Threesology Research Journal
Three-To-One ratios
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This page was initially started (and placed on the web in 2007, hence the duplication with more recent documents;) as a reference to examples of 4-part structures from a variety of interests compiled by Alexander I. Stepanov, as a supplement to a compiled list of 3-part structures:

--- The Number and Culture ---
by Alexander I. Stepanov

It was because of Mr. Stepanov's page that I began to think more earnestly about the 3-to-1 ratios idea that I was compiling information about, but had not as yet put into a comprehensive representation. I re-place the pages at this newer web-site, leaving most of the information as it had originally appeared. Let me thank Mr. Stepanov for his research efforts and his contribution to the study of threes.

Triple structure examples by A.I. Stepanov:
  • Persons of pronouns: I - You - (he - she - it);
  • Genders: Masculine - Feminine - Neuter;
  • Past - Present - Future;
  • Three part's division of time by Confucius, Zoroastrians;
  • The tense system in German;
  • Degrees of comparison for adjectives and adverbs: Positive - Comparative - Superlative;
  • Articles: Definite - Indefinite - Zero;
  • Parts of the sentence: Two primes and a Secondary;
  • The Heaven - the Earth - the Hell (Paradise - Earth - Inferno);
  • Body - Soul - Spirit;
  • Geosphere - Biosphere -Noosphere;
  • Mind - Sense - Will;
  • Three levels of the ego by K. Jaspers;
  • More - Less - Equal;
  • Rational quantities - Algebraic irrational ones - Transcendence;
  • Real numbers - Complex numbers - Quaternions;
  • Rich - Middle - Poor classes in modern Western societies;
  • The nobility - The clergy - The third estate in absolutistic France;
  • Poetic social order in The Republic by Plato;
  • Estate order in the Russian empire;
  • Three forms of state service: Military - Civilian - Court;
  • Three branches of state power: Legislative - Executive - Judicial;
  • The institute of tripartite commissions: Business - Trade unions - Government;
  • The court: Prosecution - Defense - Judge;
  • The forms of government: Autocracy - Oligarchy - Democracy;
  • Types of legal power by M. Weber;
  • Standard classification of political movements: Liberalism - Conservatism - Radicalism

Political Movement Variants:
Liberalism - Conservatism - Marxism
Liberalism - Marxism - Nationalism
The Right - The Left - The Centre

  • The West - The East - the Third World;
  • The notion of "the Third Way";
  • World-system analysis: Kernel - Semi-periphery - Periphery;
  • Russian ideology of the 19th century: Orthodoxy - Autocracy - Nationality;
  • State ideology of Thailand: Nation - Religion - Monarchy;
  • A. Ferguson: Ages of savagery - Barbarism - Civilization;
  • Thomsen: The Stone - The Bronze - The Iron Ages;
  • Palaeolithic period - Mesolithic period- New Stone Age;
  • Ancient history - Middle Ages - Modern times;
  • "Moscow is the Third Rome";
  • "The Third Reich";
  • "The Third Revelation";
  • Classical system of literary genre: Lyrics - Epos - Drama;
  • Tragedy - Comedy - Drama;
  • Literary process: Author - Reader - Critic;
  • Ingredients of aesthetic object by M.M. Bakhtin: Author - Hero - Audience;
  • Frege's triangle: Real object - Concept - Symbol (denotation - designation - name);
  • F. de Saussure: Langage - Langue - Parole
    (German: Rede - Sprache - das Sprechen or Sprache - Sprachtum - Sprechart);
  • Mental structure of a person by S. Freud: Subconscious - Consciousness - Super ego;
  • Faith - Hope - Love;
  • Spheres of moral law by Thomas Aquinas: The natural realm of elements - The heavenly world of the firmament - Intelligible world;
  • The threes by J. Boehme;
  • The truth - The good - The beauty;
  • The highest cognitive abilities by I. Kant: Reason - Intellect - The ability for judgment;
  • Hegel:

Hegelian Examples
The universal - The particular - The single
Being - Nothing - Becoming
Quality - Quantity - Measure
Essence - Phenomenon - Reality
Law - Ethics - Morals
The family - The guild - The state
Thesis - Antithesis - Synthesis

