Threesology Research Journal: The Scientification of Philosophy by way of a Threes Model
A Study of the Threes Phenomena
(Does it lead to a Scientification of Philosophy?)
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Progressive Thinkers as of 1/4/2023

Note: It is of value to make mention of the need for those interested in the Threes phenomena to make a "hard" (printed) copy of the pages at this and other sites in the event of an EMP (electro-magnetic pulse) burst, which will fry all of our electronics. All the information stored on my hard/thumb drives (and old CDs) will be lost unless steps are taken to preserve the collection such as the use of Faraday containers. If you do make a printed copy, barring the advent of a nuclear blast which wipes us out of existence; you may well have the only surviving copy which can be printed at some later date.

3s poem attributed to John Atherton
3rd Revolution: column 4
Numbers as art as references to beauty

I am prompted to place this "3s" poem (as both a reference to art and math) when a colleague referenced an article: Mathematics as Art: Brain’s Beauty Response Unveiled in Formulas. Here are two other variant titles of the same information:

While it is noted that one should not judge a book by its cover, many of us routinely engage in judging an article by its heading.

This site is about ideas, activities, and assorted occurrences which express some model of a "three-pattern," all of which is sometimes referred to as the "threes phenomena". And yet, this alone is not enough. One must also be engaged in providing a consideration as to the development thereof. For example, did the advent of the "three" follow along a sequential development such as from a one to a two and then a three, though some like to extend this to some model of multiplicity, where the word "plurality" becomes confused with or used as a substitute for the suppositional words "possibility, potentiality or probability". While one may at first claim a listing of threes as a coincidence and then later say that it's numerology, a further antagonism might be indicated by claiming the person is engaging in an obsessive/compulsive activity. However, we might say this about any collection or interest. Though a reader might reflexively want to claim there are other number patterns of interest such as 2s, 7's, 13's etc., we need also to note the absence of such numbers and the recurrence of patterns which repeat in subject matter that is of a more serious nature such as:

  1. Planetary life Triplex: Sun- Earth- Moon
  2. 3 solar-influenced deity configurations/correlations:
    1. The Sun itself as a singularly important object; One god concept and humans as having been hermaphroditic in the past. (This is where the idea of "soul mate" appears to have originated.)
    2. The Sun with a two-patterned night/day sequence; complementary, complimentary, antagonistic pairs (also soul mates in the later sense of a prime partnership).
    3. The Sun with three phases/moments; dawn- noon- dusk... trinity, triad, triune... (which are "fusing" due to the slowing of the Earth's rotation and the enlargement of the Sun as it deteriorates. Hence, a "3 -in- 1" ratio is taking place.)
  3. The Earth being the 3rd planet (as counted from the Sun, if counted from Pluto, it is the 7th planet).
  4. DNA/RNA having a triplet code. 3 forms/kinds commonly cited: DNA- A,B,Z; RNA- Messenger, Ribosomal, Transfer.
    • Each of them contains the same 3 amino acids: Adenosine- Cytosine- Guanine, with separate singulars— Thymine:DNA/Uracil:RNA, thus revealing a 3 -to- 1 ratio.)
  5. 3 families of fundamental atomic particles/3 Quarks and 3 anti-Quarks. (A conservation of number exists involving fractions based on thirds, though half-charges are present.)
  6. 3 laws of motion./ 3 laws of planetary motion.
  7. 3-part sectioning in human anatomy by Dr. John McNulty and Associates.
  8. 3-part ear structure (astonishingly) unrecognized by Linguists and language theorists: Language 3 (What might our language and thoughts look like if the ear had a different dominant pattern?)
  9. 3 Germ Layers: Endoderm- Mesoderm- Ectoderm
  10. 3 Life Domains: Archaea- Bacteria- Eukaryota
  11. 3 recurring components of word order supposedly in all languages [not necessarily in this order]: (Subject- Object- Verb)
  12. 3 exceptions to the Octet (8) rule in Chemistry:
    • Molecules with an odd number of electrons.
    • Molecules with one or more atoms less than an octet.
    • Molecules with one or more atoms more than an octet.

In the historical development of a "pattern-of-three" usage, one can easily be drawn into the view that it arose out of a previous two-patterned usage and that the "2" arose from a one-patterned thinking activity. However, there appears to be a widespread usage of plurality which was initially focused on such as in the case of religious pantheons. For example, many stars were seen before humans began to scrutinize distinct Zodiac and other patterns. Something forced humans to begin thinking in conservative terms by way of creating means by which observations could be grouped. Let us not forget that the numbers 1, 2, 3 are separate groupings, just as much as they are a group when placed together, and referred to as a "set" in mathematics. Sets-of-three occur widely, being distributed in serious 3-person research contexts, amusing cartoon trios, generalized clothing sizes, in food, etc... For example, with respect to the 1 god idea, which was advanced by the desert dwelling Jews (albeit not too loudly because of the prevailing dominant orientation of having multiple gods by larger over-zealous groups in the same area who might take offense); let us not forget they were a nomadic people that grouped together long before they designated themselves as Jews— and were a group that longed for a territory to call their own because they convinced themselves they were a chosen people of their (chosen) 1 god who deserved a chosen land and a chosen type of worldly respect which exists today. It was and remains a shared egotism so very characteristic of not only religions but multiple other venues like science, math, theater, sports, business, politics, etc...

