Threesology Research Journal
Spinning Earth
Are Humans Rotation-Rate Specific?
Page 3

(The Study of Threes)

Because so much of complex modern life forms appear to have begun their evolutionary trek during the 21 "to" 23 hour rotation rate, let us correlate some other interesting (relevant but divergent) circumstances involving this same numerical spread:

***(During cellular development, 23 chromosomes are supplied by each parent)***

As a correlation to the numerically-referenced three-day spread of 21 ~ 22 ~ 23, take a look at the 23 chromosome line-up found in humans:

Chromosome pairs 1 through 22 are always found in both males and females. Pair 23 are similar for a female (XX) but different for a male (XY). On occasion, three chromosomes occur in Pair 21 which results in a form of mental retardation generally called Down's syndrome or Mongolism. The thinking that revolved around having a "bad chromosome" had at one time influenced researchers to search for a "bad" gene in criminals. It was considered that a criminal had a "XYY" arrangement, but this view has been discarded with further research findings. However, the point to be made for our present discussion is that these frequent references to chromosomes involve:

  1. 2l~ (22)~ 23 chromosome area.
  2. The "XYY" at one time proposed as a commonality of criminals is an obvious 3-pattern.
  3. The "X" and "Y" shapes look very much like the stance arrangements of perching birds.

Some people might even want to consider the 3rd example as a prime representation of cosmic inter-connectedness related to all life forms. For those of you who have not looked too closely at the various perching stances of birds, let me direct you to the Fundamental Forces page at this site.

Earth's precession (4K)

With respect to the present 23 hours 56 minutes (and 4.09 second) interval for one earth day, this 23.5 occurrence can be correlated to the 23.5 degree tilt of the Earth's axis for the precession, as is illustrated by the image to the right. The triangular-like image can be visualized by placing long term Earth events into an accelerated mode to make the overall effect more intelligible.

[For those readers who have a difficult time in understanding the relevance, the solstice and equinox are related to the length of day with respect to the Sun/Earth interaction, and it goes without saying that chromosomic "behavior" is part of life. Both of which are relevant to the discussion on this page.]

Another 3-to-1 example can be seen in the dates ascribed to the two solstices and the two equinoxes which, when the Big Dipper's seven stars are viewed and drawn on paper during these times of the year, not only provides us with a celestial origin for the swastika, which can be viewed as four 7's (sevens) attached at their bases, but also gives an indication of how the left (levorotatory) and right-handed (dextrorotatory) turns of the swastika are numerologically correct:

Left turning swastika Right turning swastika

The "Equinox" refers to the position of the Sun when it is closest to the equator and makes the length of day and night the same. The "Solstice" refers to the position of the Sun when it is furthest from the equator. If you look at the dates that the two solstices and the two equinoxes occur, and arrange them in a circular or square-formed four-point type of directions concept as did ancient peoples, you will see that the calendar dates we of today ascribe to these solar occurrences, reveals:

•Twenty ONE
•Twenty TWO
•Twenty THREE

but instead of a Twenty FOUR, we have another: Twenty TWO.

Hence, we have a 3-to-1 ratio whether you count to the right (clockwise) or to the left (counter-clockwise). And for those of you who would argue that the solstices can occur on the day before or the day after the customary 22nd, we still end up with a Three-day possible occurrence consisting of the 21st~ 22nd~ 23rd! However, you may on some occasion find a reference to the Summer Solstice as occurring on June 20th or the Spring Equinox occurring on March 20th. No doubt that by making calculations based on different time zones and calendars, we can come up with different dates to the Solstices and equinoxes. Yet it may be of some value to some readers that I make mention of such an occurrence and acknowledge the presence of these dates as presenting us with a circumstance of a 3 to 1 ratio...that can also be viewed in terms of overlap (as well as interference and/or separation).

