Threesology Research Journal
Three-To-One ratios
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(Threesology Research Journal)

I will assume you are already aware of the panoply, pervasiveness, and proclivity of "Threes" occurring in various human spheres. Otherwise, continual referrals with accompanying lists will make discussions extremely cumbersome and distracting. However, this does not in any way imply you are aware of every single occurring instance or manner of a "three" appearance. Such words as three, triad, trinity, treble, triunity, etc., are nothing more than tools. They are digging tools, examining tools, tools to eat with, climb with, dissect with, write with, walk with, dream with, etc... Together they are a collection of tools found in a mechanic's, machinist's fisherman's, painter's, sculpturer's or sewer's tool kit. At times such tool boxes contain a variety of thingmajigs, whatchamacallits, and dohickeys like a junk drawer housed in many kitchens. 3 to 1 ratios are part of the collection. Whereas some researchers prefer a multitude of "exact fit" wrenches, sometimes it is far more preferable to have a cresent wrench, commonly referred to as a monkey wrench (in the U.S.).

All patterns-of-three can (loosely) be interpreted as a 3 in/as 1 ratio, or a 1 from 3 ratio. Take for example a flag with 3 colors on it to signify a given country. From one perspective the 3 colors in a particular arrangement (with or without any other markings/symbols), represent the flag of a specific country. Hence, the 3 represent the 1 flag. If you remove the colors (and other symbols), it is just a piece of cloth that may, in certain circumstances, represent a momentary truce. In many four-item situations, there exists some criteria that may be used to distinguish 3 from 1. In some instances, it may be nothing more than a word, space, silence, symbol, sound or even nuance which separates 3 from 1. Words themselves are sometimes better understood as being little more than a type of "morse code" of cognitive activity, with the underlying code translation best understood as a prmitive's usage of notches or pebble piling. Sometimes, a pattern-of-three in one language remains an easily identifiable pattern-of-three in another language whether the words/symbols are understood or not.

Some examples of "threes" are being misunderstood. For example, In a short discussion with three individuals who were trying to impress upon me their religious orientation, they understood the word "Trinity" only in a religious context. And then when I tried to explain it as a 3 to 1 ratio, they had difficulty in seeing anything beyond the limitations imposed (and expected) by their previous religion-focused social encounters. From their perspective, the word "Trinity" was something that had always existed. Trying to explain that it has an origin and its usage is frequently applied to past (ancient) views that we of the present define as religion, was a topic of conversation way outside the confines of their usual intellectual expectation. They were stupefied by the usage of information they had no ready-made counter argument for in which to re-direct the conversation to be used as supportive "evidence" that they were correct in their assumptions of biblical "studies" (superficial reading of select biblical passages).

However, I have found the same situation when in conversation with those identified as an expert in a given field. Some even feel threatened when confronted by a conversation containing information they may have little knowledge of. Typically, they counter the discussion with questions meant to elicit responses they will measure as being an indication of whether or not they feel they are smarter. Quite often, the subject is changed or they make an excuse which permits them to depart from the encounter. Relizing their uneasiness, I usually let them give themselves the impression of feeling intellectually secure about their grasp of reality, as defined from their intellectual territory.

In realizing there are various instances in which examples might be misinterpreted to be a pattern-of-three (as well as a 3 to 1 ratio), we should also be cognizant of the obverse such that there are instances in which examples are overlooked. Particularly those from before written history.

Clearly, there are Paleo- Meso- Ceno instances of the "three":

  1. Paleo instances of threes occurred before written history and were not possibly even recognized by any early form of hominid, assuming of course these early hominids did not have even the most rudimentary accounting system. For example, it may have been characteristic for some "John Adam Doe" or "Jane Eve Doe" hominid to pile three stones, collect three flowers or eat three items together. Perhaps they recurringly vocalized some form of "Ugh- Ugh- Ugh" during one task or another. Another example would be an instance in which an early hominid recurringly used three landmarks to chart a seasonal journey. While such "paleo-threes" occurrences maybe lost to us forever, a few others may nonetheless still be found someday through the process of an unearthed discovery.

