Threesology Research Journal
Are Humans Rotation-Rate Specific?
Page 3

(The Study of Threes)

Rotation Rate: page 1 Rotation Rate: page 2 Rotation Rate: page 3 Rotation Rate: page 4 Rotation Rate: page 5 Rotation Rate: page 6

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Hypothetical visual:

Decreasing rotation rate
earth 8 hr rotation (16K) earth 16 hr. rotation (16K) earth 21 hr. rotation (16K) Can Humanity survive in the future or will the Earth revolve too slowly, requiring a New Type Of Human to Evolve?

earth 1 day rotation (16K)

Is a new species being evolved as we speak due to a change in the rotation rate of the Earth, the moon moving away, and the Sun continuing on a course of burning out and expanding?
Approx. time period:
3 - 5 Billions of years ago 500 million years ago 40,000 years ago to present
Approx. daily rotation rate:
Daily Rotation Rate:
2 (?) - 8 hrs (?)
Daily Rotation Rate:
20 (?)- 22.3 hours
Daily Rotation Rate:
23+ hours
Currently:23 hrs 56 min 4.09 sec
Significant Biological Event:
Development of
Primordial Soup elements
Cambrian explosion
of life forms
Beginning of
Modern Humans

While the topic of humanity's existence being dependent on (specifically related to) the rotation rate of the Earth (which is slowing down and was much faster in the past) is the main reason for this particular web page and its three others, numerous other considerations come to mind as representative expressions of the influence that we may otherwise denote as historical events. If such added topics appear to digress from the main topic, the reader will have to give me some "poetic license" until such time as I am able to re-write the information in the expected format expressed by the title. Succinctly stated, the emergence of humanity as we know it in terms of our relationship to Cro-Magnon man and the bipedal predecessors which have died out, all occurred at given points of history when the Earth exhibited different... or marginally different rates of rotation that should nonetheless be part of an overall comparison of time period data relationships, one of which is the determination of rotation rate based on ancient corals. Trying to calculate the rate of rotation loss as we move forward in time and the rotation gain as we look back over previous events, is difficult to narrow down to exact specifics because of rotation rate fluctuations and our rather naive understanding of the dynamics involved (tidal influences, solar irradiation effects, lunar regression, flow of magma below the surface, continent shifting, plate tectonics, polar magnetics, etc...). Nonetheless, we can arrive as some approximations that can be used to make educated guesstimations.

At this point in time, our present thinking on how to measure the rate of rotation (as feeble as it may be perceived by some), is the best we can do as we make comparisons with the "tree rings" (so-to-speak) found on other life forms and geological processes which reveal a given date and exhibit some tell-tale growth-pattern (growth ring) due to external influences which provide some indication of what conditions were like at a given time in history. In any respect, the approximations beg the question of whether or not humans (as well as other living and non-living forms of existence) owe their existence to the rotation rate of the Earth (along with the position of the Moon and Solar conditions)... and whether or not there is a limitation... a window of rotation within which humanity can and can not exist. In other words, when we identify that humanity (our present form of humanity which includes Cro-Magnons) were born when the rotation rate of the Earth exhibited a 23+ hour rate, does this mean that it has been physiologically fashioned, and thus specifically equipped (biologically, emotionally and mentally) to live inside this window of rotation rate, but can not live outside this window or rotation rate... unless there is a specific alteration of the acquired specificities (habits, circadian rhythms, blood groups, social organization, religion, philosophy, mathematics, etc...)?