  1. 1 of 1. Day 20
  2. 1 of 3. Day 21
  3. 2 of 3. Day 22
  4. 3 of 3. Day 23

See the "Geophysical Influences" page:

--- Geophysical 3s Influences ---

Here's another way of doing the calculation and coming up with a different result by using different variables:

Using the exponential model, 4 billion years ago the rotation rate would be:

w0 exp(2 x 10^(-10) x 4 x 10^(9)) = w0 exp(.8) = 2.22 w0

--- Undergraduate physics forum ---

And here's another way of calculating using different variables:

We can do the calculation for one billion (1,000,000,000) years ago:

(0.005 sec/year/year) * (1,000,000,000 years) = 5000 seconds/year = 57.9 days/year

In other words, the year becomes 57.9 days longer, meaning that the earth rotates an additional 57.9 times in a single year. Adding 57.9 days to the current length of the solar year in days:

(365.25 days) + (57.9 days) = 423.15 days

Calculating the actual length of the day one billion years ago:

(365.25 days * 24 hours) / 423.15 days = 20.72 hours

--- Evolution versus Creationism ---

Let's use the above calculations to determine how long the length of a day was for additional billion year intervals (assuming a constant):

23.56 - 20.72 = 2.84

  1. 1 Billion yrs ago: 23.56 - 2.84 = 20.72 hr length ---------- 365.25 + 57.9 = 423.15 days

  2. 2 Billion yrs ago: 20.72 - 2.84 = 17.88 hr length ---------- 423.15 + 57.9 = 481.05 days

  3. 3 Billion yrs ago: 17.88 - 2.84 = 15.04 hr length ---------- 481.05 + 57.9 = 538.05 days

  4. 4 Billion yrs ago: 15.04 - 2.84 = 12.20 hr length ---------- 538.05 + 57.9 = 596.85 days

  5. 5 Billion yrs ago: 12.20 - 2.84 = 9.36 hr length ---------- 596.85 + 57.9 = 654.75 days

Here's another variation:

If we assume that the rate of slowing of the earth's rotation has been constant, we can calculate the number of days in a year at various times in the past (Hayward, 1985, p. 95). Suppose we want to know how many days made up a year in the Devonian period, estimated to have been some 400 million years ago. Each day was 20 sec shorter per million years x 400 million years = 8,000 seconds shorter. This means each day was only 21.8 hours long then, as opposed to 24 hours per day now. Since a year is 8799 hours long (24 hours/day x 365.25 days/year, using modern-length days) and this length has not changed, we can calculate the number of ancient days in a Devonian year by dividing 8766 hours/year by 21.8 hours/day, to get about 400 days/year. A similar calculation for the Pennsylvanian period, beginning about 280 million years ago, gives 22.4 hours/day, or 390 days in the Pennsylvanian year.

The reason for choosing the Devonian and Pennsylvanian periods is that we can check to see if these calculations correspond to reality. In certain modern corals and shellfish, we find growth-bands that indicate yearly, monthly, and even daily growth, rather like the annual rings that trees produce. By counting these bands, we can determine how long a particular coral or shellfish lived just as we can for a tree by counting its rings. We can also see that there are about thirty daily bands per month and about 365 daily bands per year for modern corals and shellfish. But careful analysis of the growth-bands of fossil corals and shellfish from the Devonian and Pennsylvanian has confirmed that years in these periods contained more days than years do now, and that the number of days per year for both these periods is remarkably close to the values calculated above.

This correlation between theory and observation is striking. After all, three different modes of dating are used here, and they all correlate with each other. The fossils are dated by the rock layers in which they are found, which dating ultimately depends on radiometric methods (decay rates of radioactive elements). The growth bands in the fossils are biological in origin, depending on the response of the organism to daily, monthly and yearly changes in environment (light, weather, and temperature). The earth's slowdown is an astronomical phenomenon. The three processes upon which the dates depend - radioactivity, biological growth, and tidal friction - are independent processes, yet all three combine to form a coherent, natural picture of what is happening.

--- Tidal Slowdown, Coral Growth, and the Age of the Earth ---

By Dr. Perry G. Phillips

Materials for this tract were developed from: Hayward, Alan. 1985. Creation and Evolution: the Facts and the Fallacies. Triangle Books. London.

Here's a variation of the above variation:

...Now let us go back in our imagination to the Devonian period, which geologists believe was about 400 million years ago. The days then would have been about 400 x 20 seconds shorter than they are now, which would make them about 21.8 hours long. But the years then would have contained 365 1/4 x 24 hours (= 8766 hours), just as they do today. So if we divide the number of hours in the Devonian year, 8766, by the number of hours in the Devonian day, 21.8, we arrive at an estimate of the number of days in the Devonian year. It comes to just over 400 days.

