Threesology Research Journal
Are Humans Rotation-Rate Specific?
Page 5

(The Study of Threes)

Rotation Rate: page 1 Rotation Rate: page 2 Rotation Rate: page 3 Rotation Rate: page 4 Rotation Rate: page 5 Rotation Rate: page 6

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Hypothetical visual:

Decreasing rotation rate
earth 8 hr rotation (16K) earth 16 hr. rotation (16K) earth 21 hr. rotation (16K) Can Humanity survive in the future or will the Earth revolve too slowly, requiring a New Type Of Human to Evolve?

earth 1 day rotation (16K)

Is a new species being evolved as we speak due to a change in the rotation rate of the Earth, the moon moving away, and the Sun continuing on a course of burning out and expanding?
Approx. time period:
3 - 5 Billions of years ago 500 million years ago 40,000 years ago to present
Approx. daily rotation rate:
Daily Rotation Rate:
2 (?) - 8 hrs (?)
Daily Rotation Rate:
20 (?)- 22.3 hours
Daily Rotation Rate:
23+ hours
Currently:23 hrs 56 min 4.09 sec
Significant Biological Event:
Development of
Primordial Soup elements
Cambrian explosion
of life forms
Beginning of
Modern Humans

While the topic of humanity's existence being dependent on (specifically related to) the rotation rate of the Earth (which is slowing down and was much faster in the past) is the main reason for this particular web page and its three others, numerous other considerations come to mind as representative expressions of the influence that we may otherwise denote as historical events. If such added topics appear to digress from the main topic, the reader will have to give me some "poetic license" until such time as I am able to re-write the information in the expected format expressed by the title. Succinctly stated, the emergence of humanity as we know it in terms of our relationship to Cro-Magnon man and the bipedal predecessors which have died out, all occurred at given points of history when the Earth exhibited different... or marginally different rates of rotation that should nonetheless be part of an overall comparison of time period data relationships, one of which is the determination of rotation rate based on ancient corals. Trying to calculate the rate of rotation loss as we move forward in time and the rotation gain as we look back over previous events, is difficult to narrow down to exact specifics because of rotation rate fluctuations and our rather naive understanding of the dynamics involved (tidal influences, solar irradiation effects, lunar regression, flow of magma below the surface, continent shifting, plate tectonics, polar magnetics, etc...). Nonetheless, we can arrive as some approximations that can be used to make educated guesstimations.

At this point in time, our present thinking on how to measure the rate of rotation (as feeble as it may be perceived by some), is the best we can do as we make comparisons with the "tree rings" (so-to-speak) found on other life forms and geological processes which reveal a given date and exhibit some tell-tale growth-pattern (growth ring) due to external influences which provide some indication of what conditions were like at a given time in history. In any respect, the approximations beg the question of whether or not humans (as well as other living and non-living forms of existence) owe their existence to the rotation rate of the Earth (along with the position of the Moon and Solar conditions)... and whether or not there is a limitation... a window of rotation within which humanity can and can not exist. In other words, when we identify that humanity (our present form of humanity which includes Cro-Magnons) were born when the rotation rate of the Earth exhibited a 23+ hour rate, does this mean that it has been physiologically fashioned, and thus specifically equipped (biologically, emotionally and mentally) to live inside this window of rotation rate, but can not live outside this window or rotation rate... unless there is a specific alteration of the acquired specificities (habits, circadian rhythms, blood groups, social organization, religion, philosophy, mathematics, etc...)?

Is a change, is an adaptation, is an evolution taking place and this change is being perceived by different people in different ways and may alternatively be described as some forth-coming monumental event... such as the impressions being outlined by New Age proponents, sensitive souls, and those who are responding to the changes (but don't realize it and may in fact be misinterpreting the changes within themselves in a negative way) because they are not in the company of those able to provide a useful (socially stabilizing) interpretation... even if the interpretation is fanciful? And in such a consideration are we not to include questions about the viability of adaptability related to present business, political, and religious views that may in fact be barricades to the necessary formulas for the evolution of humanity to occur... which includes the emergence of a fruitful female psyche that will cast off the many disparaging impositions, shackles, imprisonments and beatings of the male psyche? The psyche of a few men in reigning institutions abiding to the dictates of documents established by small groups of men through the ages that not only bar the majority of women, but also countless men from realizing a full potential of themselves... as they should be permitted to evolve or live a life of unfulfillment... which must be unleashed from those burdens which keep the female psyche from emerging, from spreading its wings that have for too long been bound by an unnatural cacoon created by self-serving men in business, government and religions.

