Threesology Research Journal
Spinning Earth
Are Humans Rotation-Rate Specific?
Page 1

(The Study of Threes)

Was the Cambrian explosion of life forms due to a change in Earth's rotation rate? ...and by extension, human institutions such as Buddhism, Christianity, Communism, Democracy, Hinduism, Islamism, Judaism, Shintoism, Socialism, and various commercial products, etc...? Whereas we say that a particular society has a particular form of music, transportation, dress, diet, education system, etc., due to a change in "progress/regression" of war, famine, technology, disease, natural disasters, etc., are all of these in some Part the result in a change of the Earth's rotation rate? Metaphorically speaking, are they undulating waves with similarly overlapping resonances that will eventually dissipate? In other words, are they the effects of that which caused a wave which surfaced in some manner in the human mind... noting that the human body is a water world subject to various kinds of waves.

Take a look at the following article, accessed via the BBC World news on Friday, June 30th, 2012, regarding the Earth's slowing rotation rate:

By Chris Wickham
updated 6/29/2012 10:28:31 AM ET

LONDON — The world is about to get a well-earned long weekend — but don't make big plans, because it will only last an extra second. A so-called 'leap second' will be added to the world's atomic clocks as they undergo a rare adjustment to keep them in step with the slowing rotation of the earth. To achieve the adjustment, on Saturday night atomic clocks will read 23 hours, 59 minutes and 60 seconds before moving on to midnight Greenwich Mean Time.

Super-accurate atomic clocks are the ultimate reference point by which the world sets its wrist watches. But their precise regularity — which is much more constant than the shifting movement of the earth around the sun that marks out our days and nights — brings problems of its own.

If no adjustments were made, the clocks would move further ahead, and after many years the sun would set at midday. Leap seconds perform a similar function to the extra day in each leap year which keeps the calendar in sync (synchronisation) with the seasons.

The grandly named International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS), based in Paris, is responsible for keeping track of the gap between atomic and planetary time and issuing international edicts on the addition of leap seconds. "We want to have both times close together, and it's not possible to adjust the earth's rotation," Daniel Gambis, head of the Earth Orientation Center of the IERS, told Reuters.

Gambis said the turning of the earth and its movement around the sun are far from constant.

In recent years a leap second has been added every few years, slightly more infrequent than in the 1970s despite the long-term slowdown in Earth's rotation caused by tides, earthquakes and a host of other natural phenomena. Adjustments to atomic clocks are more than a technical curiosity.

A collection of the highly accurate devices are used to set Coordinated Universal Time which governs time standards on the world wide web, satellite navigation, banking computer networks and international air traffic systems. There have been calls to abandon leap seconds but a meeting of the International Telecommunications Union, the U.N. agency responsible for international communications standards, failed to reach a consensus in January. "They decided not to decide anything," says Gambis, adding that another attempt will be made in 2015. Opponents of the leap second want a simpler system that avoids the costs and margin for error in making manual changes to thousands of computer networks. Supporters argue it needs to stay to preserve the precision of systems in areas like navigation. Britain's Royal Astronomical Society says the leap second should be retained until there is a much broader debate on the change.

"This is something that affects not just the telecom industry," said RAS spokesman Robert Massey. "It would decouple time-keeping from the position of the sun in the sky and so a broad debate is needed." Time standards are important in professional astronomy for pointing telescopes in the right direction but critical systems in other areas, not least defense, would also be affected by the change. "To argue that it would be pain free is not quite true," Massey said.

A decision is not urgent. Some estimate that if the current arrangement stays, the world may eventually have to start adding two leap seconds a year. But that is not expected to happen for another hundred years or so. In the meantime, Massey plans to use his extra second wisely this weekend. "I'll enjoy it with an extra second in bed," he said.

Unfortunately, most people reading the article will dismiss the content as being irrelevant to them in their life time, muchless of any real importance to the species as a whole. Their mind's do not make a psychic connection with the information and other tid-bits of information that are inter-related to produce a calculable equation. Their mind's do not typically fast-forward through time, past present, nor the future. Like Einstein's theory of Relativity depicting the perspective of vantage points, most people have the common "me," "myself," and "I" blinders on.