--- Re: Tides Record 18-Hour Earth Days ---
By Stephen Jones

And one more example:

...Let's do the calculation for 370 million years ago:

((0.005 sec/yr) x (370 million yr))/Year = (1,850,000 sec)/Year = (21.4 days)/Year

Thus, at 370 million years ago, the earth had 21.4 extra days per year.

The total days then per year were: (365.25 + 21.4)days/Year = 386.65 days/Year. (8766 hrs/Year)/(386.65 days/Year) = 22.7 hrs/day

--- How Good are those Young- Earth Arguments? ---
By Dave E. Matson

And let's add a short mathematical reference to the same topic:

The earth's rotation is slowing down due to the friction against the tidal bulge produced by the moon's and sun's gravitation. The variation is irregular but in general after 100 years the earth has rotated about .25° less than it would have if the rate were the same as at the beginning of the 100 years. That corresponds to one minute's worth of rotation.

  1. How much longer (in seconds) is one day today than 100 years ago?

  2. How long a period of time need go by for one complete rotation (day) to be missed using the original rotation rate as a standard?

(Assume a constant negative acceleration.)

...Submitted by Charlie...


  1. The total lost rotation equates to 60 seconds (time) during 100 years (orbits).

  2. Constant absolute deceleration.

  3. 1 year = 1 orbit = 365.25 standard days (I know this isn't exactly correct, but it's close enough.)

  4. 1 standard day = 60*60*24 seconds ... this is a fixed unit of time.

Let X be the number of seconds (time) of rotation lost during a year compared to the previous year. X is constant since the deceleration is absolutely constant.

During year 1 X seconds are lost
During year 2 a further 2X seconds are lost
During year 3 a further 3X seconds are lost

During year 100 a further 100X seconds are lost

So in total X+2X+3X+...+100X seconds are lost

-> X+2X+3X+...+100X = 60
-> 5050X = 60
-> X = 0.01188 seconds

Therefore the difference in rotation between year 0 and year 100 is equivalent to 1.188 (=100*0.01188) seconds (time). So one day today is 0.00325 seconds longer than 100 years ago.

[0.00325 is an average figure for year 100, clearly day 1 will be shorter than day 365 - but this makes no difference to 3SF]

Part two of the question is equivalent to finding the smallest Q such that:

X+2X+3X+...+QX >= 86400 (=60*60*24) where X = 0.01188 as above

At the minimum X+2X+3X+...+QX = 86400
-> (Q+1)*(Q/2)*0.01188 = 86400
-> (Q+1)*Q = 14544000
-> Q^2 + Q - 14544000 = 0
-> positive factor gives Q = 3814 years

--- Science ---
Posted by fwaff on 2003-03-10 07:23:36

Though the above example of Geologic Era rotation rate changes is based on the reports of counting the daily growth rings on corals, similar (and supportive) information comes from looking at things like brachiopods, bryozoans and pelecypods (clams). While some readers are not familiar with the activity of counting the growth rings on coral fossils, they may nonetheless be familiar with the idea of counting the rings of trees in order to determine its age as well as give an indication of the environmental conditions such as whether it was dry or wet. Clearly, the fossilized remains of several different types of life forms exhibit (species specific) yearly patterns of growth with respect to the Sun, Moon and Earth.

In determining the age of humans we cannot cut a human in two (as we would do to a tree) and count growth rings, (even though some believe mtDNA to be a sort of miniature timeline akin to a data recorder [black box] found on aircraft), so we must rely on different forms of dating methods which provides us with the approximations in the chart.

  1. I used the value of .000000200 per day per year as a sort of average rate of Earth's slowing rotation, to arrive at the rotation rates that would have existed while humanity was evolving through the various forms of hominid species.

  2. To calculate the daily rate of rotation for the Geological eras whose length of days per year are established by counting the rings found on fossils, I merely subtracted this value from 365.2422 to get a relative difference for the number of hours per day.

  3. To calculate the rate of rotation of the Earth some 4.5 billion years ago during the genesis of life that is colloquially referred to as the primordial soup era, (in keeping with the general notion that there was about an 8 hour day ), I used the value of .0000000345.

The rate at which the Earth is slowing (and hence, would be the rate at which the rotation speeds up as we venture into the past), is calculated with different mathematical models because there is evidence that the rate of change actually fluctuates from day to day, year to year, and century to century. The following short list of rate differences are examples I have come across from time to time:

  • 0.000015 seconds per day per year at present, although there is reason to think that over long periods in the past the slightly higher figure of 0.000020 is more accurate. 1/100 sec/century, because of tidal effects!

