building codes, construction codes, clothing, religious beliefs, etc... The problem though is that it is difficult to discern incremental changes as one might want to observe them in a graph-like form. While we may speak of progress, we must also speak in terms of degradation or relative equilibrium and the different ways in which they can be illustrated in behavior as opposed to biology and physiology. Hence, incremental deterioration would exhibit itself in what can be called "rationalized adjustments".

If we use the metaphor of a raft(s) to describe human civilization pit against the incremental deteriorations of the planetary system, one might suggest that it is the outer edges of the raft(s) which will first feel the effects, just as if it was the first part to face the ravages of external conditions such as reefs, aggressive sea creatures, rocks, other rafts, etc... And those who live on the "fringes" of society will no doubt view the world from their perceptions of what they are subjected to, while those who huddle closer to the "politically correct" status-quo middle, will have a different perception. So when someone on the fringes of society carries a placard claiming that the world is coming to an end, they may well be telling the truth from their perception, if not in fact projecting an insightful premonition about their own forth-coming demise like Stephen Hawking did. He in fact lived on the fringes of a society that those in business, government and religion were wholly too involved with center-of-the-raft activities to take any notice of.

Human society as a deteriorating raft
Let's Talk Peace page 58

While it is easy for some readers to agree with the notion that one year of a dog's life is roughly equal to seven years of a human, though some adjust this value in relation to the age of a dog such that puppies exert more energy and therefore may burn off more than seven years of a human life... it is not common for some people to view human life spans being accelerated... much less comparable to that of the "fruit" (vinegar) fly (Drosophila melanogaster) used for population genetics and biology experiments. In a sense, humanity is in a big experiment and the experimental procedures being used are called social laws, economic policies, religious beliefs, etc..., all of which are cast in a deteriorating petri dish called the solar system which exerts limitations.

A -MANY- Number reference?

In speaking about limitations, we must note that the triplet code and the quantity of amino acids are both examples of limitation. In other words, we don't have a 6,000 coding system with billions of available amino acids. For that matter, those who are interested in numerology may or may not make note of the fact that the quantity of number patterns we humans use is very limited. Another word for limitation is conservation. And even when you include the topic of a supposed "large number" of 10122 and refer to it as a cosmological coincidence, we are still left with a limitation applied to the basic parameter of primitive enumeration known as the "1- 2- Many" organizational methodology and seen as a linquistic configuration for the development of number counting using words. (See: One, two, ... er, too many)

Hence, the "large" number becomes representative of the "many" (3 or more) (third position in number word usage amongst primitive... or historically basic cognitive orientations), just as does thinking in terms of more than three dimensions. Like some sort of as yet not widely recognized conservation of number usage applied as "base" models such as the zeros-and-ones application for computer programming. The binomial (0 and 1) configuration of basic computation ordering limits the development of computers just as does the triplet code in genetics, though a doublet or quadruplet code might well make us a strangely different species indeed. Let us now compare the fundamental particles found in physics and those with genetics, followed by a 64-squares game board that I created for imaginative (or correlational) genetics:

Elementary particles in physics Elementary Amino Acids
Elementary particles set up like a chess board A 64 Trigrams chessboard
A 64 "trigrams" chessboard
64 squares to a checker board 64 squares to a chessbooard

Along with the "64" similarity or "correlation" being compared to the 64 formula of amino acids in the genetic code, let us include the presence of the three types of mobility assigned to checkers and chess game pieces with respect to moving along horizontal, diagonal and vertical directions. It would be interesting to identify whether this is the dimensional plane(s) we find occurring in genetic configurations, and whether this too is part of a environmentally influenced conservation effect due to the ongoing incremental planetary deteriorations.


Note: the so-called "trigrams" are actually "bigrams" when you count the number of lines used in each three-patterned configuration:

Trigrams or Bigrams?


Sources:
Artificial Intelligence page 1
Let's Talk Peace page 4
Let's Talk Peace page 9

For those of you wanting to find something more fundamental to the environment which may have directed the development of the triplet code, we might venture in considering the carbon, hydrogen, oxygen (and nitrogen) elements since they play a vital role in the basic structure of life and are sometimes illustrated as a mnemonic abbreviation in classrooms as "CHON", though in addition to this 3-to-1 ratio group, Phosphorous and Sulphur are sometimes added. If we then venture into physics, we find the triplet formula as well as doublet configurations as predominant recurrences. However, there too is a limitation, a conservation of the quantity and type of particles to be found by human perception, whether it is assisted by tools or experiments or some other expressed imaginative exercise. If we provide a table of the elements, we must note that there is a limitation.