  • The life styles by S.A. Kierkegaard: Aesthetic - Ethic - Religious;
  • Three main paradigms of New Age's philosophy by A. Whitehead: Idealism - Materialism - Dualism;
  • Races of mankind: The three-race theory (Negroid- Mongoloid- Caucasoid);
  • Ethnic kernel of American nation: The English - The Germans - The Irish;
  • Main groups of European nations: Romanic - Germanic - Slavonic;
  • Pivotal world religions: Christianity - Islam - Buddhism;
  • Three main parts of Christianity: Catholicism - Orthodoxy - Protestantism;
  • Key religious and philosophical components of the traditional Chinese culture: Confucianism - Daoism - Buddhism;
  • The threes of folklore's heroes;
  • Pythagorean classification of living intelligent creatures: God - Man - A creature like Pythagoras;
  • Pascal: "The God of Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, but not the God of philosophers";
  • Roman law: Tres Facuint Collegium (the three make a collegium);
  • Number three by the Pre-Iranians, Chinese, primordial people;
  • The structure of monogamic family: Man - Wife - Children;
  • Three-dimensional physical space;

Quaternion structure examples by A.I. Stepanov:

  • Four-dimensional physical space; the aggregate states of the matter: solid - liquid - gas - plasma;
  • The fundamental physical interactions: strong - electro-magnetic - weak - gravity;
  • The Golden - the Silver - the Bronze - the Iron Ages;
  • The four elements: earth - water - air - fire;
  • The four of the Gospels (by Matthias, Mark, Lucas, John);
  • The fours by A. Schopenhauer, H. L. Bergson;
  • The four-dimensional time by M. Heidegger;
  • The Ancient history - the Middle Ages - the New Age - the Newest;
  • The social and economic structures by Marxism: slave-owning system - feudalism - capitalism - communism;
  • The fourth type of political movements: Bolsheviks;
  • "Les trois mousquetaires" by A. Dumas: Athos - Porthos - Aramis - d'Artagnan;
  • "The Karamazov Brothers" by Dostoyevsky: three legitimate sons and an illegitimate one;
  • "The Golden Calf" by Il'f and Petrov: Kozlevitch - Balaganov - Panikovsky - Bender;
  • The seasons: spring - summer - autumn - winter;
  • The cardinal points: east - west - south - north;
  • The times of the day: morning - afternoon - evening - night;
  • Division of the day in German;
  • The fourth literary genre;
  • Quaternions by K. Jung;
  • Paradise - Purgatory - Inferno - Earth;
  • Studies about Sophia in Russian religious philosophy;
  • Quaternions in the mass culture;
  • "Three men in a boat (to say nothing of the dog)" by J. K. Jerome;
  • The Beatles John - Paul - George - Ringo;

A question that must be asked, are the above examples of "four" actually examples of a 3 to 1 ratio? (A ratio that may be variously described as 3 and 1, 3 into 1, 3 from 1, 3 near 1, 3 apart from 1, 3 as 1, 3 or 1, 3 but not 1, 3 to 1, 3 overlapping as 1, etc., or the numbers may be reversed.) Is human cognition following a 1- 2- 3 -"and" four developmental sequence in consciousness, or is there a larger evolutionary change taking place where the label "four" is a misidentification? Are we witnessing a subtle expression of the beginnings in a developmental "leap" (in human consciousness) that some biologists might refer to as an example of punctuated equilibrium, instead of a graduated (overlapping?) form of development, that is implied by a natural transition expressed between a three and four sequence? Does a 3 to 1 ratio formula more accurately describe developmental processes of human cognition in terms of referencing this activity with humanity's progressive usage of word labels for quantities, as opposed to an interpretation of the same material as being representative of a "four" model?

A prime example of this question might be said to be answered by reference to early man's usage of:

  1. The word "one" for the quantity 1.
  2. The word "two" for the quantity 2.
  3. Any number beyond 2 was considered "many."