I underlined and highlighted the comments with a reference to the word "adjustment," in order to emphacize the typically taken-for-granted realization that the "adjustments" that most, if not all biological life-forms make; takes place by way of almost invisible clocks called circadian rhythms. It doesn't matter if you want to argue that the establishment of such rythms (rhytmic clocks) takes place by a slow incremental design over centuries and the life-time of species' evolutionary development. The point to be made is that such changes are taking place. On the genetic level, general physical level, hormonal level, emotional level, and mental level, which includes speech. The effects of the Earth's slowing rotation with the biologically affecting three solar "moments" (Dawn- Noon- Dusk) back-drop, is being expressed with a multitude of 1- 2- 3 + fusion forms in a variety of subject areas. The "fusion" of the three solar "moments" is occurring as the Sun expands towards its eventual burnout.

The so-called triplet coding system in DNA and RNA are like the three hands of a clock that were designed by the three "moment" solar time piece attached to a time bomb that may not result in another form of Cambrian explosion, but an implosion. Time is running out for the human species and all other life forms on Earth. We might even venture to speculate on the consideration that if life ever existed on Mercury and Venus, sentient or otherwise, it met with the same "up in flames" scenario predicted by biblical tradition for humanity. However, it must be understood that biblical traditions typically are wrought with metaphors. Hence, any remarks about fire, flame, etc., and the end of the world, need not be taken literally. The "fire and flames" expressions used by some may be allusions to unbearably high temperatures which result in loss of water, food and energy supplies (such as those used for cooling homes, cooling or freezing foods, etc...)

Are humans bound to perish because it is a species that can not physiologically, biologically, emotionally, nor mentally adapt to environmental circumstances involving a rotation rate that is substantially (or minimally?) different from that in which it was nurtured into life? Thus, all the many ideas involving the eventual demise of humanity such as the Apocalyptic, nuclear, chemical, biological, etc., end-of-the-world scenarios are nothing more than imaginative portrayals of an underlying appreciation of the effects a slowing rotation rate may cause? With this said, some readers will conclude there are those who are more "in-tune" with nature and are more sensitive not only to short-term but to long-term environmental eventualities. For one reason or another, there are those who have an ability to detect certain subtle "energies" (for want of a better word). Yet, most of these highly perceptive individuals misinterpret the impressions. Being positive is all well and good, but not if such positive perspectives lead others astray towards becoming blind to the ensuing demise of the species and all life on Earth.

Some of you may be wondering what the information on this page has to do with a study of "threes." It's quite simple. "Evolutionarily"-speaking, the development of a triplet codon system in DNA, RNA, and many aspects of our physiology were developed by the circumstances of Earth's environment such as temperature, humidity, and the sequences of the Sun (as well as the Moon). Thus, as mentioned before, our biological and physiological development were affected by a three "moment" (dawn- noon- dusk) Sun. Human biology and physiology are greatly affected by the environmental conditions it is subjected to. However, you must put this in perspective:

  1. The further we go back in time, our biology and physiology become more simple. Instead of there being a domiannt complex organism (we humans) born from three Germ Layers, the dominant organisms would have two or a single Germ layer development.

  2. The Earth's rotation rate speeds up as we go in the past and conversely, slows down as we proceed into the future. The rate of rotation affects both biological and geological activity.

  3. The lengthened stroboscopic three "moments" (Dawn - Noon - Dusk) event of the Sun that we experience today was preceded by a shortened sttoboscopic two "moment" (night/darkness - day/light) sequence that was preceded by a one "moment" (night/darkness) event; whose stroboscopic "expression" may have been too accelerated for nurturing complex, but not necessarily simple life forms. (The length of the day and night are effects understood by botonists). The continuing development (adaptation) of our biology, physiology and mental state are greatly affected by the Sun (and Moon) even if we do not worship them as did ancient peoples and even though there are two days of the week named after them (the "Sun" in Sun-day, and the "Moon" in Mon-day).

The present three "moment" solar sequence is undergoing a 3 into 1 (3 from 1, 3 as 1, 3 to 1, 3 on 1, 3 with 1, 3 and 1, 3 minus 1, 3 times 1, 3 divided by 1, etc.) type of fusion array caused by the Sun's expansion as it decays... They are variations of the same theme.

