Threesology Research Journal
Artificial Intelligence and 3sology (56K)

AI and 3sology pages:

Artificial Intelligence and 3sology Introduction
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Speaking about thermodynamic energy eventually brings us to the topics of "Conservation of Energy", "Entropy" and the suffix "Dynamics", all of which have their counter-part (binary opposite), and what may be viewed as an often encountered "excluded middle" (specialized); if we look upon them as syllogistic configurations:

3-part (syllogistic) Logic constructions used in Philosophy
Thesis ~ Antithesis ~ Synthesis
Indulgence ~ "Middle Way" ~ Asceticism
Major Premise ~ Minor Premise ~ Conclusion
Contradiction ~ Excluded Middle ~ Identity Principal

I mention the "excluded middle" entity because it crops up in the notion of the "odd man out" in childhood games, thus leaving us with some formula of doubling (by removing the 3rd, 5th, 7th, etc., person)... though doublings of some quantities can reveal triplicities (such as removing the 7th to produce a 6-member grouping that is divisible by either 2 or 3). In the above logic examples, removing one of the selections from any series-of-three does not mean the unlabeled activity does not occur, it only reveals an absence of being distinguished. People can indulge in unnamed activities. In some instances, a "two-patterned" reference may have a third (or more), and a "three-patterned" reference could well be a two-pattern that has been elongated or stretched out to make it appear more valuable or complex by adding one or more other elements. However, the "odd man out" was also an early 20th century reference to someone who differed from other members of a group. Perhaps other cultures have their own variations.

Whereas in a Father- Child- Mother trio the child may be overly indulged with attention, and needs to excel later on in life in order to acquire a further dosage of such specialized attention (where first born children often become doctors, lawyers or some other noted professional); in some situations the first-born child may be later brow-beaten into situations which "encourages" them to excel... thus giving a parent or guardian a vicarious means of obtaining a goal they themselves did not. However, when more children come into the family unit, one may or may not be favoured over another... or at least feel that they are. In a three-child situation, the middle child may be placed into a position that they need to lean negotiating skills in order placate those who would use them as an example of something not deserving of getting attention. In short, the psychology of human relationships needs to be applied to the developmental situations of those trying to give "birth" to an AI unit.

Even non-animate constructions can be unknowingly associated with animate overtures... thus creating trinary situations in which each of the terms takes on a dimension found in one or another animate constructions whose initial analogical apprehension was inanimate. For example, in the Christian concept of the Trinity (noted as Father- Son- Holy Spirit/ghost), we should be reminded of its initial astronomical influence with Sociological dimensions:

Put simply, the Christian Trinity is overlooked as an early Sociological formula describing three class distinctions.

The Sociological dimensions of the Trinity
(Analogous References)
Trinitarian "Class" DistinctionsReference Social Class DerivativeReferenceEarly Indo-European social stratification identity
Father[God] Upper Class:[Privileged, Our "Betters"... Leaders] Those Who Pray
Son[Teacher, Guide, Counselor, "Fighter" against the bad, wrong, unhealthy, unjust] Middle Class:[Professional, Entrepreneurial, Skilled Trades]Those who Fight
Holy Spirit/Ghost[Unseen "presence"] Lower Class:[Unseen/Overlooked poor, Indigent, Homeless, Unskilled/Temporary workers... Perturbation]Those who Work

(If a nobleman had three sons, one went to study in monastery, another went to fight in some battle as a knight, and the third took over "working" the Estate as a manager/owner.)

The three orders

In the 11th and 12th centuries thinkers argued that human society consisted of three orders: those who fight, those who pray, and those who labour. The structure of the second order, the clergy, was in place by 1200 and remained intact until the religious reformations of the 16th century. The very general category of those who labour (specifically, those who were not knightly warriors or nobles) diversified rapidly after the 11th century into the lively and energetic worlds of peasants, skilled artisans, merchants, financiers, lay professionals, and entrepreneurs, which together drove the European economy to its greatest achievements. The first order, those who fight, was the rank of the politically powerful, ambitious, and dangerous. Kings took pains to ensure that it did not resist their authority.