In other words, there are not a thousand... much less an endless array of elements. Is this due to the reason that there is an actual limited amount as we humans describe them, or is table due to a limitation of our human brain/perception processing that is undergoing an incremental deterioration in an environment which imposes restrictions on life forms to coincide with available resources in the manner in which they are constituted? In other words, is there actually a triplet code in different subjects (physics, genetics, etc...), or do we only think there are because this is part of the process for maintaining some type of equilibrium in a deteriorating environment? Would a non-deteriorating environment or one deteriorating at a different rate force a different set of parameters on life to maintain some semblance of equilibrium though we are headed down a drain?

Periodic table of the elements


Three Elements of Carbohydrates: Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen
Carbon:
3 naturally occurring allotropes: amorphous, diamond, graphite
Atomic number 6, 6th most abundant element
3 natural isotopes: 12 (stable/99%), 13 (stable/1%), 14 (stable for 5700 years/trace amounts)
Isotopes of the Element Carbon
The isotopes of carbon
Generalized Carbon Cycle
Hydrogen:
3 common isotopes: Protium (stable), Deuterium (stable), Tritium (12+ years)
Atomic number 1, 90% presence in Universe?

Isotopes of the Element Hydrogen
Isotopes of Hydrogen
Oxygen:
3 stable Isotopes
Atomic number 8
3rd most abundant element

Isotopes of the Element Oxygen
Isotopes of Oxygen
Nitrogen:
3 (out of several) isotopes based on stability: 13 (semi-stable: 9+ minutes), 14 (stable), 15 (stable)
Atomic number 7
5th most abundant element

Isotopes of the element Nitrogen
Some Isotopes of Nitrogen
The gases that make up the air
Nitrogen fixation
Phosphorus:
3 main allotropes: white, red, black
23 isotopes are known. Phosphorous 31 is stable, 32 is stable for 14+ days, 33 is stable for 25+ days
Atomic number 15

Isotopes of the element Phosphorus
Sulphur:
4 stable isotopes: 32, 33, 34, 36 [35 87+ days, 37 5+ days, 38 170+ minutes]
Atomic number 16
10th most abundant element

Isotopes of the Element Sulfur
Stable Isotopes of Sulphur
SAHRA (Arizona Education): Isotopes and Hydrology

For a short digression, let's now compare the above 3 (carbon, hydrogen, oxygen) + 2 (phosphorus, Sulphur) with the arrangement seen in our human dimension of taste as a similar type of patterning:

Three plus two taste receptors
How come we have five fingers and not just three?

Not to overlook the presence of two joints in the thumb and three joints in the other fingers or the three joints with both upper and lower leg/arm extremities) or that they represent a one-two-many configuration as seen in the following image:

Some readers no doubt question whether the "basic elements" as seen from our Earthly perspective are actually those to be found everywhere in the Universe in the same manner and proportion as we humans have calculated them. The same thing goes for the "fundamental" particles and for that matter, the amino acids with their triplet coding. Hence, can we can not necessarily trust such ideas... or at least do so with a reserved scepticism. Nonetheless, in the presence of an observable triplet code for our Earth-bound genetics, we can either say that the recurrence of the "one-two-three" is a dominant theme throughout the Universe or it is merely coincidental to the Earth due to its past patterns of activity. With respect to the idea of being stable or unstable, it appears that the one-two-three sequencing is a relatively stable occurrence... at least for now. Other number patterns have much shorter life spans and are thus less stable, as represented in human consciousness. For example, the fact that the triplet code in genetics persists, suggests it is relatively stable because the (environmental?) conditions which create a viable recurrence is also stable... or the disintegration (rate of change) is not currently measurable— mainly because no one is looking in this direction because such discussions are labeled as some sort of "fringe" perspective like astrology or numerology and is not "real" science nor philosophy. Whereas we can claim that "two" patterns are also stable, and that so is the "one", other patterns... due to lesser frequency and lack of abundance in different subjects, are less stable, just like the isotopes of elements. Metaphorically speaking, we can label the "1, 2, 3" either as major elements, or as stable isotopes of as yet unrecognized "elementals".

Which brings us back to considering what may have influenced the Triplet Code if not for a triple-patterned environmental event which has auxiliary patterns attached with it:

  • Such as the three-to-one pattern (three moments in one Sun).
  • Fusion of the 3 into 1 (and the "2" night/day sequence) by way of the slowing of the Earth's rotation coupled to the expanding Sun.
  • Triangle imprint of the Sun's (and Moon's) daily passage.