Big Mac Sociology

During some occasions you many not be able to easily uncover a "1" pattern example such as in the case of the Three Germ layers. While there are extant examples of two and three germ layer life forms, a one-germ layer life form may or may not be limited to the idea of sponges (which are animals). In any case, we have multiple instances of the "2" pattern with varying labels such as dichotomy, duality, pairing, binary, dyad, etc... And though we might list several examples of ideas which exhibit dualities, the person doing so might not include associations involving patterns-of-three, variously labeled as triples, triads, trinities, ternary, etc... In some instances you may come across someone who discounts the presence of twos by emphasizing threes, and then another person who discounts the threes by claiming the existence of an abundance of fours (variously described as quads, quadrilineals, quartet, etc...) Such a researcher doesn't put the "2-3-4" into a group, nor view it as a type of distinct three-patterned cognitive ensemble. For example, one person might speak of three dimensions and another speak of four dimensions (the 3 spatial plus time), while still another speak of multiple dimensions as a sort of one-upmanship contest; yet none of them are grouping these separate ideas together... whereby they overlook the cognitive ensemble of a pattern-of-three taking place in a given language culture.

Instead of stepping back to get some perspective, most people apparently jump into the fray as if being sucked into a whirlpool of social activity. We have separate people providing different views about the dimensions we live in, yet none of them are grouping all the ideas into a three-patterned {3-4-"Many"} dimensions array. It is a cognitive landscape they have not blazed a trail into. Whereas they may be familiar with the "1-2-Many" grouping sometimes assigned to primitive humans in their efforts to create a rudimentary counting system, they don't think of allowing the "many"... the idea of multiplicity (plurality) to occur in sequentially different stages with or without numerical references such as: 1-2-many, 2-3-many, 3-4-many, 4-5-many, 5-6-many, etc... Even though we can find multiple instances where plurality (many, much, more, bunch, etc...) is designated as being more than two or as a "3 or more" idea, the mental hovering about this 3-patterned "2-3-4" area of consideration in different topics has not yet registered as a recurring cognitive activity, much less began to consider the reason for such as a type of consequence for an ongoing incremental planetary deterioration tied to an ever-decreasing stock of resources that biological life forms must adapt to as a survival mechanism.

If we look at the "2" as a precursor to a "3", it should be understood that a full, separated-from "3" may not be achieved. There may be what is described as a "three-pattern", but it remains attached to an underlying two-pattern, as is the case when trying to cite triplicities distinct from dualities. It is perhaps better that we describe them as transitionals or even "attempted" triplicities. As is often the case, a triplicity gets its distinction by way of an association to a duality, even if the duality is not easily recognizable. Having to decide whether a triplicity is an actual "standing on its own feet" structure, can be difficult in some situations. Nonetheless, it is helpful when mapping out human cognitive activity to provide examples of dualities and triplicities in a given context.

Yet, the question arises if dualities can have separate sources or do all arise from a common source such as philosophy, and it arises due to the nature of human physiology perceiving an environment displaying contrasts such as hot/cold, night/day, wet/dry, etc? In any respect, one might make an attempt to claim the presence of 3 prominent Dualities historically placed in human conceptualization; though I am mentioning other varieties which might be viewed as sub-categories since so many ideas take their lead from the many dualities found in Philosophy. While one might view the dualities in Western Philosophy as a sub-category of the Eastern (Asian) values... whether or not described as the yin/yang view; the argument can be made that it is a stand-alone, separately devised origination which the human brain can respectively devise in different environments in different cultures and need not have been influenced by external sources. While at the moment I might say the three most dominant are Philosophy, Mathematics and Music, you might prefer to cite Religion with its dualities and transitionals with the primitive pluralities sometimes called pantheons. From a cognitive behavior of plurality (multiplicity) we see a later development into conservations involving three, two or one god/goddess, not necessarily adopted by everyone in the same manner or time frame. This "plurality to (→) one" cognitive activity is expressed in the U.S. Presidential slogan of "E Pluribus Unum" (out of many, one)... though I am not in anyway trying to say this indicates those in the U.S. are somehow more cognitively progressive or ahead of others living elsewhere in the world. It is merely an example.