Is a change, is an adaptation, is an evolution taking place and this change is being perceived by different people in different ways and may alternatively be described as some forth-coming monumental event... such as the impressions being outlined by New Age proponents, sensitive souls, and those who are responding to the changes (but don't realize it and may in fact be misinterpreting the changes within themselves in a negative way) because they are not in the company of those able to provide a useful (socially stabilizing) interpretation... even if the interpretation is fanciful? And in such a consideration are we not to include questions about the viability of adaptability related to present business, political, and religious views that may in fact be barricades to the necessary formulas for the evolution of humanity to occur... which includes the emergence of a fruitful female psyche that will cast off the many disparaging impositions, shackles, imprisonments and beatings of the male psyche? The psyche of a few men in reigning institutions abiding to the dictates of documents established by small groups of men through the ages that not only bar the majority of women, but also countless men from realizing a full potential of themselves... as they should be permitted to evolve or live a life of unfulfillment... which must be unleashed from those burdens which keep the female psyche from emerging, from spreading its wings that have for too long been bound by an unnatural cacoon created by self-serving men in business, government and religions.

Because so much of complex modern life forms appear to have begun their evolutionary trek during the 21 "to" 23 hour rotation rate, let us correlate some other interesting (relevant but divergent) circumstances involving this same numerical spread:


***(During cellular development, 23 chromosomes are supplied by each parent)***

As a correlation to the numerically-referenced three-day spread of 21 ~ 22 ~ 23, take a look at the 23 chromosome line-up found in humans:

Chromosome pairs 1 through 22 are always found in both males and females. Pair 23 are similar for a female (XX) but different for a male (XY). On occasion, three chromosomes occur in Pair 21 which results in a form of mental retardation generally called Down's syndrome or Mongolism. The thinking that revolved around having a "bad chromosome" had at one time influenced researchers to search for a "bad" gene in criminals. It was considered that a criminal had a "XYY" arrangement, but this view has been discarded with further research findings. However, the point to be made for our present discussion is that these frequent references to chromosomes involve:

  1. 2l~ (22)~ 23 chromosome area.
  2. The "XYY" at one time proposed as a commonality of criminals is an obvious 3-pattern.
  3. The "X" and "Y" shapes look very much like the stance arrangements of perching birds.

Some people might even want to consider the 3rd example as a prime representation of cosmic inter-connectedness related to all life forms. For those of you who have not looked too closely at the various perching stances of birds, let me direct you to the Fundamental Forces page at this site.

Earth's precession (4K)

With respect to the present 23 hours 56 minutes (and 4.09 second) interval for one earth day, this 23.5 occurrence can be correlated to the 23.5 degree tilt of the Earth's axis for the precession, as is illustrated by the image to the right. The triangular-like image can be visualized by placing long term Earth events into an accelerated mode to make the overall effect more intelligible.

[For those readers who have a difficult time in understanding the relevance, the solstice and equinox are related to the length of day with respect to the Sun/Earth interaction, and it goes without saying that chromosomic "behavior" is part of life. Both of which are relevant to the discussion on this page.]

Another 3-to-1 example can be seen in the dates ascribed to the two solstices and the two equinoxes which, when the Big Dipper's seven stars are viewed and drawn on paper during these times of the year, not only provides us with a celestial origin for the swastika, which can be viewed as four 7's (sevens) attached at their bases, but also gives an indication of how the left (levorotatory) and right-handed (dextrorotatory) turns of the swastika are numerologically correct:

Left turning swastika Right turning swastika

The "Equinox" refers to the position of the Sun when it is closest to the equator and makes the length of day and night the same. The "Solstice" refers to the position of the Sun when it is furthest from the equator. If you look at the dates that the two solstices and the two equinoxes occur, and arrange them in a circular or square-formed four-point type of directions concept as did ancient peoples, you will see that the calendar dates we of today ascribe to these solar occurrences, reveals:

•Twenty ONE
•Twenty TWO
•Twenty THREE

but instead of a Twenty FOUR, we have another: Twenty TWO.

Hence, we have a 3-to-1 ratio whether you count to the right (clockwise) or to the left (counter-clockwise). And for those of you who would argue that the solstices can occur on the day before or the day after the customary 22nd, we still end up with a Three-day possible occurrence consisting of the 21st~ 22nd~ 23rd! However, you may on some occasion find a reference to the Summer Solstice as occurring on June 20th or the Spring Equinox occurring on March 20th. No doubt that by making calculations based on different time zones and calendars, we can come up with different dates to the Solstices and equinoxes. Yet it may be of some value to some readers that I make mention of such an occurrence and acknowledge the presence of these dates as presenting us with a circumstance of a 3 to 1 ratio...that can also be viewed in terms of overlap (as well as interference and/or separation).