  2. Many "meso-threes," occur in the form of artifactual and early form of pictographical (written symbol/numerical/alphabetical) representation, provide us with a hint that the human mind was constructing multiple ideas involving a pattern-of-three "formula," whether or not our present definition of "formula" can be applied as an implemented conscious effort on their part or not. An example of such is that the ancient Egyptian King Tut was buried in three coffins, not to mention the three great pyramids of ancient Egypt, though this latter example may be what we of the present see and was not a conscious construct of the ancient Egyptian mind. Another example that took place at different times and different places over long expanses of time is the recurring three-patterned "One - Two - Many" words-for-numerical quantity identified by those having written about number concept development.

  3. A present day theologian might argue that these B.C. era examples of "three" prior to the development of the Christian Trinity (Father - Son - Holy Ghost/Spirit) are tell-tale signs that the triune god manifested itself to the ancient Egyptians in the manner fitting for the time and place. Such then would be the argument against the present form of Trinity regardless of symbols, labels or names being applied or what religion extolled their significance. It is merely a symbol appropriate to the present time and place because humans are in a state of ignorance with respect to a more accurate understanding of God (or what is really meant by the G - O - D concept). Hence, present day religions are filled with stupidity.

  4. The description of a "ceno-three" may, for some researchers, be limited to extremely recent events, while others may prefer to include a century or more such as back to the beginning of the AD era. The length of time inclusive is thus dictated by the scope of their examples for a given area of research. Needless though it may be to say, but all of our present "threes" examples are of the 'Ceno' period... Paleo and Meso examples are products of Ceno- period interpretations.

...Nonetheless, it is important for us to be mindful that in some instances of our present search for past (or more recent) occurrences of the "three," our modern mind may unobservedly superimpose a present day three-patterned orientation (penchant) on material that does not in fact represent an occurrence of a "three," but a "third level" degree of our sincere enthusiasm. (The usage of "third level" is conveyed in a light-hearted tone and is not meant to be disrespectful of those whose personal interests involve a serious, ritualized observation denoted with such labeling.)

Imposing a view on instances which should not be the case, happens quite frequently in both positive and negative ways throughout human interests. For example, it is often employed by some religious perspectives to see "God's will" at work, or describe an act as being that akin to something a religious person would do. Another example is that a mathematician can easily see numerical values or equations in instances that a non-mathematically inclined person does not see or would even consider. A third example is when someone claiming to have a "musical ear" describes every sound as being some sort of music... like those philosophers of the past, using a variety of mental tools to describe events in nature as a "music of the spheres" situation. In short, we can impose a variety of inclinations on events which may not actually be the case, for good or ill, for deceit or efforts to be as intellectually honest as one's sincerity permits.

In my research of the "threes phenomena," as I collect examples from various subject areas as well as personal experiences, some that I have selectively grouped under headings thought appropriate at the time; which include different thoughts of those who have likewise ventured into the "realm of threes" from the perspective of their interest in the subject... I have had to develop a cross-discipline accountability in an attempt to develop, validate and at times, alter precepts of presumed conclusive authenticity for understanding the "why" of the threes phenomena, in an attempt to "fill in the presumed blanks" of a knowledge deficit with respect to questions being posed at a given moment.

Like many Threesologists (Triadologists, etc.), I too have been seduced into placing a feather in my cap when subjectively pronouncing a "threes" interest as having a (naturally) "lawful" merit of value when examples of threes are widely accepted throughout present human society as being the result of something other than a culturally imposed expression. For example, such as those pattern-of-three references demonstrably found in our biology, physiology, or externally larger circumstances implying a relationship with the fundamental nature of existence itself irrespective of humanity's presence in it. Such occurrences quite often "successfully surrender susceptibility" towards accepting the influence of our own inclinations when confronted by a mystery such as "there must be something to it" when nature itself insists upon using this numerically designated value, since this formula, as a recurring utility, presupposes any cultural influence... or so we initially think.

For example:

  1. The widely accepted idea that atoms consist of three basic parts, namely the Proton, Neutron, and Electron. This present physics model is felt to be the result of some recurring rule-of-thumb employed by the nature of the Universe, whether or not its reference is used as a confirmation of one's religious convictions. This pattern-of-three is commonly taken for granted as a Universal truth despite the consideration by some researchers that the notion of there being Three Families of Fundamental Particles may itself be the result of an unrecognized culturally imposed three-patterned orientation. Simply put, if one's culture has an overriding dominant (though not necessarily exclusive) proclivity to see the world in groups-of-three, its values will reflect such a penchant.