  1. Yin/Yang— (original list magnified and widely disseminated over time)... one of which is in Western Philosophy which influences multiple subject areas;
    • attempted trichotomy: Eight I-Ching triads [which are little more than embellished byads].
  2. Western Philosophy— mind/soul, body/mind, nature/nurture, Minor/Major premise, premise/conclusion, quality/quantity, moods/forms, officially/unofficially, emptiness/non-emptiness, direct reduction/indirect reduction, Categorical/Non-categorical, expansion/collapse, hypothetical/disjunctive, either/or, reality/non-reality, constructive/destructive... etc.
    • attempted trichotomy: 3-part Syllogisms... and...:
      • Thesis ~ Antithesis ~ Synthesis
      • Indulgence ~ "Middle Way" ~ Ascetism
      • Major Premise ~ Minor Premise ~ Conclusion
      • Contradiction ~ Excluded Middle ~ Identity Principal
  3. Mathematics— (see list of dichotomies here: Persistent Dichotomies I);
    • attempted trichotomy:
      • Trigonometry (sine- cosine- tangent).
      • Pythagorean theorem (A2 + B2 = C2).
      • Boolean Algebra (And- Or- Not gates used in computer language)
  4. Binary Computer Language— (series of zeros and ones referencing the on/off characteristics of an electronic circuit. A computer is sometimes referred to as a box of very fast switches.)
    • attempted Trichotomy: Quantum computers with Trinary/Ternary language.
  5. Biology— binomial classification system, anus/mouth, dark/light (plants), amino acid pairing, diploid organisms, angiosperms/gymnosperms, autopolyploids/allopolyploids, species/subspecies, etc...
    • attempted trichotomy: 3 germ layers, DNA/RNA triplet code, 3 or more sets of chromosomes [polyploidy], etc.,
  6. Physics— matter/anti-matter, strong/weak, quark/anti-quark, radioactive/non-radioactive, quarks/leptons, up/down, wave/particle, light speed/sublight speed, atomic/sub-atomic, acceleration/braking, etc...
    • attempted trichotomy: 3 generations of increasing mass, (GUT theory: strong, weak, and electromagnetic forces), Alpha- Beta- Gamma, fulcrum- force- lever, Einstein's 1905 Trilogy, [In the atoms of alkali metals such as sodium and potassium, there are two components of fine structure (called doublets), while in atoms of alkaline earths there are three components (triplets) {Britannica: fine structure}, etc...
  7. Music— Major/Minor scales, rhythm/melody, song/dance, orchestrated/improvised, referential/non-referential, language/feeling, thought/emotion,is/is not, sharps/flats, upper/lower, dominant/subdominant, music/noise, diatonic/chromatic, tonic/supertonic, mediant/submediant, leading/misleading, (a note paired with its octave is said to be doubled), (strings on most clavichords are arranged in pairs {Britannica: keyboard instrument}), pure/impure (music (as the dance of one's mind)/dance (as the music of one's mind)), etc...
    • attempted trichotomy: major- minor- modal, rhythm- melody- harmony, Triads, [rectangular- triangular- polygonal relatives (spinet and virginal) of wing-shaped harpsichord], (Three pitches capable of sustaining the overlapping hexachords: C- F- G.), Thirds: major- minor- neutral, [cultural synthesis derived from conqueror/conquered], etc...

While on the topic of music under the heading of trichotomies, the "duple- triple- quadruple" time signature is not commonly referred to as a three-patterned ensemble of the "2-3-4" variety as a recurring cognitive theme which can only be recognized if one takes the time to collate other instances of the pattern taking place in other subjects. A short list can be found here: Devils Advocate page 14. The following images describe the music variety of the 2-3-4 triadic ensmble:

Duple, Triple, Quadruple ensemble

Images adapted from: Time Signature Types and Guide to Understanding Time Signatures

Note: what I mean by "attempted trichotomy" is that I am referring to transitionals in terms of adaptations of our human perceptions of human and external events in Nature. In many cases humanity attempts to design some "three", though that which is formulated may not be universally accepted. And for those who engage in a one-upmanship model of thinking, what can be seen is that the use of the word "plurality" (and its variants) satisfies the idea that human thought is not subject to limitation (like that of human physiology as recognized in sports records)... that there exists potential to exceed; and yet the word "potentiality" never occurs in the sequence of "monism(singularity)- dualism(duality)- pluralism", in the form: "singularity- duality- potentiality". The notion of plurality is often used as a substitute for ideas like "potential, possibility, and perhaps"; but has all too often been used to describe a presumed probability, and therefore an expectation of certainty; though the recurrence of a pattern-of-three structure used to convey this idea of a super-ordinant position awaiting to be discovered and achieved, is diminished to the status of being an everyday toothbrush, comb, brush, toilet paper or other maintenance item, and not viewed as a major cognitive tool.