  1. 1 of 1. Day 20
  2. 1 of 3. Day 21
  3. 2 of 3. Day 22
  4. 3 of 3. Day 23

See the "Geophysical Influences" page:

--- Geophysical 3s Influences ---

Here's another way of doing the calculation and coming up with a different result by using different variables:

Using the exponential model, 4 billion years ago the rotation rate would be:

w0 exp(2 x 10^(-10) x 4 x 10^(9)) = w0 exp(.8) = 2.22 w0

--- Undergraduate physics forum ---

And here's another way of calculating using different variables:

We can do the calculation for one billion (1,000,000,000) years ago:

(0.005 sec/year/year) * (1,000,000,000 years) = 5000 seconds/year = 57.9 days/year

In other words, the year becomes 57.9 days longer, meaning that the earth rotates an additional 57.9 times in a single year. Adding 57.9 days to the current length of the solar year in days:

(365.25 days) + (57.9 days) = 423.15 days

Calculating the actual length of the day one billion years ago:

(365.25 days * 24 hours) / 423.15 days = 20.72 hours

--- Evolution versus Creationism ---

Let's use the above calculations to determine how long the length of a day was for additional billion year intervals (assuming a constant):

23.56 - 20.72 = 2.84

  1. 1 Billion yrs ago: 23.56 - 2.84 = 20.72 hr length ---------- 365.25 + 57.9 = 423.15 days
  2. 2 Billion yrs ago: 20.72 - 2.84 = 17.88 hr length ---------- 423.15 + 57.9 = 481.05 days
  3. 3 Billion yrs ago: 17.88 - 2.84 = 15.04 hr length ---------- 481.05 + 57.9 = 538.05 days
  4. 4 Billion yrs ago: 15.04 - 2.84 = 12.20 hr length ---------- 538.05 + 57.9 = 596.85 days
  5. 5 Billion yrs ago: 12.20 - 2.84 = 9.36 hr length ---------- 596.85 + 57.9 = 654.75 days

Here's another variation:

If we assume that the rate of slowing of the earth's rotation has been constant, we can calculate the number of days in a year at various times in the past (Hayward, 1985, p. 95). Suppose we want to know how many days made up a year in the Devonian period, estimated to have been some 400 million years ago. Each day was 20 sec shorter per million years x 400 million years = 8,000 seconds shorter. This means each day was only 21.8 hours long then, as opposed to 24 hours per day now. Since a year is 8799 hours long (24 hours/day x 365.25 days/year, using modern-length days) and this length has not changed, we can calculate the number of ancient days in a Devonian year by dividing 8766 hours/year by 21.8 hours/day, to get about 400 days/year. A similar calculation for the Pennsylvanian period, beginning about 280 million years ago, gives 22.4 hours/day, or 390 days in the Pennsylvanian year.

The reason for choosing the Devonian and Pennsylvanian periods is that we can check to see if these calculations correspond to reality. In certain modern corals and shellfish, we find growth-bands that indicate yearly, monthly, and even daily growth, rather like the annual rings that trees produce. By counting these bands, we can determine how long a particular coral or shellfish lived just as we can for a tree by counting its rings. We can also see that there are about thirty daily bands per month and about 365 daily bands per year for modern corals and shellfish. But careful analysis of the growth-bands of fossil corals and shellfish from the Devonian and Pennsylvanian has confirmed that years in these periods contained more days than years do now, and that the number of days per year for both these periods is remarkably close to the values calculated above.