  2. in a similar instance, we would cite the cyclical (universally applied?) cosmological occurrence of known life to be on the third planet from a source of life-participating solar energy. Decidedly, at this point we can only conjecture whether or not such a scenario is the means and method by which life gets a foot-hold. While this example may not be a strict representation of a pattern-of-three grouping (separately or repetitively echoed,) the "three, as third" value is nonetheless accepted as a truth valuation, irrespective of our own logic for questioning the appropriateness of its usage in a context in which readily acknowledged patterns-of-three are provided.

  3. Perhaps prior to appraising the first two examples as providing the impetus for securing an attitude for indulging in defensible research that may be questioned by socially significant others whose own emotional stability is supported by a different array of intellectual suppositions defined as "THE" truth; many of us may reflectively acknowledge that our conscious awareness of the universality of an occurring triplet codon (coding) system in RNA and DNA, the often-called building blocks of life, is that which initiated a heightened intensity of further inquiry because natural laws-of-three presupposes any human interference..., thus producing a truer knowledge of reality... or so we may think at the moment of indulged-in consideration.

While the three-patterned word groupings of "Proton - Neutron - Electron" for atomic particles, and "Adenosine - Cytosine - Quanine" for RNA/DNA amino acids are readily seen as constructs of the human mind, (not to mention the single word "Earth"), the underlying "three" arrangement is thought to be an actuality that is not made up by the human mind. Whereas our usage of the word "three" is another construct, as well as the quantitative assignment, the same basic underlying form suggests a commonality. While from a philosophical perspective this too may be said to be a construct, it nonetheless provides a means for embarkation in our analysis, like a forked road providing different paths:

  1. One leading to endless points of diametrically opposed discussion.
  2. Another leading to exploration of threes as a purposeful complementary life philosophy.
  3. The other to testable hypotheses.

Professional and lay scientists the world over have got it wrong. DNA and RNA do not have a triplet codon (coding) system. It is a three-to-one ratio that may more easily be identified by describing as "three the same, one is different":

Item --- Three the same --- --- One is different ---
DNA = Adenosine- Cytosine- Guanine Thymine
RNA = Adenosine- Cytosine- Guanine Uracil

Yet, the "three the same, one is different" notion is not readily appreciated if we were to look separately at either DNA or RNA. Such an apparent distinction requires both to be placed side-by-side in order for us to make the comparison. However, once the generalized idea of a "3 to 1" ratio is consciously affixed to our considerations, a list of other examples starts to gain application to various ideas that would otherwise suggest a pattern-of-four to an unsuspecting collector of diverse information, whether or not their research intent is to describe a recurrence that another prefers to use a numerical label. The 3 to 1 ratio becomes another cataloguing tool that is differentiated from and complementary to a strict "threes" formula.

An example of the foregoing is when someone is doing research such as examining the "Tripartite Ideology of Indo-Europeans" as proposed by Georges Dumezil involving three socio-religious "functions". A researcher may insist that elucidating intimate details of each function's properties is of primary interest and importance irrespective of the tripartite organization that is likewise unearthed in their particular research excavations. The usage of a number-related identifier is very often shunned as if it were a communicable disease because it may imply a type of research tooling that so-called "professional researchers" would decry as unscholarly-like numerology. Yet to a Threesologist, it doesn't matter how the individual items are colored, displayed or otherwise labeled and provided proprietary monikers, there still exists a pattern-of-three that cannot be denied.

One may think they are exhibiting more intelligence and knowledge by presenting a concerted array of detailed information related to the characteristics of an entitled labeling system, but such knowledge and intelligence are lacking in scope if they deny the existence of an obvious characteristic as a repetitive usage of a pattern-of-three. (An analogy to this is the presumption of someone thinking they are more intelligent when they have intimate knowledge of sports players and their game performance statistics as opposed to those not having this knowledge... They contrast themselves with others, in a given circumstance, to presume a level of greater intelligence.) With respect to threes, in the face of such a recurrence, one must ask, does the material being researched actually contain a pattern-of-three (or whatever pattern one is identifying) or is the result due to an unrealized perspective imposed on the material by the researcher (who in many cases is a product of Indo-European influence?)