Scientists from Belgium's Royal Observatory and the Catholic University of Louvain, report that increasing levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere will slow the Earth's rotation. They used computer models to analyze the effect of adding 1% more CO2 to the atmosphere annually. This would mean a doubling of the CO2 concentration after 70 years. The researchers say this rate of increase is a common scenario on the basis of current human activity.

The Belgian team estimated the effect of the ocean and atmosphere in a warming world on the Earth's angular momentum. They found that each day would lengthen because of angular momentum changes, including variations in surface pressure over land masses, average surface pressure over the ocean, and zonal winds and currents. The actual amount of lengthening would be small... microseconds per year. In any given year it would be difficult to distinguish from naturally occurring variation.

Over longer periods, the scientists say, the effect would be measurable, with a probable increase of 11 microseconds per decade during this century. That would mean an increase of 11 hundred-thousandths of a second over the entire century.

One of the team, Dr Olivier de Viron, told BBC News Online: "When you increase the amount of CO2, you perturb the atmosphere's dynamics, the winds and so on. "We know that globally the wind blowing from West to East will increase, so the Earth's rotation will decrease. "The days will be longer - and the nights won't be shorter to compensate. "It means 24 hours won't be 24 hours any more. It will be something a little bit more."

---BBC News: Warming World Means Longer Days---

As the Earth continues to slow down in its daily rotation as we move into the future, the daily rate of rotation will indeed reach an actual 24 hour day... someday, as the following chart shows in a simplified way:

Hominid Species Type... Approx. future age # of Days
per year
per day
Can Humans survive a 25 hr rotation? 55,278 AD 364.17 25
Can Humans survive a 24 hr rotation?

24 - 23.9345 = 0.0655
0.0655 ¸ .00002 = 3275
2003 + 3275 = 5278

{365.2422 - .0655 = 365.1767}
5278 AD
- 53rd century -
365.17 24
Our descendants?

You and Me...

Likewise, if we go back in time, the daily rate of the Earth's rotation speeds up. For example, instead of our present 23 hour period (23 hours 56 minutes 4.09 seconds), there was once a 22 hour rate of rotation over 300 million years ago. However, we humans did not live during this time (in a literal and not a metaphorical sense.) In fact, we humans (in terms of our hominid lineage) have only existed during the period when the daily rate of the Earth's rotation was 23 hours in length, according to present dating methods of hominid fossils. It could be that a 23 hour rate of rotation is the ideal rate of rotation for our particular species and that other rates of rotation are harmful.

This is not to say that the rate of rotation in and of itself is singularly wrong for the growth and persistence of the human species, but that it, along with the attendant geological, environmental, and planetary system interactions, produce dynamical interactive circumstances that are unfavorable to our present biological structure. The present structure may indeed have limitations in its ability to adapt to certain overall conditions with respect to Earth's changing rotation rate.

The Chart below provides examples of (approximation) when different hominid species appeared and what the length of the day was:

Hominid Species Type... Approx. fossil age # of Days
per year
per day
Homo sapiens sapiens- 120,000 to present day 365.2422 23.9345
Homo sapiens neanderthalensis-
Homo erectus-
Homo heidelbergensis-
Homo antecessor-
Homo georgicus-
Homo ergaster-
Australopithecus robustus-
Australopithecus boisei-
Homo habilis-
Australopithecus aethiopicus-
Australopithecus garhi-
Australopithecus africanus-
Kenyanthropus platyops-
Australopithecus afarensis-
Australopithecus anamensis-
Ardipithecus ramidus-
Orrorin tugenensis-
Sahelanthropus tchadensis-
30,000 to 230,000 years
300,000 to 1.8 million
500,000 years ago
780,000 years ago
1.8 million
1.2 to 1.9 million
1.5 to 2 million
1.1 to 2.1 million
1.5 to 2.4 million
2.3 to 2.6 million
2 to 3 million
2 to 3 million
3.5 million
3.0 to 3.9 million
3.9 to 4.2 million
4.4 to 5.8 million
6 million years ago
6 to 7 million years ago

Note: the difference between the number of days per year found in the Hominid species list and the Geological Era list is due to using different values for calculation, but the intent of demonstrating that humanity evolved during a time when the length of an Earth day was in its 23rd hour is still relevant to the overall discussion provided on this page. In fact, this also applies to all large complex forms of life.

Geologic Era Time of occurrence # of Days
per year
per day
End of Cretaceous Era-
"Jurassic Park" Era-
Permo-Triassic Era-
Late Permian
* 65 million years ago
180 million years ago
245 million years ago
250 million years ago
371 days
381 days
386 days
386+ days
90% of marine life and 70% of land species vanished about 250 million years ago. Is it coincidental that the "vanishing act" occurred when the rate of the Earth's rotation was at or near a 23 hour period?
Middle Devonian Era-
Early Ordovician Era-
370 million years ago
500 million years ago
398 days
412 days
Cambrian Explosion era... was it due to a change in the Earth's rotation rate?

This is the era in which a multiplicity of life forms seem to sprout out of nowhere, without evidence of having predecessors. Some think (a) God went "POOF," "SHAZAM," or "ABRACADABRA" and others consider the possibility of an extraterrestrial intervention in the sense of an alien or comet/asteroid. It is an unexplained circumstance that is said to have given Darwin some trouble in his considerations of Evolution.

We thus have three perspectives:
  1. A God intervention.
  2. An Alien intervention.
  3. And various alternatives.
Earliest Cambrian Era-
Late Precambrian Era-
600 million years ago
700 million years ago
800 million years ago
900 million years ago
1 billion years ago
424 days
434 days
444 days
454 days
464 days
Crude oil is from plant life up to 3 billion years ago, but mostly from 100 to 600 million years ago.
Primordial Soup Era- 3.5 to 4.5 billion 1,095.7 8.19

*65 million years ago is said to be the approximate time when the Dinosaur killing meteor slammed into the Earth at Yucatan, Mexico. Did it also alter the Earth's rotation rate?

Item Approx. age of appearance Value used in equation
Future Human? species approx. 5278 AD
(53rd century)
Hominid species data in foregoing table Present day to 7 million years ago .000000200
End of Cretaceous Era-
"Jurassic Park" Era-
Permo-Triassic Era-
Permian era
Middle Devonian Era-
Early Ordovician Era-
Earliest Cambrian Era-
Cryogenian era
Tonian era
Late Precambrian Era-
Stennian era
65 million years ago
180 million years ago
245 million years ago
250 million years
370 million years ago
500 million years ago
600 million years ago
700 million years ago
800 million years ago
900 million years ago
1 billion years ago
Primordial Soup Era 3.5 to 4.5 billion years ago .000000345

Here are two of the extremely simplified equations I used to obtain the information:

7,000,000 years X .0000002 = 1.4 X 365.2422 = 511.33908
511.33908 ÷ by 60 = 8.522318 ÷ 60 = .142038633
23.9345 - .142038633 = 23.79246137 hours per day

487 days per year - 365.2422 = 121.7578
121.7578 ÷ 23.9345 = 5.087125279
23.9345 - 5.087125279 = 18.84737473
(which is close to 18.91 and means that 487 days per year is an approximation.)

Yes, there are other ways of doing the calculations depending upon what initial values we are assuming to be correct approximations. Some of these equations are shown in the following pages. And yes, our assumptions can lead us into a "fudging the numbers" game. These calculations are likewise "fudged" when incorporating correlated evidence from various sources. And also... yes, it is guesswork.