Expanding Sun

Imagine standing on the Earth and watching the Sun enlarge in the sky. As it gets closer to the Earth the dawn- noon- dusk events will "fuse" together into a single event. The vegetation will turn brown as it rots away and the oceans will dry up. It is thought that the whole Earth will eventually be consumed as will Mercury and Venus. As Mercury vanishes, the planet Mars will become the 3rd planet. likewise in reverse order thinking, we must wonder if Mercury and Venus were at one time habitable when the Sun was more "distant" in what is sometimes referred to as a "faint young Sun" scenario. Although they are inhospitable for human life today because of the Sun's proximity, with respect to present levels of irradiation, in distant ages past on the order of billions of years ago, the Sun's level of irradiation may have provided life promoting environments. Whether or not this means Mars will evolve into a more habitable planet is anyone's guess. Nonetheless, this solar three moment (Dawn - Noon -Dusk) "fusion," "togetherness," "wholeness," etc. is taking place right now. It is affecting us right now. One effect of the three "moment" Sun is the concept of the Christian Trinity (3 persons/aspects/entities in 1 configuration) though there are other variations taking place in other areas of human interest, concern and usage:

  • Basketball has evolved into using a 1 point, 2 point, 3 point system for every single ("1") game.

  • The Horse's hoof is the result of 3 bones fused into 1.

  • The Preakness, Belmont Stakes, and Kentucky Derby are the 3 in 1 season goal of many horse racers.

  • American electrical wall outlets now have a three hole (preceded by two)- in one configuration.

  • The 1st, 2nd, and 3rd place finishers are awarded one of three medals (Gold - Silver - Bronze) while standing on one platform during an Olympic meet.

  • Some calendars display a three-month view (the previous month, the present month, the next month) on each page.

  • Adenosine- Guanine- Cytosine + Thymine is the 3 to 1 ratio of DNA.

  • Adenosine- Guanine- Cytosine + Uracil is the 3 to 1 ration of RNA.

  • Primary- Secondary- Tertiary, as a composite, produce the Quaternary in proteins.

  • The human ear has three bones (incus- stapes- malleus) in one location.

  • A single lover's kiss may be a composite of two lips and tongue, not to mention the upper lip can give the impression of the number 3 on its side, with the number 1 related to the lower lip.

  • The British saying of playing three-to-one is related to the two testicles and penis with respect to the one vagina.

  • Emergency rooms practice a 3 in 1 scenario in that they prioritize treatment according to severity of need determined by a Triage plan of action.

  • The first three downs in Football are contrasted with the 4th down which can be described as a possible "punt the ball" option.

  • Movies with three continuing variations are sometimes sold as a single "Trilogy" package. Words such as Trilogy, Trinity, and Triad are words developed due to developmental changes in human cognition. For example, though we of the present may refer to three single gods/entitites as a Trinity, those of a past age did not use such a term to "collectivize" three singularities into a composite. In other words, develop a 3 (in)to 1 ratio.

  • "Combo-meals" are typically a 3 in 1 assortment consisting of a hamburger, french-fries, and drink. Or, a sandwich of some type, with a sideorder of some type, along with some beverage.

  • An American restaurant breakfast often contains eggs, potatoes and a meat such as bacon, sausage or ham. Hence, 3 items served on one plate.

  • There is a three-to-one variety breakfast when one chooses between pancakes, french toast, or waffles, as well as choose between a knife, fork, or spoon.

  • 4-letter cuss words have a three to one ratio in that they contain 3 consonants to 1 vowel.

  • The "QWERTY" key board has (a) three rows of letters and one row of numbers arrangement.

  • Some American toilets have a 3 liter (1 liter = 1.75 pints) water usage per flush.

  • A common internal combustion engine piston has a three-ring arrangement: Top compression ring, Second compression ring, Oil control ring. (3 rings on one piston.)

  • Our one humanity consists of three dominant races of people: Caucasians - Negroids - Asians. Some think that peace on Earth will be achieved when there is a complete mixing of these three. Others consider such peace an impossibility because percentage variations will then be used to determine racial superiority/ inferiority.

  • "ETC" is three letters denoted as one word.