The design of a particular "three" model may well be ahead of their time... or even late in developing, and not excepted because it is dressed in the clothing and hair style of an old vernacular. In some cases, the "three" may take on a name such as "triad" or Trinity, etc., because of three observed or implied elements, but actually conceals the presence of an underlying reliance on a pattern-of-two, such as in the case of the I-Ching triads. The duality of the 1-line/2-lines configuration is "embellished" with either a one or two-line addition to give the impression of an attempted true "three" model, but is in fact an 'embellished duality'. The one and two-line expressions reference the previous yin/yang associations of male and female, with the 1 line referencing the male penis and the 2-lines indicating the female vagina. Nonetheless, what we can see is an effort of human cognition attempting a "three" configuration as a reference to the changing nature of human adaptation to the incrementally deteriorating Sun and the deterioration of the Earth's rotation, causing the Sun's three phases/"moments" (dawn- noon- dusk) to fuse, to syncretize, to meld, (etc...) creating a 3-to-1 scenario. If this idea is correct, then we will seen increased instances of this as the future unveils. This makes the listing of examples of paramount value for future researchers who, with more information, may well tweak the ideas being presented, here, if not create a more definitive representation of human cognitive activity being subjected to increasing conditions of reduced resources.

  1. 3 trimesters to human pregnancy.
  2. 3-part time divisions:
    • Past- Present- Future
    • Hours- Minutes- Seconds
    • 3 Months Calendar (Previous, Present, Next)
    • 24 - 7 - 365 (24 hours a day, 7 days a week, 365 days a year)
    • Solar day, Lunar month, Earthly year
    • Morning- Noon- Night
    • BC- CE- AD (before the Christian era, during the Christian era, after the Christian era)
  3. 3 fingers used to hold a pen or pencil (apparently) by most people.
  4. 3-part Body plans:
    • Head- Thorax- Abdomen (insects)
    • Ectomorph- Mesomorph- Endomorph (Humans)
    • Acoelomate- Coelomate- Pseudocoelomate (animals)
    • Asymmetrical- Bilateral symmetry- Radial symmetry (animals)
    • Endosperm- Seed coat- Embryo (seeds)
  5. 3 social divisions:
    • Upper class- Middle class- Lower class (traditional classifications)
    • Priestly class- Warrior class- Worker class (Georges Dumezil's Tripartite Ideology of Indo-Europeans)
    • Queen- Drone- Worker (Insects such as bees, ants, termites)
    • Manager- Assistant manager- Third man (used in retail stores)
    • Master- Journeyman- Apprentice (guilds)
    • Orient- Africa- Occident (3 geographical distributions of 2 races [Asian- African- Caucasian])
  6. 3 recurring screen options placed on the upper right hand corner of computers: Minimize - Maximize - Close
  7. 3 options are optimal for Multiple Choice Questions.
  8. 3 dominant ways of eating food:
    1. 3... with one or more utensils (knife-fork-spoon).
    2. 2... with 2 chop sticks.
    3. 1... with one's hands, (such as for example the use of three fingers (in some Islamic settings) [instead of using utensils as tools, suggesting an anthropologically distinct primivity.].
  9. etc... (for example:) 3 colors on stop lights (green- yellow- red); 3 branches to government (Executive- Legislative- Judicial, U.S.); 3 Military divisions (Air force, Army, Navy (includes Marines); 3 University degrees (Doctorate, Masters, Bachelors); 3-day exercise routines (e.g. Mon. Wed. Fri.); Verb tenses: Ring- Rang- Rung; word genders: Masculine- Feminine- Neuter; ...

One can not suggest the possible importance of a given pattern (number or otherwise), if they are not responsibly attuned to the presence of other patterns. For example, Astronomers frequently speak of Binary star systems, but not Trinary, Quaternary, etc., star systems. Hence, it is of value to make note of the absence of a "three" pattern in this respect and wonder why. Is is due to the language culture of Astronomy, our lack of being able to see more distance systems which may contain a dominant presence of trinary star systems, or is it because our presence in the present time period represents a relatively young Universe sector from our Evolutionary perspective?

In short... yes, I am aware of other patterns. And no, I am not interested in using the 3s idea to promote any religion, racial, or particular philosophical review other than that which I am ascribing at the moment related to an incremental deterioration of the Sun- Earth- Moon triplex. Different people approach their own threes-related research from their individual interests, though some who utilize a "threes" orientation are not necessarily even aware they are engaging in a perspective of thinking which has a wider berth of application and presence in our lives. I provide three examples of others engaged in some aspect of the "threes" phenomena before introducing a short list I have compiled. I will add a few more from "time to time... as time" permits.

Book of three logo for Michael Eck's site of threes ideas

Book of Threes

Hegel and the Trinity

C.S. Pierce: Triadism

The Terror of Threes in the Heavens and on Earth

Awareness Intelligence
Fitter – Kinder – Wiser

Mathias Sager's tripartite world psychology and art
A Tripartite World
three teeth is the dominant recurrence
brian swimme, the third story
The Third Story

The Three Stories of the Universe framework categorizes three types of worldview:

  • First Story: Worldviews rooted in myth and ritual prevailing before the scientific revolution.
  • Second Story: Worldviews built on deterministic laws, a random universe, and the ideal of technological control from the scientific revolution to the present.
  • Third Story: Worldviews combining the First Story’s sense of purpose with the universalizable applications and laws of the Second Story.