If we use the dates calculated from counting the rings of coral growth found on fossils as an indication of how long a day was and how fast the Earth was spinning at a given Geological Era, I found that I could not use the value of .0000002 as I had done for the hominid species table above, but that I had to adopt a sort of "fluctuating value" to accommodate the information (provided by other sources) for the Geological eras; which seems appropriate since the rate of rotation is said to fluctuate. (Like materials in a test tube being spun in a centrifuge.) What is interesting to note is that the fluctuation can at times be large, and may in fact be an influence on the development of biological life to the extent such a practice might be useful for some researchers involved with chemical evolution experiments. (Meaning, they may have to use a type of "fluctuating" environmental context in their attempts to recreate the conditions which were responsible for the genesis of pristine life.) The information in the following table provides the values I used to multiply (the years) in order to obtain the length of day:

--- During the Primordial Soup Era (3½ to 4 or 5 billion years ago), the Earth would have been spinning almost 3 times as fast as it is today, based on the idea that the length of a single day was only eight hours long and that we take the liberty of using the simple equation:

24 ÷ 8 hour day (8.19388889) = 3
3 X 365.2422 = 1,095.7266 days per year

Future Humans??? 304,000,000 years from now 1 rotation per year
earth 1 day rotation (16K)
Future Humans 56th Century 364.17 days
25 hr rotation
earth 25 hr. rotation (16K)
Future Humans 53rd Century 365.17 days
24 hr rotation
earth 24 hr. rotation (16K)
Present day to 350 million years ago 365 to 387 days
23 hr rotation
earth 23 hr. rotation (16K)
370+ million years ago 411 days
22 hr rotation
earth 22 hr. rotation (16K)
500 to 700 million years ago 412 to 434 days
21 hr rotation
earth 21 hr. rotation (16K)
800 to 900 million years ago 444 to 454 days
20 hr rotation
earth 20 hr. rotation (16K)
1 billion+ years ago

earth 19 hr. rotation (16K)
earth 18 hr. rotation (16K)
earth 17 hr. rotation (16K)
earth 16 hr. rotation (16K)
earth 15 hr. rotation (16K)
3.5 to 4 billion years ago 1,095+ days
8 hour rotation
earth 8 hr. rotation (16K)

Information regarding 1 rotation per year scenario came from:

--- Energetics of the Earth's Interior ---

History of the Earth:
The Recent Cooling & Ice Age

Years Ago Climate event
0 Interglacial continues
9,000 – 6,000
Rise of civilization
Maximum warming
Minimum ice extent
18,000 Most recent Ice Age cycle peaks
Maximum ice extent
2,500,000 Arctic Ice expands
Cyclical Ice Ages begin
30,000,000 Antarctic Ice cap begins
80,000,000 Greenhouse Decreases
Fewer Volcanoes?
Cooling trend begins

History of the Earth’s Atmosphere:
The Past 544 Million Years

Millions of Years Ago Event Effect on Greenhouse(GH) Climate result
80 - present Plate tectonics slow down GH Decreases
Fewer Volcanoes?
Cooling trend
Pleistocene Ice Ages
250 - 80 Plate tectonics speed up GH Increases
More volcanoes?
Warm Dinosaurs
280 Continents on equator;
lots of big plants
GH Decreases
Carbonic acid rain
Formation of coal
Ice Ages
544 - 300 Continents move around GH Slowly increases Mild to Warm
750 - 544 Continents on the equator GH Decreases
Carbonic acid rain
Ice Ball

1st table information source: --- Recent Cooling and Ice Ages ---

2nd table information source: --- The Earth's Atmosphere ---

Primary information source for both tables: --- ATOC 1060 (Dr. Keen) ---

Page Initially created: Monday, 25th March 2013, 9:31 AM
Previous update Posting: Friday, 4th May 2018, 4:10 AM
Updated Posting: Tuesday, 18th May 2021... 8:20 AM
Your Questions, Comments or Additional information are welcomed:
Herb O. Buckland