  • In relation to the changes taking place with the Sun as it decays and enlarges, the Earth experiences a changing rotation rate. Hence, in acknowledging all the many "threes" in our biology and physiology, the Earth in relation to the Sun" scenario might necessarily have continuing effects as we continue into the future. Additionally, by using elapsed time images (time-lapsed photography) of the Sun in its from dawn - through noon - to dusk passage, the observable triangular pathway may create further types of "triangle-shaped" impressions on our physiology and psyche. Further slowing of the Earth's rotation and an expansion of the Sun along its trek of decay, will produce what can be described as a fusion of these three solar moments.

Presently, the Earth rotates at a daily rate of 23 hours 56 minutes 4.09 seconds. (Some references may show a difference in the seconds, while others simply provide the general approximation of a 24 hour day.)

Let us make some preliminary points for the discussion:

  1. The rotation of the Earth is slowing down at a (fluctuating) rate of between 2 and 3 milliseconds per day per year, though other interpretations are possible...

  2. The rotation of the Earth was faster in the past.

  3. The rate of rotation fluctuates due to:

    1. Tides (earth/moon interactions- as the moon recedes, we will have different types of tides as well as perhaps changes in female Menstrual cycles which will have a profound affect on social circumstances.)

    2. Core/mantle interactions

    3. Seasonal changes with respect to crust/atmosphere interactions.

Scientists from Belgium's Royal Observatory and the Catholic University of Louvain, report that increasing levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere will slow the Earth's rotation. They used computer models to analyze the effect of adding 1% more CO2 to the atmosphere annually. This would mean a doubling of the CO2 concentration after 70 years. The researchers say this rate of increase is a common scenario on the basis of current human activity.

The Belgian team estimated the effect of the ocean and atmosphere in a warming world on the Earth's angular momentum. They found that each day would lengthen because of angular momentum changes, including variations in surface pressure over land masses, average surface pressure over the ocean, and zonal winds and currents. The actual amount of lengthening would be small... microseconds per year. In any given year it would be difficult to distinguish from naturally occurring variation.

Over longer periods, the scientists say, the effect would be measurable, with a probable increase of 11 microseconds per decade during this century. That would mean an increase of 11 hundred-thousandths of a second over the entire century.

One of the team, Dr Olivier de Viron, told BBC News Online: "When you increase the amount of CO2, you perturb the atmosphere's dynamics, the winds and so on. "We know that globally the wind blowing from West to East will increase, so the Earth's rotation will decrease. "The days will be longer - and the nights won't be shorter to compensate. "It means 24 hours won't be 24 hours any more. It will be something a little bit more."

---BBC News: Warming World Means Longer Days---

As the Earth continues to slow down in its daily rotation as we move into the future, the daily rate of rotation will indeed reach an actual 24 hour day... someday, as the following chart shows in a simplified way:

Hominid Species Type... Approx. future age # of Days
per year
per day
Can Humans survive a 25 hr rotation? 55,278 AD 364.17 25
Can Humans survive a 24 hr rotation?

24 - 23.9345 = 0.0655
0.0655 ¸ .00002 = 3275
2003 + 3275 = 5278

{365.2422 - .0655 = 365.1767}
5278 AD
- 53rd century -
365.17 24
Our descendants?

You and Me...

Likewise, if we go back in time, the daily rate of the Earth's rotation speeds up. For example, instead of our present 23 hour period (23 hours 56 minutes 4.09 seconds), there was once a 22 hour rate of rotation over 300 million years ago. However, we humans did not live during this time (in a literal and not a metaphorical sense.) In fact, we humans (in terms of our hominid lineage) have only existed during the period when the daily rate of the Earth's rotation was 23 hours in length, according to present dating methods of hominid fossils. It could be that a 23 hour rate of rotation is the ideal rate of rotation for our particular species and that other rates of rotation are harmful.

This is not to say that the rate of rotation in and of itself is singularly wrong for the growth and persistence of the human species, but that it, along with the attendant geological, environmental, and planetary system interactions, produce dynamical interactive circumstances that are unfavorable to our present biological structure. The present structure may indeed have limitations in its ability to adapt to certain overall conditions with respect to Earth's changing rotation rate.