The Enormous Tree(3) — Numberphile

An example of threes illustrated in psychology
Persistent Dichotomies pg 1

Omne Trium Perfectum
Three may really be the charm.
article by Steve Dayan, MD Advancement in Human Culture image

Ideation. In the world of human culture, all significant advancement occurs where three different fields of thought overlap to birth a new movement, initiative, or idea. This concept, whether conscious or not, is the method by which most of history's greatest thought leaders have advanced science, business, and the arts. It is at the intersection between the three overlapping circles where fertile ideas congregate, consort, and are conceived.

Elvis didn't create Rock'n'Roll, but when he combined the following 3 elements, his music found an audience of millions:

  • rhythm and blues,
  • good ol' boy values, and 
  • hip-shaking sexual overtones,

Steve Jobs didn't create a better computer, but he combined the following 3 qualities; he arguably gave birth to the world's most valuable company—Apple computers:

  • superior electrical engineering,
  • attractive and creative design, and 
  • fantastic user experiences,

Martin Luther King, Jr. didn't create a better protest movement, but when he combined the following three aspects, an all-encompassing, highly effective civil rights movement transcending himself and the vehicle it came in on was birthed, adopted, and supported:

  • non-violent civil disobedience,
  • religious themes, and 
  • “All men are created equal,”

Einstein famously combined the following 3 ideas to bring forth one of the most important scientific discoveries of all time:

  • energy,
  • mass, and
  • speed of light

The lesson in this reasoning is, if wanting to give life to a new idea, business initiative, or movement, there is a greater likelihood of success if combining three different fields of thought. Don't just make a better toaster oven but combine it with a cream cheese spreader and a microwave to develop something new and previously unknown.

While it is of interest for some readers to adapt a model of a "three" design to their ideas in an effort to assume some advantage over one or more others, it is clear that many who do are not even aware of their "threes" usage. In other words, they are oblivious to their usage thereof and in fact may be faced with a stumbling block if they engage in an analytical dissection thereof. Some may use a "three" pattern instinctively while others need to enforce a usage thereof since they may be inclined to the usage of one or more other patterns such as dichotomies. For example, did any of the previously noted historical figures actually know they were using three items in their efforts? Or is this assessment merely due to a later observation by someone else's interest in such a pattern? In some cases while you may view a person engaging in the usage of a three-pattern, they may actually think they are using some alternative association. In other words, how many "threes" (and other patterns) are a cosmetic of the mind induced by culture and not some actual underlying environmentally induced imposition? For example, is the presence of all patterns due to some underlying physics, astronomy, biology, or planetary geometry if not sociological dynamic? Indeed, why do some people become more cognitively aware of pattern usage and repetition while others appear to be functionally ignorant thereof? No less, why is humanity engaging in the use of a conservation of number... if it is not due to some survival mechanism on a deteriorating planetary system?

Is the "three" pattern a cognitive cosmetic adopted and adapted from one generation to the next or does it express something more fundamental in terms of (for example) illuminating a tree-ring type of indicator with respect to dwindling planetary, galactic... if not the greater cosmological stock of resources? When far too many of us are taking a survey of the recurrence of "threes" and other patterns in terms of individual appeal to our specific individual survival interests, how are we to identify it as having a larger application of meaning if we continue to engage in culturally created superficialities?

With respect to the 3rd molars (aka the wisdom teeth), it appears that they were of great value in ancestral primate forms for chewing tougher foods, but that there has been a trend for their absence {agenesis of the 3rd molar} and routine removal or that they fall out on their own. Philosophically/metaphysically speaking the "loss or absence of the third" can be viewed in terms of absorption as well. In other words, a 3rd idea that fuses with another is lost to perception for those unable to recognize that a fusion has taken place. For example... if the 3 moments/phases of the Sun [dawn- noon- dusk] have influenced multiple genetic, physiological and psychological patterns-of-three {such as the Christian Trinity from its Pagan past of solar worship}, the ongoing degradation of the Sun along a path of enlargement will cause the three moments/phases to "fuse" together; [coupled with the slowing rate of the Earth's rotation]. As a further correlation, the fact that the 3rd molars erupt in the human mouth between the ages of 20 and 23, this time period can be viewed as hours and correlated with the genesis of pre-humans when they began their trek when the rotation rate of the Earth was faster. While many a cook knows that the rotation of a blender has an effect on what they are developmentally preparing; this simple idea does not sink into the formative brain cells of scientists, even though they may use a centrifuge and set it at different speeds. Why do intelligent people often act as educated idiots?