Along with this let me also describe a stumbling block circumstance encountered by Georges Dumezil when examining India's cultural groups stratification. Whereas he identified the existence of the three sought-for functions in his developing tri-partite model, he also encountered the existence of a fourth "lower caste" (out-caste) social order that, by way of a linguistically applied turn-of-phrase, frequently becomes dismissed into some irrelevance so as not to act like a wrench thrown into the utility of a "threes function" research wheel. In short, when he encountered the "out" caste group of people, he himself cast it out so that by so doing, it didn't cast a shadow on his tripartite socio-religious model of Priests - Warriors - Artisans/Cultivators. However, by including this additional item into a 3- to- 1 ratio model, Dumezilian research efforts help to describe the existence of a "threes function"— related pattern frequently overlooked (or dismissed in one way or another). A 3 to 1 ratio is part of a tripartite model with respect to our developing human cognition.

Before getting to a list of three-to-one ratio examples, I should note that I alternatively describe the ratio in a variety of ways that may give the impression of an arbitrariness deserving skepticism because the suggested commonality appears to be the product of altering the contour of the material being analyzed in order to fit within the boundaries of a proposed template (though the obverse could just as well be proposed):

  • For example, in the previous instance the identification of a "three the same, one is different" theme requires the comparison between two items (DNA and RNA), but in the child's counting scheme of Eeeny - Meeny - Miney - Moe, the "sameness" is found to be the similarity of sound in the first three words, whereas the last in the series is the "odd man out" by virtue of its distinctively different sound. In other words, the word "Moe" doesn't rhyme with the first three words.

  • Another example of a different kind of "sameness" can be found in the example of the so-called four directions concept from which the word "NEWS" is derived... namely, North, South, East and West. The word "and" makes the first three the same in that they are "territorially" denoted as being separate from the singular word 'West'. In other words, the word "and" is a point of demarcation, a linguistic form of surveyor's point of boundary marking.

  • Our usage of a comma to separate three number placements (ones - tens - hundreds, from the singular "thousands"... is an enumerated example of the "territorial" boundary being expressed in the previously mentioned four-directions concept:


  • When we reach the "ten thousands" place, we have two numbers after the comma. The "hundred thousands" place renders three numbers. The "millions" place provides us with what may be referred to a 1 to two sets of 3... and etc., with additional number placements.

  • With respect to Proteins, it is said they can have a Primary, Secondary, Tertiary or Quaternary structural format, with the "or" appearing to qualify as an effective similarity to the word "and" as a point of demarcation, until we recognize that the Quaternary structure is the composite result of the first three structures. In this particular instance, either mode of identifying a separation between the first three and the singular which follows, accomplishes the same 3 to 1 (or 1 to 3) ratio result.

  • With regards to some examples, the so-called "odd man out" is the result of three items fusing, or coalescing into a singularity, though there may be instances in which only a partial fusion takes place. An example of this latter view might said to be seen in the meditative chant named "OM," which is the result of two letters "A and U" coalescing to form the "O," with the "M" remaining as an associative but not fused sound. Those who have only seen the two-letter "OM" portrayal would thus overlook an instance of an underlying three-patterned letter occurrence. The word "coalescing" related to "fusion," has the added feature of outlining this instance as an example related to that environmental event which may be influencing the "threes" and its related varieties: namely, the Sun's three "moments" are fusing into a singularity (becoming a 3 into 1) as the Sun expands towards its decay.

There are other examples of three-to-one variability that one may want to include, (such as 3 lights in 1 street light, 3 coins to 1 dollar in some vending machines, 3 fingers "held" together to hold 1 pen, pencil, artist brush, etc.), but the foregoing itemizations assist in the preparation of accepting that which may appear to be quixotic but is actually an attempt at collating a present inexactness in defining similar observations from dissimilar vantage points... a type of explorative perspicacious -relativity in its own right.

  • 3 "even" amino acids for RNA: Adenosine ~ Cytosine ~ Guanine and 1 "odd" amino acid: Uracil.
  • 3 "even" amino acids for DNA: Adenosine ~ Cytosine ~ Guanine and 1 "odd" amino acid: Thymine.

When we look at RNA and DNA, we can see 3 (let us call them) "active" amino acids in the sense that they are mobile by occurring with both RNA & DNA, and 1 "resting" amino acid in the sense that they remain solely with RNA or DNA. But even if you would prefer to say the obverse that there are 3 "resting" amino acids and 1 "active" amino acid, there would none-the-less be a 3-to-1 ratio... (This particular 3 to 1 ratio example could even be stated as: "Three bases code for 1 amino acid.)