Hence, the three number words of ONE, TWO, MANY are a common recurrence cited by researchers studying the development of number concepts of early humans. There was no "four" label for quite some time until human cognition progressed. When the concept of "four" had been developed as a result of adding 1 + 1 + 1 + 1, or 2 + 2, or 1 + 3, the number 1 (as a singularity) was relegated to a status of being a non-number distinction, with parallels of this distinctiveness assigned to the "one" being expressed in the existence attributed to GOD as being distinct from the Holy Ghost/Spirit - the Son - Mankind. By such a philosophical exclusion, though in practical terms a value of one was indeed used to express the concept of singularity in commercialized terms, human cognition retained a basic three number (word) system of reference, but there was, in an overall sense, a 3 to 1 ratio formula: 3 numbers (two- three- four) and 1 non-number (one).

With this said, in one sense, the expression of "being one with god" is a reference implying a non-number association of a distinct reality. The "one" is not a number of quantitative exceptionalness, but a qualitative assignment of realization. Nonetheless, it is a number value akin to the enumeration values used in many modern contexts that are, in part, a persistence of cognitive primivity that is attached with a significant level of superstition. For example, political candidates weigh their chances of winning (or losing) on the "numbers" derived from polls conducted during campaigns and an election. Others examples are the numbers games employed by stock markets, census bureaus, statistical analytics, betting, etc... All are conducted with their one types and levels of superstition... related to the primivity of human cognition that persists.

In everyday terms, since it can be considered that the mental state of the average person retains some semblance of the 1-2-3... cognitive schematic of an ancient human in terms of number usage, are the above word-described examples of a four quantity just another way in which human consciousness expresses the referential "Many," which obscures the underlying recurrence of a 3 to 1 ratio formula? Is it simply nothing more than just another means of expressing a basic mental structure that finds ways of illustration other than the usage of numerical symbols?

An interesting (but subtle) variation of this 1/Many ratio -(mentality) can be observed in the logic used as a defense by some when questioned about whether or not a particular item was consumed in a large quantity by them. Take for example a person who eats most of a bag of potato chips except for a handful. If another person then eats the remaining portion, it is argued by the first person (usually a child to a parent) that it was the other person who ate "all" the potato chips as evidenced by the empty bag, and that they only ate "some of them," where the label "some" is meant to be defined as a smaller proportion. Though the labels of "One and Many" are not used as distinct references (as they are in the E Pluribus Unum phrase on American money), there is a clear representation of a little/ -medium- /a lot ratio which implies that there is a recurring underlying cognitive pattern being displayed in word form instead of numerical form.

The question concerning a three-part versus a four-part structure was addressed by Carl Jung. The following comments have been extracted from the Quodlibet Online Journal article:

--- Carl Jung and the Trinitarian Self ---
by Michael J. Brabzon.

... However, this is out of step with Jung's thinking generally which is always looking to the complementary nature of opposites, even to the extent of good and evil. Indeed, he berates Christian dogmatists for trying to cast out the Devil instead of making him part of the Trinity, i.e. making it a quaternity.

Jung himself noted that often the fourth part of a quaternity appeared somehow different to the other three (smaller, feminine, etc.),*** using as an example the woman who completes the trinity of men during his trip to Kenya in Memories, Dreams, Reflections. In particular, he points to the fourth element of the Christian quaternity, the Virgin Mary, the "chthonic" ("chthonic" means: dark, primitive, and mysterious). In the same way that Jung deals with triadic-themed mandalas, so also with dreams.

*** Marie-Louise von Franz comes close to this concept when she explains a fairy tale concerning a king with his three sons. The youngest son - the fourth person in the story - is the weak odd-man-out who, psychologically, will be assimilated into the ego and then act as a mediator between the collective unconscious and the ego. However, this approach is constructed from typological considerations and falls short of a universal explanation for the imbalanced quaternity.