The Chart below provides examples of (approximation) when different hominid species appeared and what the length of the day was:

Hominid Species Type... Approx. fossil age # of Days
per year
per day
Homo sapiens sapiens- 120,000 to present day 365.2422 23.9345
Homo sapiens neanderthalensis-
Homo erectus-
Homo heidelbergensis-
Homo antecessor-
Homo georgicus-
Homo ergaster-
Australopithecus robustus-
Australopithecus boisei-
Homo habilis-
Australopithecus aethiopicus-
Australopithecus garhi-
Australopithecus africanus-
Kenyanthropus platyops-
Australopithecus afarensis-
Australopithecus anamensis-
Ardipithecus ramidus-
Orrorin tugenensis-
Sahelanthropus tchadensis-
30,000 to 230,000 years
300,000 to 1.8 million
500,000 years ago
780,000 years ago
1.8 million
1.2 to 1.9 million
1.5 to 2 million
1.1 to 2.1 million
1.5 to 2.4 million
2.3 to 2.6 million
2 to 3 million
2 to 3 million
3.5 million
3.0 to 3.9 million
3.9 to 4.2 million
4.4 to 5.8 million
6 million years ago
6 to 7 million years ago

Note: the difference between the number of days per year found in the Hominid species list and the Geological Era list is due to using different values for calculation, but the intent of demonstrating that humanity evolved during a time when the length of an Earth day was in its 23rd hour is still relevant to the overall discussion provided on this page. In fact, this also applies to all large complex forms of life.

Geologic Era Time of occurrence # of Days
per year
per day
End of Cretaceous Era-
"Jurassic Park" Era-
Permo-Triassic Era-
Late Permian
* 65 million years ago
180 million years ago
245 million years ago
250 million years ago
371 days
381 days
386 days
386+ days
90% of marine life and 70% of land species vanished about 250 million years ago. Is it coincidental that the "vanishing act" occurred when the rate of the Earth's rotation was at or near a 23 hour period?
Middle Devonian Era-
Early Ordovician Era-
370 million years ago
500 million years ago
398 days
412 days

Cambrian Explosion era... was it due to a change in the Earth's rotation rate?

This is the era in which a multiplicity of life forms seem to sprout out of nowhere, without evidence of having predecessors. Some think (a) God went "POOF," "SHAZAM," or "ABRACADABRA" and others consider the possibility of an extraterrestrial intervention in the sense of an alien or comet/asteroid. It is an unexplained circumstance that is said to have given Darwin some trouble in his considerations of Evolution.

We thus have three perspectives:
  1. A God intervention.

  2. An Alien intervention.

  3. And various alternatives.

Earliest Cambrian Era-
Late Precambrian Era-
600 million years ago
700 million years ago
800 million years ago
900 million years ago
1 billion years ago
424 days
434 days
444 days
454 days
464 days
Crude oil is from plant life up to 3 billion years ago, but mostly from 100 to 600 million years ago.
Primordial Soup Era- 3.5 to 4.5 billion 1,095.7 8.19

*65 million years ago is said to be the approximate time when the Dinosaur killing meteor slammed into the Earth at Yucatan, Mexico. Did it also alter the Earth's rotation rate?

Item Approx. age of appearance Value used in equation
Future Human? species approx. 5278 AD
(53rd century)
Hominid species data in foregoing table Present day to 7 million years ago .000000200
End of Cretaceous Era-
"Jurassic Park" Era-
Permo-Triassic Era-
Permian era
Middle Devonian Era-
Early Ordovician Era-
Earliest Cambrian Era-
Cryogenian era
Tonian era
Late Precambrian Era-
Stennian era
65 million years ago
180 million years ago
245 million years ago
250 million years
370 million years ago
500 million years ago
600 million years ago
700 million years ago
800 million years ago
900 million years ago
1 billion years ago
Primordial Soup Era 3.5 to 4.5 billion years ago .000000345

Here are two of the extremely simplified equations I used to obtain the information:

7,000,000 years X .0000002 = 1.4 X 365.2422 = 511.33908
511.33908 ÷ by 60 = 8.522318 ÷ 60 = .142038633
23.9345 - .142038633 = 23.79246137 hours per day

487 days per year - 365.2422 = 121.7578
121.7578 ÷ 23.9345 = 5.087125279
23.9345 - 5.087125279 = 18.84737473
(which is close to 18.91 and means that 487 days per year is an approximation.)