3 number words: One - Two - Many ... Related to 1 counting system used by primitive peoples frequently noted in texts involving the development of enumeration. Such a development suggests this as an example of a 1-2-3 maturational development sequence involving cognitive processes. In their own language equivalent way, primitive peoples had a word for the quantity one, a word for the quantity two, and any quantity beyond two was Many.

Each word used is described as a cognitive stopping point in the development of humanity's number concepts. Different patterns-of-three might very well be labeled as various (word related) historical counting limits, with the present one as a representative model, in context.

The idea of a cognitive limit, whether portrayed with numbers, words, symbols or whatever, should be explored further since we can find a similar activity occurring in genetics with respect to amino acids. The following charts describe three to 1 ratio variations of such limiters: :(3 Stops to 1 Start)

The RNA Codons:
U UUU Phenylalanine (Phe) UCU Serine (Ser) UAU Tyrosine (Tyr) UGU Cysteine (Cys) U
UUA Leucine (Leu) UCA Ser UAA    STOP UGA    STOP A
UUG Leu UCG Ser UAG    STOP UGG Tryptophan (Trp) G
C CUU Leucine (Leu) CCU Proline (Pro) CAU Histidine (His) CGU Arginine (Arg) U
CUA Leu CCA Pro CAA Glutamine (Gln) CGA Arg A
A AUU Isoleucine (Ile) ACU Threonine (Thr) AAU Asparagine (Asn) AGU Serine (Ser) U
AUA Ile ACA Thr AAA Lysine (Lys) AGA Arginine (Arg) A
AUG Methionine (Met) or
G GUU Valine Val GCU Alanine (Ala) GAU Aspartic acid (Asp) GGU Glycine (Gly) U
GUC (Val) GCC Ala GAC Asp GGC Gly C
GUA Val GCA Ala GAA Glutamic acid (Glu) GGA Gly A

The Genetic Code (DNA): These are the codons as they are read on the (5' to 3') strand of DNA. Except that the nucleotide thymidine (T) is found in place of uridine (U), they read the same as RNA codons. However, mRNA is actually synthesized using the (3' to 5') as the template.

This table could well be called the Rosetta Stone of life.

The DNA Codons:
ATG Met***    (START) ACG Thr AAG Lys AGG Arg
*** When within gene; at beginning of gene, ATG signals start of translation.

Review: 3 stops to 1 start. 3 amino acids the same while 1 is different. Surely you can recognize these two examples as a repeating pattern. But is it merely a repeating cognitive pattern scribed out by the present evolutionary state of the human mind/brain, or is it in fact a recurring theme in nature that supercedes any cognitive-cultural imposition?

The genetic code is almost universal. The same codons are assigned to the same amino acids and to the same START and STOP signals in the vast majority of genes in animals, plants, and microorganisms. However, some exceptions have been found. Most of these involve assigning one or two of the three STOP codons to an amino acid instead.

Mitochondrial genes: When mitochondrial mRNA from animals or microorganisms (but not from plants) is placed in a test tube with the cytosolic protein-synthesizing machinery (amino acids, enzymes, tRNAs, ribosomes) it fails to be translated into a protein. The reason for this is that these mitochondria use UGA to encode Tryptophan (Trp) rather than as a chain terminator. When translated by cytosolic machinery, synthesis stops where Trp should have been inserted.

In addition, most:

  • Animal mitochondria use AUA for methionine not isoleucine and
  • All vertebrate mitochondria use AGA and AGG as chain terminators.
  • Yeast mitochondria assign all codons beginning with CU to threonine instead of leucine (which is still encoded by UUA and UUG as it is in cytosolic mRNA).

Plant mitochondria use the universal code, and this has permitted angiosperms to transfer mitochondrial genes to their nucleus with great ease.

The above table information and accompanying comments are adapted from:

--- The Genetic Code ---

From the perspective of a three-to-one model, the notion of a "Triplet" codon system turns out to be another culturally imposed pattern-of-three assignment, suggesting an underlying three-patterned imposition involving the subjects of different disciplines such as the threes in our physiology/anatomy, our language, and our basic biology; requiring a rather kaleidoscopic approach when unraveling the myriad out-croppings of the "threes phenomena".