Many of the dream examples used by Jung to demonstrate the centrality of the quaternity to the psyche are actually based on the formula of the-dreamer-plus-three- others. Here are some of the examples from Psychology and Alchemy [Collected Works, vol 12] which Jung employed to show ongoing alchemical symbolism in modern man's unconscious. The dreamer in each case, I believe, is representative of the ego and the three others, the triune Self:

  • The dreamer finds himself with his father, mother and sister in a very dangerous situation on the platform of a tram-car. [One similar to this is recorded by P W Martin in Experiment in Depth: A Study of the Work of Jung, Eliot and Toynbee, Routledge & Kegan Paul, London, 1976, page 52, which commences "We were in a car going from Geneva to Lausanne. There were four of us, my father, mother, younger brother and myself...". Indeed, many of the ancient triadic formulations were based on familial relationships, especially in Egypt.] (Collected Works, vol 12, par 151.)
  • Four people are going down a river; the dreamer, his father, a certain friend and the unknown woman. (Collected Works, vol 12, par 162.)
  • The dreamer, the doctor, a pilot, and the unknown woman are travelling by aeroplane. (Collected Works, vol 12, par 147.)
  • The dreamer is in the Peter Hofstatt in Zurich with the doctor, the man with the pointed beard, and the 'doll woman'. (Collected Works, vol 12, par 136.)
  • In a primeval forest. An elephant looms menacingly. Then a large ape-man, bear, or cave-man threatens to attack the dreamer with a club. Suddenly the man with the pointed beard appears and stares at the aggressor, so that he is spell-bound. But the dreamer is terrified. The voice says, "Everything must be ruled by light." (Collected Works, vol 12, par 117.)


The following chart provides a handful of examples of four-item references broken down into 3-to-1 characterizations (but you could also refer to them as a 1-to-3 ratio):

3 1
3 grouped (drumming) beats separated by 1 emphasized beat (Native American)
3 ordinary dimensions: Length ~ Width ~ Depth 1 Time dimension
3 fundamental gauge forces: Strong - Weak - Electromagnetic 1 fundamental non-gauge force: Gravity
3 "even" amino acids: Adenosine ~ Cytosine ~ Guanine 1 "odd": Uracil (RNA), Thymine (DNA)
3 basic protein structures: Primary - Secondary - Tertiary 1 composite protein structure: Quaternary
3 (metal) vending coins: Nickels ~ Dimes ~ Quarters 1 relational (paper) form: Dollar bill
3 numbered potatoes: 1 potato ~ 2 potato ~ 3 potato 1 un-numbered 4 (counting game)
3 numbered bits: 2 bits ~ 4 bits ~ 6 bits 1 un-numbered: a dollar (cheer-leading)
3 face cards: Kings ~ Queens ~ Jacks 1 related Ace card (faceless)
3 typically used face cards: Kings ~ Queens ~ Jacks 1 less commonly used face card: Joker
3 rhymes: eeny ~ meeny ~ miney separated by 1 (mo) of another 3: (mo ~ toe ~ go)
3 indoor coverings: Curtains ~ Blinds ~ Shades 1 related outdoor: Shutters
3 God labels: He ~ She ~ It 1 relational: Non-Entity (non-existence)
3 numbered bases: 1st ~ 2nd ~ 3rd related to 1 unnumbered: Home plate/base
3 customary years 1 relational: leap year
3 primary cycles: Intake ~ Compression ~ Power 1 relational: Exhaust
3 "element" A-U-M = "OM"
(Birth~ Being~ Dissolution)
1 relational: Silence
3 step shampooing: Wet hair ~ Lather ~ Rinse 1 relational: Repeat as desired
3 female desires for a man: Tall ~ Dark ~ Handsome 1 relational: Rich
3 part call: Hear Ye! Hear Ye! Hear Ye! 1 relational: The court is now in session
3 part game call: Apples ~ Peaches ~ Pumpkin Pie 1 relational: Who's not ready hollar I
3 basic forms of matter: Solids ~ Liquids ~ Gases
(Earth- Water- Air)
1 relational: Plasma
3 (metrical foot) stressed syllables 1 relational unstressed syllable
3 guitarists (Beatles): Paul ~ John ~ George 1 relational drummer: Ringo
3 regular U.S. forces: Army ~ Navy ~ Air force 1 relational: Marines (Navy Dept.)
[Coast Guard = Dept. of Transportation]
3 times repeated cadence: Gimme' (give me) your left 1 related: Right (military marching)
Gimme' your left- Gimme' your left- Gimme' your left----- Right
3 consonants to (four-letter) Cuss Words 1 related vowel
3 (numerical) feet: 1 foot + 1 foot + 1 foot equals 1 related (word): Yard
3 common body crossings: Legs ~ Arms ~ Fingers 1 uncommon related: Eyes
3 Europeans: D.L. George ~ V. Orlando ~ G. Clemenceau 1 (U.S.A): W. Wilson (Paris Peace Talks)
3 at-bat chances to run 1 relational mandatory walk (ball four)
3 microorganism "vats": Rumen ~ Reticulum ~ Omasum 1 "true" stomach: Abomasum (Ruminants)
3 Hurry! Hurry! Hurry! related to: 1 Step Right Up (Circus Barker)
3 synoptic gospels: Matthew - Mark - Luke 1 idiosyncratic gospel: John
Trinitarian (3) concept related to Unitarian (1) concept
3 original musketeers (Athos, Porthos, Aramis) 1 add-on (d'Artagnan)
3 active brain waves (Alpha, Beta, Theta) 1 inactive brain wave (Delta)
3 types of cones to the human eye 1 type of rod to the human eye
3 Piaget operational stages: Pre - Concrete - Formal 1 [non-operational] sensorimotor stage
3 Basic gaseous biological compounds:
Hydrogen- Oxygen- Nitrogen
1 Basic solid compound:
3 rows of outer hair cells (mammalian ear) 1 row of inner hair cells
3 imagined places: Paradise - Purgatory - Inferno 1 actual place: Earth
3 common growing seasons: Spring - Summer - Fall 1 less typical growing season: Winter
3 metal ages: Silver - Bronze/Copper - Iron
[Bronze is an alloy of Copper]
1 non-metal age: Stone
(Was there a bone or stick age?)
3 common alternate milk (with fat) forms: 1% - 2% - Skim 1 common standard form: Whole milk
3 interactive identities: i - j - k = 1 resultant quaternion identity: -1
W. Hamilton's quaternion formula: i2 = j2 = k2 = ijk = -1
3 gasoline types: Unleaded - Regular - Premium 1 Diesel fuel oil
3 non-gasoline fuels: Diesel - Propane - Natural Gas 1 gasoline fuels
3 Earthly-bound Horsemen plagues:

War- Famine- Pestilence
1 Heaven/Hell-bound Horsemen plague:

3 (physically labeled) psychosexual stages:
Oral - Anal - Genital
1 (non-physically labeled) stage:
Latency period
3 (OK Corral) Earp brothers: Wyatt - Morgan - Warren 1 (OK Corral) Doc Holiday
3 Stanley Miller Chemical Evolution experiment gases:
Methane ~ Hydrogen ~ Ammonia
1 Stanley Miller liquid:
Art Maxim Percentages division:
Art is 75% perspiration (75% = 3)
"and" --- 25% inspiration (25% = 1)
3 basic tea types: Black - Green - Oolong 1 (basic) rare tea type: White
3 basic mathematical operations:
Addition- Subtraction- Multiplication
1 auxiliary mathematical operation:
3 (DNA) bases code for: 1 amino acid
3 customary laws of Thermodynamics 1 Zeroth law of Thermodynamics
3 types of bone: Cortical - Compact - Trabecular 1 relational: Cartilage (pre-bone)
3 U.S. Presidential debates (2004) 1 relational: U.S. Vice President debate (2004)
3 compulsory schools: Elementary - Jr. High - High school 1 non-compulsory school: College (or Trade)
3 "human" cartoon characters: Fred - Wilma - Pebbles 1 animal character: Dino (family pet)
3 "human" cartoon characters: Barney - Betty - Bam Bam 1 animal character: Hoppy (family pet)
3 "regular" corners to a building 1 principal Corner Stone to a building
3 foot bones of ancient horses Fused together to make modern horse hoof
3 at-base runners: 1st base - 2nd base - 3rd base 1 at-home-plate grand slam hitter
3 "traditional" size proportions:
Small- Medium- Large
1 commercial profiteering size proportion:
3 flexible downs in American football 1 play it safe or risk it all downs
3 word vulgar expression: God Damn It 1 (3 into 1) single word vulgar expression: Goddamnit
3 meal options: Sandwich - Sideorder - Drink called a (1) combo meal
3 single letter blood type designations: A - B - O 1 double letter blood type designation: AB
(positive or negative)
3 phase (U.S.) electric service is related to 1 phase (U.S.) electric service