  • 0.000020 seconds per day per year in the past

  • .00002 seconds per day per year

  • .00002 seconds per year

  • .0002 seconds per day per year

  • .0015 seconds every second

  • .0016 seconds per century (1.6 milliseconds)

  • .0017 msec per day per century (1.7 milliseconds)

  • <>1/100 sec/century, because of tidal effects

  • .001 seconds per century

  • .002 seconds per day

  • .002 seconds per day per year

  • .002 seconds per century (2 milliseconds)

  • .0053 seconds per year

  • .005 seconds per century (5 milliseconds)

  • 1.4 milliseconds per century

  • 1.48 milliseconds per century

  • 1.5 milliseconds per day (0.0015)

  • 1.5 milliseconds a day per day (some creationists view this as correct)

  • 1.5 milliseconds a day per century

  • 1.5 milliseconds per century

  • 1.5 - 2 milliseconds per century

  • 1.7 milliseconds per year

  • 2.3 milliseconds per century

  • 2.5 milliseconds per century

  • 3 milliseconds per century

  • 1 second every 500 days

  • 1 second every ten years

  • 1 second every 625 years

  • 1 second every 50,000 years

  • 2.2 seconds per 100,000 years

  • 16 seconds every million years

  • 22 seconds every million years

  • 30 seconds per century

  • 3 hours over 2000 years

  • 20 days per year every 200 million years

  • etc...

milliseconds = msec

The currently measured rate of rotation slowing is about 0.00002 seconds per day per year. (That is, today the Earth completed its rotation about 0.00002 seconds slower than it did on this same day last year.)

Assuming the rate of rotation stays the same
if you multiply: 2 E(-5) seconds (per day) times 4 E(8) years = approx. 2.2 hours

(approximately the Devonian period)

The result would be about: (365 * 24 / 21.8 {hours per day} ~ = 400 days per year

Devonian corals show about 400 daily growth layers per year (judged by counting the daily layers in groups marked by larger fluctuations caused by seasonal change). In fact, this evidence is an excellent independent confirmation of the great antiquity of the Earth, and the accuracy of isotopic dating methods.

Note that these long extrapolations are necessarily somewhat rough, and get much less accurate with increasing time (particularly back to near the origin of the Earth). There are still arguments over the forces which dominate the slowing, and how much stronger or weaker they would have been when integrating backwards in time. (Chris Stassen, 1997)

--- Answers to Scientific Creationists ---

0.03 msec length-of-day (LOD) measurements can be detected using laser ranging (bouncing radar waves off the Moon or satellites) and very long baseline interferometry.

3 main types of LOD change cited by Jean Dickey, a JPL geophysicist:

  1. A linear increase owing to tidal dissipation.

  2. Larger, irregular variations, on the scale of decades, owing to core-mantle interactions.

  3. Shorter-term (seasonal) changes from the angular momentum exchange between crust and atmosphere.

--- Changes in the Earth's Rotation Rate ---

Timeline of geomagnetic reversals

(I thought it might be of some interest to a few readers to compare the Earth's rotation rate timeline with a timeline of the Earth's geomagnetic field reversing, though we could also be a bit more imaginative and place an image containing a strip of DNA and a linear arrangement of the planets next to it. It would also be of some correlative interest to align a schematic of changing environmental patterns such as drought, ice age, monsoon, desert, wooded, plain, etc...)

--- Magnetic Storm: (Timeline image source)---

See Also: Geomagnetic Reversals and Human Brain states by Tony Smith.

--- Schumann Resonances ---

  • 600,000 years old: Bacteria extracted from ice cores.

  • 800,000 years old: (Estimated) Oldest DNA found below more than a mile of Greenland ice. However, the DNA was not active inside a living organism.

  • 65 million years ago is said to be the approximate time when the Dinosaur killing meteor slammed into the Earth at Yucatan, Mexico. Did such an impact cause a rotational change? Do Ice Ages? Do massive changes in the Biosphere?

  • 125 million year-old mouse-sized Sinodelphys szalayi, is said to be the oldest ancestor of modern marsupials - the mammal family that includes kangaroos and koalas.

  • About 250 million years ago is when 90% of marine life and 70% of land species are said to have vanished by an asteroid that was larger than the meteor which is believed to have killed off the dinosaurs after slamming into the Earth 65 million years ago..