However, at this point let me interject the possibility that a "threes" inclination, perspective, proclivity, etc., due to cultural influences may become more widespread if there is an underlying impetus to do so because of a physiologically based 1- 2- 3 maturational development sequence affecting such in certain people due to as yet unrecognized environmental conditions which renders such an impetus into a permissibly active status.

Through the perspective of an acknowledged three-to-one ratio existence, a much larger implication unravels with respect to a possible meaning for the wide-spread occurrence of "threes" in various human endeavours. With this said, we might want to speculate that the Earth is actually one-of-three planets that life has been on, with Mercury and Venus preceding many billions of years ago. (Venus has been found to contain a thin layer of the three oxygen molecule ozone, thereby suggesting intense solar irradiation effects may have at one time been nullified as a precursor to the development of life.) Thus, the planet Mars would be the "odd man out," selectively rendering it to the "One is different" category... particularly if the Sun's life-assisting effects would become negligible long before the planet Jupiter could begin to develop the necessary initial steps for evolving into a life supporting environment. (In other words, there is no second odd man out.) Likewise, the three widely acknowledged basic atomic particles may have a singular "odd man out" particle awaiting to be discovered, if not merely assigned with such a description, thus altering our understanding of the Universe. (Yet I am as yet not thoroughly convinced that the "odd man out" designation specifically refers to a singular item and not an array of three or pattern-of-three in-the-making. In other words, perhaps Mars represents the second of a three series of three-planet groupings.

The idea of a 3 to 1 ratio thus incorporates many so-called patterns-of-three and patterns-of-four (and even other seemingly smaller or larger numerically identifiable groups) into a category which helps to further elucidate what one may call a search for the origin of a "threes design" influence. The logic for this search is simplified as:

  • There are many different examples of threes occurring in different human interests.
  • Human anatomy has multiple threes examples.
  • Human physiology has multiple threes examples.
  • Humans grow from three Germ layers by way of an adult female with a three-patterned designated (Trimesters) pregnancy.
  • Human genetics is said to contain a triplet formula (triplet coding system).
  • RNA and DNA evolved on the third planet in a planetary system with a source of solar energy.
  • The third planet itself has undergone changes with respect to its environment and rate of rotation as life has evolved.
  • The early Earth rotated at a rate much faster than it does today. Different mathematical models based on varying interpretations provide illustrative examples.
  • The Sun has three distinct moments, as verified by effects on varying life forms, labeled Dawn- Noon- Dusk.
  • The three solar "moments" occurring with a faster spinning Earth produced a triple-patterned irradiation effect on evolving life.
  • Life expresses the "three moment" solar effect already, in a variety of ways.
  • As the Sun decays it expands while the Earth's rotation rate slows.
  • The solar expansion causes the three life-influencing solar moments to come together in what can be called a fusion. The fusion is thought to be so complete that the Earth will one day be consumed by it.
  • Life has already begun to express the three-to-one ratio (three "moments" fusing into one) event.
  • Although gradual, impressionable life on Earth is changing, but it can not adapt to the eventual demise of Earth. Life must seek elsewhere to live. The closest planet is Mars.

From my perspective, the recurring proclivity of "threes" is a repeating statement in a paragraph of information that appears to present us with three different "trilitically ordered" and preliminary considerations:

  1. The information is not being read with respect to the recognition of any pattern except those being pointed out by exposed superficial content (current and fleeting events;) for example, sports team wins/losses, employment opportunities, obituary listings, or some book on a best seller's list.

  2. The information is being misidentified in accordance with strict personal interests to substantiate one's beliefs with respect to a current religious, political, or business orientation/conviction; for example, what to wear for church on Sunday, whose running for political office, or what product is being advertised with a redeemable coupon for a discount.

  3. Or the information is purposely being concealed (in one or more ways) from others for one or another ulterior motives; for example, many decades ago when I had (in private) pointed out the recurring theme of threes in the New Testament to a theologian, he went out of his way (by way of a church marquee) to try to emphasize a recurring pattern-of-seven that he claimed was dominant in the Christian bible.

At this moment in the discussion concerning three-to-one ratios, let me point you in the direction of another page with more 3 "to" 1 examples:

--- Three "to" One ---

Your Questions, Comments or Additional information are welcomed:
Herb O. Buckland