If I've told you once (1), I've told you a thousand (1,000) times...
(The value "1,000" is a 1 with three zeros.)

3 to 1 expressions used by a soldier on guard duty:

Halt, who goes there?
Approach... and be recognized.

(There is a distinction that can be made between the first word and the 3 words which follow.)

Mendelian inheritance is usually described as the process by which one of two alternate alleles of a gene is inherited from each parent so that the offspring has one of the following combinations: two dominant alleles, two recessive alleles, or one of each. If both parents are heterozygous, that is, have one of each allele, the three genotypes will occur among the offspring with the following probabilities: one homozygous dominant, two heterozygotes, and one homozygous recessive. Phenotypically the two heterozygotes will be indistinguishable from the homozygous dominant. This results in the famous 3:1 ratio

(James C. King, The Biology of Race, 1981, page 28)

Mendelian Inheritance 3 to 1 ratio

Mendelian inheritance 3 to 1 ratio

---Mendel's Genetics ---


A look at the 3 to 1 ratio in fertilization processes:

Fertilisation (17K)

Note: The above image was taken from a BBC news article about a virgin birth taking place in a bonnethead shark:

--- Captive shark had virgin birth ---

3 undesirable (Medieval Ages) body humors:
  1. Phlegmatic (sluggishness)
  2. Choleric (quick tempered)
  3. Melancholic (gloominess)

1 desirable (Medieval Ages) body humor:
  • Sanguine (warm, passionate, cheerful)

Note: Alexander I. Stepanov's tripartite example (Pascal: "The God of Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, but not the God of philosophers") could be viewed as a 3 to 1 ratio:

3 = The God of Abraham- Isaac- Jacob...
1 = but not the God of Philosophers (with philosophers seen as a singular grouping)

There are other 3 to 1 ratio examples, of which I give a few more:

Note: The so-called four-directions concept referred to as North/South~ East/West, (also) is readily recognized as a two-by-two polarity association.

We also are accustomed to use the phrase "North, South, East and West," (also, "Winter, Spring, Summer and Fall") with the "and" as a distinct means of partitioning off the first three, thereby producing a circumstance of 3 to 1.

Another such occurrence of partitioning off the first three as a characteristic of three-patterned grouping, is the child's counting scheme of One Potato, Two Potato, Three Potato, Four.There is no "Four Potato." However, there is a "Five Potato," "Six Potato," "Seven Potato," yet, not only is there no "Eight Potato" in this child's counting game, the "Eight" is replaced with the word "More" which not only rhymes with "Four," it may also represent a type of historical reference to the primitive mathematical attribute of "Many," as well as achieving higher number representation through the use of word (sound) repetition, similar to our modern usage of "teen" in 13, 14, 15, etc...

Like-wise, in the High School cheer "Two Bits, Four Bits, Six Bits, a Dollar," there is not only no "Dollar Bits," there also is the separator "a" which acts as a sort of demarcation boundary line between the first three "Relatives" and that which is distantly related.

Perhaps placing these examples into a chart will be of some additional clarification:

Three-to-One varieties
THREE Items Separator type ONE Item
North~ South~ East "and" West
Winter~ Spring~ Summer "and" Fall
1- potato~ 2- potato~ 3- potato no signifier "potato" 4
2 bits~ 4 bits~ 6 bits "a" Dollar
1st example 2nd example 3rd example "comma" 1 example
1- "st" 2- "nd" 3- "rd" subtle cognitive change? 4- "th" 5- "th" 6- "th"...
*Last (third/3) name first "and" First (one/1} name last

*Many people have a first, middle, and last name, corresponding to the 3 Ancient Roman (Latin) forms of first, middle, last names: Praenomen ~ Nomen ~ Cognomen.