Yes, there are other ways of doing the calculations depending upon what initial values we are assuming to be correct approximations. Some of these equations are shown in the following pages. And yes, our assumptions can lead us into a "fudging the numbers" game. These calculations are likewise "fuged" when incorporating correlated evidence from various sources. And also yes, it is guesswork.

If we use the dates calculated from counting the rings of coral growth found on fossils as an indication of how long a day was and how fast the Earth was spinning at a given Geological Era, I found that I could not use the value of .0000002 as I had done for the hominid species table above, but that I had to adopt a sort of "fluctuating value" to accommodate the information (provided by other sources) for the Geological eras; which seems appropriate since the rate of rotation is said to fluctuate. (Like materials in a test tube being spun in a centrifuge.) What is interesting to note is that the fluctuation can at times be large, and may in fact be an influence on the development of biological life to the extent such a practice might be useful for some researchers involved with chemical evolution experiments. (Meaning, they may have to use a type of "fluctuating" environmental context in their attempts to recreate the conditions which were responsible for the genesis of pristing life.) The information in the following table provides the values I used to multiply (the years) in order to obtain the length of day:

--- During the Primordial Soup Era (3½ to 4 or 5 billion years ago), the Earth would have been spinning almost 3 times as fast as it is today, based on the idea that the length of a single day was only eight hours long and that we take the liberty of using the simple equation:

24 ÷ 8 hour day (8.19388889) = 3
3 X 365.2422 = 1,095.7266 days per year

Future Humans??? 304,000,000 years from now 1 rotation per year
earth 1 day rotation (16K)
Future Humans 56th Century 364.17 days
25 hr rotation
earth 25 hr. rotation (16K)
Future Humans 53rd Century 365.17 days
24 hr rotation
earth 24 hr. rotation (16K)

Present day to 350 million years ago 365 to 387 days
23 hr rotation
earth 23 hr. rotation (16K)
370+ million years ago 411 days
22 hr rotation
earth 22 hr. rotation (16K)
500 to 700 million years ago 412 to 434 days
21 hr rotation
earth 21 hr. rotation (16K)
800 to 900 million years ago 444 to 454 days
20 hr rotation
earth 20 hr. rotation (16K)
1 billion+ years ago

earth 19 hr. rotation (16K)
earth 18 hr. rotation (16K)
earth 17 hr. rotation (16K)
earth 16 hr. rotation (16K)
earth 15 hr. rotation (16K)
3.5 to 4 billion years ago 1,095+ days
8 hour rotation
earth 8 hr. rotation (16K)

Information regarding 1 rotation per year scenario came from:

--- Energetics of the Earth's Interior ---

History of the Earth:
The Recent Cooling & Ice Age

Years Ago Climate event
0 Interglacial continues
9,000 – 6,000
Rise of civilization
Maximum warming
Minimum ice extent
18,000 Most recent Ice Age cycle peaks
Maximum ice extent
2,500,000 Arctic Ice expands
Cyclical Ice Ages begin
30,000,000 Antarctic Ice cap begins
80,000,000 Greenhouse Decreases
Fewer Volcanoes?
Cooling trend begins

History of the Earth’s Atmosphere:
The Past 544 Million Years

Millions of Years Ago Event Effect on Greenhouse(GH) Climate result
80 - present Plate tectonics slow down GH Decreases
Fewer Volcanoes?
Cooling trend
Pleistocene Ice Ages
250 - 80 Plate tectonics speed up GH Increases
More volcanoes?
Warm Dinosaurs
280 Continents on equator;
lots of big plants
GH Decreases
Carbonic acid rain
Formation of coal
Ice Ages
544 - 300 Continents move around GH Slowly increases Mild to Warm
750 - 544 Continents on the equator GH Decreases
Carbonic acid rain
Ice Ball

1st table information source: --- Recent Cooling and Ice Ages ---

2nd table information source: --- The Earth's Atmosphere ---

Primary information source for both tables: --- ATOC 1060 (Dr. Keen) ---

Your Questions, Comments or Additional information are welcomed:
Herb O. Buckland