This correlation between theory and observation is striking. After all, three different modes of dating are used here, and they all correlate with each other. The fossils are dated by the rock layers in which they are found, which dating ultimately depends on radiometric methods (decay rates of radioactive elements). The growth bands in the fossils are biological in origin, depending on the response of the organism to daily, monthly and yearly changes in environment (light, weather, and temperature). The earth's slowdown is an astronomical phenomenon. The three processes upon which the dates depend - radioactivity, biological growth, and tidal friction - are independent processes, yet all three combine to form a coherent, natural picture of what is happening.

--- Tidal Slowdown, Coral Growth, and the Age of the Earth ---

By Dr. Perry G. Phillips

Materials for this tract were developed from: Hayward, Alan. 1985. Creation and Evolution: the Facts and the Fallacies. Triangle Books. London.

Here's a variation of the above variation:

...Now let us go back in our imagination to the Devonian period, which geologists believe was about 400 million years ago. The days then would have been about 400 x 20 seconds shorter than they are now, which would make them about 21.8 hours long. But the years then would have contained 365 1/4 x 24 hours (= 8766 hours), just as they do today. So if we divide the number of hours in the Devonian year, 8766, by the number of hours in the Devonian day, 21.8, we arrive at an estimate of the number of days in the Devonian year. It comes to just over 400 days.

--- Re: Tides Record 18-Hour Earth Days ---
By Stephen Jones

And one more example:

...Let's do the calculation for 370 million years ago:

((0.005 sec/yr) x (370 million yr))/Year = (1,850,000 sec)/Year = (21.4 days)/Year

Thus, at 370 million years ago, the earth had 21.4 extra days per year.

The total days then per year were: (365.25 + 21.4)days/Year = 386.65 days/Year. (8766 hrs/Year)/(386.65 days/Year) = 22.7 hrs/day

--- How Good are those Young- Earth Arguments? ---

And let's add a short mathematical reference to the same topic:

The earth's rotation is slowing down due to the friction against the tidal bulge produced by the moon's and sun's gravitation. The variation is irregular but in general after 100 years the earth has rotated about .25° less than it would have if the rate were the same as at the beginning of the 100 years. That corresponds to one minute's worth of rotation.

  1. How much longer (in seconds) is one day today than 100 years ago?
  2. How long a period of time need go by for one complete rotation (day) to be missed using the original rotation rate as a standard?

(Assume a constant negative acceleration.)

...Submitted by Charlie...


  1. The total lost rotation equates to 60 seconds (time) during 100 years (orbits).
  2. Constant absolute deceleration.
  3. 1 year = 1 orbit = 365.25 standard days (I know this isn't exactly correct, but it's close enough.)
  4. 1 standard day = 60*60*24 seconds ... this is a fixed unit of time.

Let X be the number of seconds (time) of rotation lost during a year compared to the previous year. X is constant since the deceleration is absolutely constant.

During year 1 X seconds are lost
During year 2 a further 2X seconds are lost
During year 3 a further 3X seconds are lost

During year 100 a further 100X seconds are lost

So in total X+2X+3X+...+100X seconds are lost

-> X+2X+3X+...+100X = 60
-> 5050X = 60
-> X = 0.01188 seconds

Therefore the difference in rotation between year 0 and year 100 is equivalent to 1.188 (=100*0.01188) seconds (time). So one day today is 0.00325 seconds longer than 100 years ago.

[0.00325 is an average figure for year 100, clearly day 1 will be shorter than day 365 - but this makes no difference to 3SF]

Part two of the question is equivalent to finding the smallest Q such that:

X+2X+3X+...+QX >= 86400 (=60*60*24) where X = 0.01188 as above

At the minimum X+2X+3X+...+QX = 86400
-> (Q+1)*(Q/2)*0.01188 = 86400
-> (Q+1)*Q = 14544000
-> Q^2 + Q - 14544000 = 0
-> positive factor gives Q = 3814 years

--- Science ---

Though the above example of Geologic Era rotation rate changes is based on the reports of counting the daily growth rings on corals, similar (and supportive) information comes from looking at things like brachiopods, bryozoans and pelecypods (clams). While some readers are not familiar with the activity of counting the growth rings on coral fossils, they may nonetheless be familiar with the idea of counting the rings of trees in order to determine its age as well as give an indication of the environmental conditions such as whether it was dry or wet. Clearly, the fossilized remains of several different types of life forms exhibit (species specific) yearly patterns of growth with respect to the Sun, Moon and Earth.