Take a look at the so-called "Four" Vedas/Veda parts and realize a Three to One ratio can be seen:

THE "FOUR" (3 to 1) VEDAS
I. R.g Veda
(One of 3)
the oldest Veda, from c.1500 BC; from r.c, "sacred hymn or verse"; liturgial manual of the hotr., chief sacrificial priest.
II. Sâma Veda
(Two of 3)
from sâman, "song, chant"; hymnal of singing udgâtr. priest, assistant of the hotr..
III. Yajur Veda
(Three of 3)
from yajus, "sacrificial formula"; liturgical manual of adhvaryu priest, assistant of hotr. charged with ritual preparations, "practical work."
IV. Atharva Veda
(One of 1)
the youngest Veda, c. 800 BC; from atharvan, the "fire priest," not originally associated with Vedic sacrifice, later added as brâhman.a, the fourth sacrificial priest.

Each Veda consists of "four" (3 to 1) parts.

THE "FOUR" (three to one) PARTS OF THE VEDAS
I. Samhitâs (or Mantras)


R.g Veda Samhitâs: 10522 verses The samhitâs and brâ are the karmakân.d.a, "action part," of the Vedas, studied by the pûrva mîmâmsâ, "prior interpretation," or Mîmâmsâ school.
Sâma Veda Samhitâs: 1984 verses
Yajur Veda Samhitâs: 1875 verses
Atharva Veda Samhitâs: 5977 verses
II. Brâ

Ritual Texts

The brâ, using much mythic material, are commentaries on and explanations of the hymns and ritual practices.
III. Âran.yakas

Forest Treatises

The âran.yakas verge into philosophical writing but often are indistinguishable from the brâ; they may be regarded as philosophical texts written by or for forest dwelling hermits or as brâhman.a ritual texts written for forest dwellers who cannot practice the ordinary household rituals described in the brâ proper. The âran.yakas and are the jñanakân.d.a, "knowledge part," of the Vedas, studied by the uttara mîmâmsâ, "posterior interpretation," or Vedânta, "End of the Vedas," school.

Philosophical Texts

3 to 1 ratio of OM (AUM):

Om was originally pronounced aum; and this is remembered here, where Om is analyzed into three parts, with an intangible fourth part.

One of Three --- Vaishv ânara (the worldly) is the waking state, the letter a, the first element, either from "âpti" (obtaining) or from "â=imattva" (being first). Verily, he obtains (âpnoti) all desires and becomes first (âdi) -- he who knows this.

Two of Three --- Taijasa (the brilliant) is the dreaming state, the letter u, the second element, either from "utkars.a" (exaltation) or from "ubhayatva" (intermediateness). Verily, he exalts the stream of knowledge and becomes equal-minded; no one ignorant of Brahman is born in the family of him who knows this.

Three of Three --- Prâjña (the cognitional) is the sleeping state, the letter m, the third element, either from "miti" (erecting) or from "apîti" (merging). Verily, he erects (minoti) this all and he becomes its merging -- he who knows this.

"Miti" can also be translated "measuring" -- the translation preferred by those who see "îshvara" as a creative God to be identified with the fourth state. A third state which "erects" the world does not require that kind of function in the fourth. However, the theistic interpretations of the text are up against another problem. The theistic Dvaita Vedânta view is that the third state is a state of unconsciousness and ignorance; but this is contradicted by the very name of the third state, "Prâjña," which means "intelligent, wise, clever" (from j ña, "know"). This is not ignorance. But what "erects" the world doesn't have to be God even in the third state. It can be karma.

One of One --- The fourth is what is without an element, what cannot be dealt with or spoken of, the cessation of the phenomenal world, auspicious, nondual. Thus Om is the very Self. He enters the Self with the Self -- he who knows this.