If we were to visualize the triangular passage of the Sun from different points on the Earth, the image would reflect one of those toy whirling wheels (toy wind wand as I call them), or an engine camshaft:

Triangles around the Earth Toy wind wand
123RF
The camshaft of an internal combustion engine

If we include a list of theories involving fundamental processes and activities, the presence of "three" is not uncommon such as the:

  • 3 laws of planetary motion (Kepler)
  • 3 laws of motion (Newton)
  • 3 laws of electromagnetic induction (Faraday)
  • 3 general laws of Thermodynamics (if we include the zeroth law, we have a 3-to-1 ratio)
  • 3 "ideal gas" laws: Robert Boyle's ~ J. Charles or J. Lussac's ~ Avogadro's
  • 3 Laws of Robotics (Asimov)
  • 3 laws of logarithms
  • etc...

Here's an example of how different perceptions can come up with different number patterns though the same subject is being discussed. Not doubt someone else with a penchant for some other number pattern could well come up with a different rendering... though the number pattern which becomes dominant is that which is used most often:

Three laws of Reflection
Reflection (used as a metaphor)
Two laws of reflection
Reflection and refraction at home & curved surfaces

However, some reader might well compile rules, laws, etc., which have an other-than-three distinction... but such a list has not made itself readily apparent to the extent of presenting us with a twos-ological, fours-ological, fives-ological, etc... philosophy being developed along the same lines as a threesological intent is being driven. In other words you may well encounter someone's philosophy which advances a number identity that is not "three", but they are not necessarily open to the idea that what they could be working on is a much larger consideration involving all the number patterns as the singular representation of an environmentally imposed conservation heading along a course of incremental deterioration that will create changes in the number pattern usage.

While some people have a favorite number that is not "three", they do not necessarily take the time to compile examples from multiple subject areas or claim it as some sort of universally important number. While some numbers appear to stick out in one or another person's mind such as the number 4, 5, 6 (666), 7, 13, etc... they have not as yet stuck out in human perception to the extent to which dichotomies and trichotomies have... including the often overlooked three-part succession whose number-patterning reference appears to refute the "3", such as in the old George Miller's "The Magical Number Seven, plus or minus two", which actually presents us with a 5-7-9 array, though some readers may want to include the "2" since it was mentioned. Here is one link concerning the number five: Why five fingers and not just three?

George Miller's quote
[ "The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits on our Capacity for Processing Information."(© by the American Psychological Association: Psychological Review- Vol. 101, No. 2, 343-352).]

Source: Let's Talk Peace page 7

In seeking an answer to the question of why there is a Triplet Code (not only used in genetics but many other subject areas), we can claim that some examples arise due to linguistic borrowing, cultural imposition, and what we think we perceive. Utility plays a big part in whether or not we accept a given pattern reference. And even though one says tomato (short a) or another tomato (long a), they can both agree that they are speaking about the same item, even if one says it is a fruit and another says it is a vegetable. The same thing occurs in different religions when speaking of (a singular) God. And even though we have brand names for similar items, most people easily make the distinction about the basic object being spoken of whether it is a pair of shoes, car, computer, phone, etc. However, such people for example, are not customarily interested in looking for the details about the origin of an item such as a phone, though they may be aware of the experiments conducted by Alexander Graham Bell and Thomas Watson which resulted in:

On March 7, 1876, the United States Patent Office granted to Bell patent no. 174,465, covering “The method of, and apparatus for, transmitting vocal or other sounds telegraphically…by causing electrical undulations, similar in form to the vibrations of the air accompanying the said vocal or other sounds.” ("Bell, Alexander Graham." Encyclopædia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite, 2013.)

The same goes for the origin of the triplet code in genetics. Most people simply accept that which is offered by some instructor or what they read in a textbook without realizing that there exists a 3 to 1 ratio or that the pristine origin may have occurred a definable cyclical activity of the Sun with its three "moments" (dawn-noon-dusk), regardless if the idea is based on a supposition compiled by adding several elemental facts together. It makes for an entertaining read because for the inquisitive mind, it begs other questions to be pursued. Which I will not do at this time other than that already provided.

Page Originated: Saturday, 7th April 2018... 7:53 AM
Initial Posting: Thursday, 12th April 2018... 10:57 AM
Updated Posting: Sunday, 22nd April 2018... 8:02 AM