  • 350 million years old is said to be the oldest chordate fossil yet discovered. It was found (originally in 1999) by Sheep station owner Ross Fargher in Australia. It is said to be 30 million years older than another chordate fossil found in China. The chordates are thought to be the ancestor of all vertebrate animals.

  • Between 396 and 407 million years old (calculated from deposits) is said to be the oldest insect named Rhyniognatha hirsti. It is believed that insects evolved in the Silurian Period 438-408 million years ago.

  • --- BBC News: Oldest Insect Delights Experts ---

  • 428-million-years-old one-centimetre millipede was taken out of a siltstone bed from the foreshore of Cowie Harbour (Scotland). It was initially discovered by amateur fossil hunter Mike Newmanis. It is said to be the earliest evidence of a creature living on dry land, rather than in the sea.

  • --- BBC News: Fossil find is oldest land animal ---

  • 2.6 - 2.7 billion years old: Earliest photosynthesis based on rocks from Pilbara, western Australia.

  • 3.7 billion years old: Most recent (2003) findings of earliest photosynthesis based on rocks from Isua, Greenland.

--- BBC News: Oldest evidence of photosynthesis ---

Other aside comments:

  • --- According to Sean Brady, a Cornell University, US, entomologist, Army ants have evolved only once and that was in the mid-Cretaceous period.

  • --- Charles Wellman, of the University of Sheffield, UK, and his collaborators Peter Osterloff and Uzma Mohiuddin painstakingly recovered tiny fossilized spores from Omani rock known to date from the Ordovician Period, 443 - 489 million years ago. This is said to be the first sign of plant life inhabiting land.

  • --- Dr Eriksson, of the Australia National University in Canberra says that there is evidence to support the idea that there were tides on Earth some 3,200 million years ago, and this implies the presence of the Moon in orbit around the Earth at that time. The analysis of tidal patterns also suggests that the duration of the orbit, the length of the lunar month, was 20 days as opposed to the 27.5 days today.

  • --- BBC NEWS: Rocks Reveal Ancient Tides ---

  • --- Fossil rugose corals preserve daily and yearly growth patterns and show that the day was about 22 hours long 370 million years ago, in rough agreement with the 22.7 hours predicted from a constant rate of slowing [Scrutton, 1965; Wells, 1963].

    Scrutton, C. T., (1964) 1965. Periodicity in Devonian coral growth. Palaeontology 7(4): 552-558, Plates 86-87.
    Wells, J. W., 1963. Coral growth and geochronometry. Nature 197: 948-950.

  • --- Cambrian "Explosion" refers to circumstances involving a proposed view that there occurred an abundance of (primitive) life during this period: "The Cambrian Explosion - when (primitive) life suddenly and rapidly flourished some 550 million years ago - may have an explanation in the reaction of primitive life to some big event. The explosion is one of the most significant yet least understood periods in the history of life on Earth. New research suggests it may have occurred because of a complex interaction between components of the biosphere after they had been disturbed by, for example, the break-up of a super-continent or an asteroid impact." The "something" which triggered the explosion of (primitive) life has not as yet been considered to be (at least in part due to) a result of Earth's rate of rotation during this period. See BBC News article from which some of the above remarks are derived:

--- Life's Lucky Kick Start ---

Again, my intent is to highlight that the human species was evolving during the time when the rate of the Earth's rotation was in its 23rd hour. And whether you believe in:

  1. Creationism- (Modern Humans [Homo sapiens sapiens] created by Divine plan.)

  2. Humanity was born in 4004 B.C.

  3. Evolutionary development of the hominid line over several million years.

All of these views still fall within the 23 hour rate of rotation for the Earth during the time some form of hominid has been present.

Links that may be of interest:

Information for the different hominid species comes from this page:

--- Hominid Species ---

Information for the different Geologic Eras comes from this page:

--- Slowing of Earth's Rotation ---

Also look at the following pages for additional information:

--- Using Coral as a Clock ---
by Hannu K. J. Poropudas

--- The Age of the Earth ---
by Chris Stassen

--- The Effects of the Earth's Sowing Rotation ---
by Donald L. Hamilton

--- Timeline of Dietary Shifts in the Human Line of Evolution ---

--- World History Timeline ---

Your Questions, Comments or Additional information are welcomed:
Herb O. Buckland