In determining the age of humans we cannot cut a human in two (as we would do to a tree) and count growth rings, (even though some believe mtDNA to be a sort of miniature timeline akin to a data recorder [black box] found on aircraft), so we must rely on different forms of dating methods which provides us with the approximations in the chart.

  1. I used the value of .000000200 per day per year as a sort of average rate of Earth's slowing rotation, to arrive at the rotation rates that would have existed while humanity was evolving through the various forms of hominid species.
  2. To calculate the daily rate of rotation for the Geological eras whose length of days per year are established by counting the rings found on fossils, I merely subtracted this value from 365.2422 to get a relative difference for the number of hours per day.
  3. To calculate the rate of rotation of the Earth some 4.5 billion years ago during the genesis of life that is colloquially referred to as the primordial soup era, (in keeping with the general notion that there was about an 8 hour day ), I used the value of .0000000345.

The rate at which the Earth is slowing (and hence, would be the rate at which the rotation speeds up as we venture into the past), is calculated with different mathematical models because there is evidence that the rate of change actually fluctuates from day to day, year to year, and century to century. The following short list of rate differences are examples I have come across from time to time:

  • 0.000015 seconds per day per year at present, although there is reason to think that over long periods in the past the slightly higher figure of 0.000020 is more accurate. 1/100 sec/century, because of tidal effects!
  • 0.000020 seconds per day per year in the past
  • (between) 15 millionths and 25 millionths of a second every year
  • .00002 seconds per day per year
  • .00002 seconds per year
  • .0002 seconds per day per year
  • .0015 seconds every second
  • .0016 seconds per century (1.6 milliseconds)
  • .0017 msec per day per century (1.7 milliseconds)
  • 1/100 sec/century, because of tidal effects
  • .001 seconds per century
  • .002 seconds per day
  • .002 seconds per day per year
  • .002 seconds per century (2 milliseconds)
  • .0053 seconds per year
  • .005 seconds per century (5 milliseconds)
  • 1.4 milliseconds per century
  • 1.48 milliseconds per century
  • 1.5 milliseconds per day (0.0015)
  • 1.5 milliseconds a day per day (some creationists view this as correct)
  • 1.5 milliseconds a day per century
  • 1.5 milliseconds per century
  • 1.5 - 2 milliseconds per century
  • 1.7 milliseconds per year
  • 2.3 milliseconds per century
  • 2.5 milliseconds per century
  • 3 milliseconds per century
  • 1 second every 500 days
  • 1 second every ten years
  • 1 second every 625 years
  • 1 second every 50,000 years
  • 2.2 seconds per 100,000 years
  • 16 seconds every million years
  • 22 seconds every million years
  • 30 seconds per century
  • 3 hours over 2000 years
  • 20 days per year every 200 million years
  • etc...

milliseconds = msec

The currently measured rate of rotation slowing is about 0.00002 seconds per day per year. (That is, today the Earth completed its rotation about 0.00002 seconds slower than it did on this same day last year.)

Assuming the rate of rotation stays the same
if you multiply: 2 E(-5) seconds (per day) times 4 E(8) years = approx. 2.2 hours

(approximately the Devonian period)

The result would be about: (365 * 24 / 21.8 {hours per day} ~ = 400 days per year

Page Initially created: Monday, 25th March 2013, 9:31 AM
Newest Page Posting: Friday, 4th May 2018, 4:18 AM
Updated Posting: Tuesday, 18th May 2021... 8:18 AM
Your Questions, Comments or Additional information are welcomed:
Herb O. Buckland