A 2rd Set Of Teeth: ...Katsu Takahashi, lead researcher and head of the dentistry and oral surgery department at the Medical Research Institute Kitano Hospital in Osaka, told Mainichi. "We’re hoping to see a time when tooth regrowth medicine is a third choice alongside dentures and implants." By targeting the USAG-1 gene, researchers believe that they can help people without a full set of teeth regrow teeth. The (research) team says that humans have a third set of teeth available as buds, ready to grow as needed. Following up on a 2021 study (published in Scientific Reports) that showed how medicine targeting the protein synthesized by the USAG-1 gene could impact the number of teeth grown in animals, the team has turned its attention to humans. They’ve announced a 2024 clinical trial of the medicine, which they in turn hope to have ready for general use in 2030. (Third Set of Teeth)

Earth's Rotation Rate correlated to life's Development
example of rotation rate specificities and life's development

(You will not find this idea on any conventional geologic time scale mainly because no one thought of it.)

For those who think the content is too small to read
3 Essential Keyboard Shortcuts

A short and much abbreviated timeline on threes development

Steroidal Tree examples

*"8" was previously used for the mono-nucleotide reference in the above triplet code sequence of evolution instead of the conventional "4" to suggest evolution in the biological sense may not have begun until some rudimentary singularity, pairing or triplicity had taken place. The conventional "4 -16 - 64" idea is based on the present day usage of 20 amino acids (as a model of mathematical logic) which may not have existed in the deep past. Only a triplet code satisfies the present day usage of the 20. Singlet and doublet codes are too small, but may not have been so for life's fledgling stages in terms of biological functionality.

Due to design and operation of the Wankel engine, I have referred to it as having 3 strokes, though other (I will assume out of mimicry), are inclined to repeat the disposed notion of it having four strokes like a "normal/regular" engine.

Separate lists for multiple threes occurrences

Here's a small collection of T-shirts exhibiting a 3-patterned slogan. And yes, I know there are T-shirts with shorter and longer slogans, which... if this is the model of Categorization we use, we have a Less than three- More than three- Exactly three.

Examples of shirts with a three-patterned slogan

I can't tell you how many times I have gone into stores to purchase this or that tool, all the while observing the different types of sets, one of which is the triple-tool set. You can purchase single-item tools, sometimes two tools such as hammers, pliers, etc., and three-item tool sets. While there are 4 and more quantity sets, I will place all of them into a single category which provides us with a similar cognitive usage found in other subjects. For example, when we look at religion we see the idea of "one" expressed in the concept of a single god or Monotheism. In the past we can pay witness to divine couples or pairs (complimentary or antagonistic to one another). There are of course numerous examples of three in the form of trinities, triunes and triads. After which we encounter the notion of multiple gods variously described as polytheism, pantheon, multiplicity, etc... And yes, there is overlapping, regression as well as mixing and matching, but the underlying counting theme remains and appears to be cyclical. It's a wonder to me why people buy into the idea of a single god when there could be multiple entities just as easily. Then again, if we adhere to science such as particle physics, the idea of three families of fundamental particles would appear to be an example of an idea to support a similar philosophical approach to combat the Egotistically produced Monotheism.

Tool sets in groups of three

List of threes from Dante's Inferno
Dante's use of threes in the Inferno

In the foregoing list of threes from Dante's Inferno (a list submitted by Richard Williams), the authors of the list also make reference to a "3 plus 1" pattern which is another way of saying a 3 -to- 1 ratio. Here are the examples they provide:

...Another interesting formula of note in the Inferno is the three-plus-one equation. Three saints plus Virgil are introduced in Canto II of the poem, three monsters plus one are encountered before Dis, nine plus one pouches compose the geography of Malebolge, sins of Betrayal contain four sub-categories, and thirty-three plus one cantos make up the work itself. This is perhaps because there are three components to the Holy Trinity and one overarching Unity.

This Trinity itself provides one possible reason for each of the poems threes: Dante, obviously, wrote the Comedia as a deeply Christian work, and would have understood three to be a deeply theological number. Each of the tertiary structures in his poem can therefore be rationalized as a miniature religious reference to itself, and it makes a sort of logical sense that a poem that itself can be viewed as a reworking of the Bible would be composed so neatly and so fully out of the number three.

One of the problems with claiming that a list of threes in a religious context "naturally and logically" refers to a given religious orientation is that no one addresses the issue of why the value of "three" was adopted by many Christians, and in particular, the drafters of the Bible. Were they conscious of their use of a "three" theme as are many present day writers and speakers in their respective genres, or unconscious of such a usage? Then again, why did the value of "3" come to usurp the value of "7" or the value of "2" with its multiple identities such as divine pairs, antagonistic pairs, dichotomies, dualities, hermaphroditic, etc? No less, why do so many people buy into the idea there is only 1 god? How in the world do you know? Is it because the three born-in-the-desert religions— Judaism, Islam, or Christianity claim this is the case? Why did the idea of a 1 god come to usurp the past ideas of a divine pair, a trinity, or pantheon, and yet such ideas still exist in small enclaves? And why does the human mind only cycle through a limited array of ideological concerns relative to the quantity of a supreme entity? In other words, why so few gods? Why the conservation and concentration towards a single god-entity (singularity) if the human mind is not being subjected to environmental pressures which force it to adopt this strategy as a mechanism of survival in an incrementally deteriorating environment with increasing instances of severe rationing to take place, even if the majority of humanity is not cognizant of such? Those on the fringes of a large raft might be those to pay witness to deteriorations which eat away at the edges, like a desert encroaching on civilization at its borders, and those living at such borders are the first to pay to the sandstorm but may not think much of it if they too are focused primarily on the lush, verdant landscape of a manicured interior.