--- Earliest Civilizations, the Steppe, Vedas, Upanishads, and the Mandukya Upanishad ---
by Dr. Kelley Ross


Here are some three-patterned philosophical distinctions I have compiled which can alternatively be described as 3- "in"- 1 formulas:

St. Augustine's Philosophy: Memory~ Understanding~ Will
Comte's Philosophy: Great Being ~ Great Medium ~ Great Fetish
Hegel's 3 Spirits: Subjective Spirit ~ 0bjective Spirit ~ Absolute Spirit
Plotinu's Philosophy: One ~ One Many ~ One and Many
Aristotle's 3 Unities: Unity of Action ~ Unity of Time ~ Unity of Place
Sir F. Bacon's 3 Tables: Presence ~ Absence ~ Degree
Thomas Hobbes's 3 Fields: Physics ~ Moral Philosophy ~ Civil Philosophy
Immanuel Kant's 3 Critiques: Pure Reason ~ Practical Reason ~ Judgment
Averroes's 3 Commentaries: Little ~ Middle ~ Great
Karl Marx's 3 isms: Communism ~ Socialism ~ Capitalism
Woodrow Wilson's 3 isms: Colonialism ~ Racism ~ Anti-Communism
Hippocrates's Mind Disorders: Mania ~ Melancholia ~ Phrenitis
Emile Durkeim's 3 Suicides: Egoistic ~ Altruistic ~ Anomic
D. Liesman's 3 Social Characters: Tradition-directed ~ Inner-directed ~ Other-directed
Erich Fromm's 3 Symbols: The Conventional ~ The Accidental ~ The Universal
Pythagoras's "fusion" idea: Monarchy ~ Oligarchy ~ Democracy (into harmonic whole)
M.L. King Jr.'s "Middle Road": Acquiescence ~ Nonviolence ~ Violence
Kierkegaard's 3 Stages: Aesthetic ~ Ethical ~ Religious
Husserl's 3 Reductions: Phenomenological ~ Eidetic ~ Religious
St. Augustine's 3 Laws: Divine Law ~ Natural Law ~ Temporal, or positive Law
Witness Stand "Laws": Tell the Truth ~ The whole Truth ~ Nothing but the Truth
Titus Carus's 3 Ages: Stone Age ~ Bronze Age ~ Iron Age
Feuerbach's 3 Thoughts: God, 1st Thought ~ Reason, 2nd ~ Man, 3rd
Magnus's 3 Universals: Ante Rem ~ In Rem ~ Post Rem
Max Weber's 3 Authorities: Traditional ~ Charismatic ~ Legal-rational
F. de Sausure's 3 "Signs": Sign ~ Signified ~ Signifier
Charles Pierce's 3 "Signs": Qualisign ~ Sinsign (token) ~ Legisign (also, 1stness - 2ndness - 3rdness)
John Keynes's 3 Eras: Scarcity ~ Abundance ~ Stabilization
George Mead's 3 Distinctions: Self ~ I ~ Me
Thrasher's 3-group Gangs: Inner Circle ~ Rank & File ~ Fringers
Abe Lincoln's 3-For-All: Of the People ~ By the People ~ For the People
Jesus Christ's 3 Praises: In the name of the Father~ Son~ Holy Spirit
Samuel Clemmons' 3 lies:
(Mark Twain)
Lies ~ Damned Lies ~ Statistics
Descartes 3 Kinds of Ideas: Innate- Adventitious- Factitious

3-part Logic

Thesis ~ Antithesis ~ Synthesis
Indulgence  ~ "Middle Way" ~ Ascetism
Major Premise  ~ Minor Premise ~ Conclusion
Contradiction ~  Excluded  Middle ~ Identity Principal
What is real
How change comes
What is mind
Marxian "Dialectology":
Unity of opposites
Quantity & quality
Negation of negation
How we know
What is truth
What is mind
Nature of good
Nature of beautiful
Nature of religious
Quality (1st-ness)
Relation (2nd-ness)
Representation (3rd-ness)

Page Created: Monday, June 24, 2013, 6:54 AM
Updated Posting: Sunday, 24th May 2020... 9:51 AM

Your Questions, Comments or Additional Information are welcomed:
Herb O. Buckland