The cycle appears to involve 3 overall orientations which can overlap, leap-frog, be intermittent, be "punctuated" involving the various human concerns such as anthropological, biological, psychological, sociological (ie. political, economic, religious... etc.):

  1. Ideas of singularity such as a single god or a singularly chosen people, or singularly chosen place, etc.
    • The idea of "Nothingness" or "non-duality" can be viewed as single ideas, even if they involve multiplicity.
  2. Ideas of duality variously described as dichotomies, pairs, antagonisms, twoness, etc.
  3. Ideas of triplicity (or expressed as a multiplicity) such as triads, trinities, triunes, triples, ternary, etc.,
    • Ideas of multiplicity (which may or may not include three), such as a quadrivium, pantheon, plurality, etc.

A few examples from the field of pumps and related mechanical operations.

Why only a handful of number patterns and why is the "3" so very prominent if it is not due to an environmental influence signaling an incremental course of degradation? The "1", alternatively described as a singularity, signals that the human mind is adopting the necessary rationale as a survival mechanism... as the environment's resources continue to deplete. In other words, the ideas being espoused by different religions express a rationalized survival approach to the 3 disintegrations of the Sun, Earth and Moon. (The Sun is burning out, the Earth's rotation is slowing, the Moon is receding.) Yes, I fully realize you can find other number patterns, but if you look closely at those observed number patterns you might come to realize they are a recurrence of small numbers, and that if and when you decide to make a list, you will find some number patterns have a greater frequency of occurrence in different contexts, but may be wholly absent in other subject areas. This is an important point to make. It is not that we can't find larger number patterns, but we are not using them on a consistent basis. In all our subjects there is a recurrence of only a few patterns, including those involving Natural phenomena. Nature, at least from a human perspective, focuses in on only a few patterns as indicated by the ideas being generated in biology, physics, anatomy, etc...

Here's a larger list of the "3 -to- 1 ratios" that in the realm of Mathematics might be referred to as "Quaternion's". While a 3 -to- 1 ratio has been acknowledged as occurring in some instances (such as Mendelian genetics), a larger appreciation in multiple other areas of cognitive activity needs to be appreciated. The pattern appears to me to be a representation of the effects of the Sun's three moments (phases: dawn- noon- dusk) on a path towards a fusion as the Earth continues to slow and the Sun enlarges. In other words the pattern is a symbol of a biologically influential environmental event taking place. Similar to the idea in Christianity where it is noted that the Trinity is sometimes referred to as a 3 persons -in- 1 godhead. In other words, this expression illustrates the idea of an eventual fusion to take place with multiple other 3 -to- 1 ratio ideas. While such a cognitive behavior is easily seen in our time period, this may not be the case for future circumstances where 3 -to- 1 ideas are generated as composites. However, one need not be obsessed with using the word "to" since alternatives can be seen. For example, we might say 3 -in- 1 or 3 -with- 1 or 3 -from- 1 or 3 next to 1, or 3 times 1 or s minus 1 or 3 plus 1, or 3 -instead of- 1 or some flip-flopped variation such as the E Pluribus Unum expression denoting an "Out of Many, one"... where the word "many" is an old counting reference to the value of "3" as seen in the expression "One- two- Many", giving us three number words for humanity's early efforts at counting.

A few examples of the 3 to 1 rato pattern

In this section, let me begin by providing you with a few examples of the "threes" phenomena being associated with Natural events. And the information on the chart to the right is culled from Dr. McNulty's "Threes in Human Anatomy". For those wanting the chart, I provide this link to the Anatomy chart.pdf

This image is a link to a pdf containing this anatomy chart
Examples of patterns-of-three in Nature
Nature Seems To Love The Number Three by Mark Mahin

Here is a PDF of a list put together by: Scott Anfield. His accompanying commentary can be read at Mike Eck's site: On the Nature of the Universe.

Let me add a few threes-related examples from different perspectives of language. While some readers may have seen a few of them before, they did not make an active mental note of them into a singular compilation. If they had done so, and had done so for other subjects, then the recurring usage of a "three-patterned" cognitive theme might stick out in their consciousness. Here is the most recent compilation which includes a reference to recurring patterns-of-three in hear, since hearing plays such an important role in verbal language:

Examples of 3 part structures related to writing and language

The fact that we are using but a very few number patterns is significant. It also is significant to note that, despite the fact that it is Universally recognized by all Linguists that the ability to hear is of monumental importance for the usage of words, not a single Linguist in the history of the Subject has ever looked at the repeating "3" pattern associated with hearing and made any connection whatsoever to the frequency of 3s usage in speech. This is astonishing that so many intelligent people have collectively overlooked this phenomena in their research. And because I am not in their Academic club, my reference to the presence of a recurring "3" pattern is dismissed as being irrelevant... because someone in their group didn't think of it.

Vowels and consonants can be considered to be the segments of which speech is composed. Together they form syllables, which in turn make up utterances. Superimposed on the syllables there are other features that are known as suprasegmentals. These include variations in stress (accent) and pitch (tone and intonation). Variations in length are also usually considered to be suprasegmental features, although they can affect single segments as well as whole syllables. All of the suprasegmental features are characterized by the fact that they must be described in relation to other items in the same utterance. It is the relative values of the pitch, length, or degree of stress of an item that are significant. (Suprasegmentals)

You might be a reader who wants to rush in and claim you can find this and that article which presents a different quantity of items, and yet you do not also stop to look at the overall Conservation of Number EVERYBODY is using. In other words, we don't routinely come across researchers using (for example) 17 or 54 or 183 parts to describe fundamentals of language in speech or writing. Every single research focus references only a small quantity of items justified by some notion of inherent conservancy, even if this word, this idea... is not part of the usual linguistic vocabulary you encounter.

Here is an example of a geometric Linear- Circular- Triangular pattern-of-three expression occurring in the development of writing:

In the early period (writing) tablets there is a clear difference between the sharp tool used to draw the curviform lines of the pictographs and whatever was used to make the round holes for numbers that sought to imitate the original look of pressing counting stones into clay. By the Uruk III period we can see that they had developed different sized styluses with round cross sections for making number impressions. There was a gradual transition from the "umbin" as a pointed scratching instrument for writing pictographs to the "gi-dub-ba" reed stylus with a triangular head for making lines and wedges, which happened when writing transitioned from pictographic proto-cuneiform to abstract cuneiform by the time of the archaic Ur and Fara period tablets in the early third millennium. Several centuries after the invention of proto-cuneiform, the Sumerian scribe adopted what became the standard stylus with one end cut to make wedge marks and the other end rounded for making number signs. The appearance of the pictographs transitioned from being drawn with roundish natural-looking lines to being drawn with straight lines and then to the abstract conventions of the wedge-shaped cuneiform sign repertoire.

(Karl) Menninger traces the words for writing in many languages back to words for carving, cutting, or scratching. Furthermore, in bound collections of notched tally sticks or tablets of beech wood he sees the ancestor of the modern buch or book. He also convincingly traces the basic Roman numerals to tally stick notation conventions. Early Numeration - Tally Sticks, Counting Boards, and Sumerian Proto-Writing by John Alan Halloran (

Now, let me show those readers who have an interest in "twos" variously named duality, dichotomy, pair, complement, complementarity, binary, dyad... etc., because (if for no other reason) they need to realize that I acknowledge the existence of numerous "2s" as well as other patterns such as the "7", "13" different mathematical bases having existed in different cultures such as the 2 (in computers), 5 (common sorting system), 10 (current day), 12 (present time allocations of the day) , 20 (Mayans), 60 (Babylonians), etc... (Here is a reference to different types of counting system bases: List of Numeral systems), but don't view it as the definitive source.

This next image was culled from: (What sort of world is this?). A colleague (Richard Williams) sent me the link after he had taken the test. My score is 2.77. I was particularly amused at being confronted by having to choose between dichotomies! And yet, there is a three-part categorization. I present the poster and the link for those who may want to pursue the interesting idea which the group at the UPenn Primals Project have come up with, even though it is yet another example of the Persistent Dichotomies being used in Psychology classes and Mathematics.

Primal poster of the
What sort of world is this?

Examples of yin and yang patterns-of-two List of Dualites in Mathematics
Examples of duality ideas

Hemispheric attriubtes rendered as a dichotomy

Source: Mesologue

I sometimes come across a person asking Psychologists (of all people to query) why they persistently see the number three in multiple observations. And of course the typical response is that the person is experiencing some measure of OCD (Obsessive Compulsive Disorder). While this may be true in some cases, one needs to put the situation into a larger context. Such as that if the recurrent usage of a given number pattern is indicative of an OCD situation, then one must surely say that this is what Nature is expression. But more to the point is that the field of Psychology necessarily disparages any pattern that is not conducive to its own OCD situation in using patterns-of-two. It is clearly suffering from an OCD situation:

Examples of the two-patterned orientation which Psychology is using

Another installment of the persistent dichotomies in psychology

Date of Origination: Wednesday, 4th January 2023... 4:36 AM
Date of Initial posting: Wednesday, 4th January 2023... 4:41 PM
Updated posting: Saturday, 1st March 2024... 1:39 PM