Source: "Europe, history of." Encyclopædia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite, 2013.

The "son" in the above trinary "code" was the middle man, like the arrangement which used to distinguish some retail hierarchy consisting of Manager, Assistant Manager, and Third Man... with the "general population" of workers seen as an auxiliary component... and in some instances treated by management as outcasts found in sociological arrangements noted as part of India. But in the retail situation, the "Third Man" was often treated as a middle man between management and the workers... since it was they who had to take on the task of managing the workers and the flow of work with customers, when the Manager and Assistant Manager were otherwise occupied with tasks requiring individualized concentrated effort... typically involving some bookkeeping assignment of tallying daily receipts. In some circumstances, even a "4th Man" may be verbally designated because of their ability to take on managerial tasks of responsibility... even though the designation may be little more than an "in-house" arrangement not recognized by the larger company or corporation.

So what does this have to do with a discussion about AI in the context of 3sology? The above selection represents a strategy involving the binary situation noted as Management -and- Workers... attempting to use a trinary configuration of Management to oversee the binary counterpart... like a falsified 3-to-1 formula. No actual trinary setup takes place amongst both groups, unless one wants to suggest the customers as part of the overall circumstances... yet they are not part of the internal management unless management actually practices a "the customer is always right" policy which influences business practices on the larger corporate scale of decision making. Whereas we can say that a Union Representative is part of the wage-paid workers' binary side, and the Corporate offices on the side of salary-paid Management; the infrastructure does not represent a trinary configuration in a business setting. The act of running a business is not an expression of Democracy, and typically relies on a binary setup which may take on the appearance of a trinary organizational formula like the U.S. Government does with its usage of a three-branch government which actually, most often, functions binarilly... with the people treated as outcasts... since they have no real say so in developing and voting on legislation or establishing all their laws by way of Referendum.

Binary thinking suppresses trinary thinking... and then tries to appear magnanimous generous to coincide with an assumed limitless ability of computational comprehension by permitting a token trinary arrangement. But, like a neurotic person, the inherent neurosis of binary formulas show their true personality when placed under stress. In other words, apply stress to a neurotic person and their neurosis is magnified. Creative people often learn how to management the amount and kind of whatever stress(es) are needed to assist them in being creatively productive... like an oyster subjected to the right kind and amount of sand in order to produce a pearl.

If human physiology is subjected to an environment which presents a dominant assortment of binary situations (hot/cold, sated/hungry, up/down, soft/rough, light/dark, etc.), then the critical period for adopting one or another mental organization will necessarily be imprinted with a binary formula. And yet, in the same family of those who may have a dominant binary focus... may be a family member that exhibits a trinary one. If the environment of most infants and children is a binary one, then the critical period of establishing a particular cognitive pattern (monism, dualism, triunism...) will most likely be a reflection of this. Alterations in the dominant type of impressions may cause social (computer program) upheavals if the condition is wide-spread. For example, I witness a small expression of this when I have had a chance to speak to someone about the diversity of "threes" in different subjects... who is otherwise focused on perceiving the world in a binary fashion. Some people react to the circumstance as if they have been confronted by an alien thought process, while others react defensively by expressing some disparagement. A few find the topic fascinating and some are lost right after a few examples are mentioned. It is a process of thinking they are neither familiar with nor prepared for... and have no ready-made means of associating the context of learning outside a place designated as a place of learning. Those involved with the binary end of computers are not necessarily receptive to information of binary configurations from multiple subject areas, and the topic of trinary (ternary) computation from a perspective of analysis they may be totally unaware of as existing... may be met with some confusion and disbelief. One can not expect those working with computers to be that open minded or knowledgeable about binary and trinary configurations.

While using a "rough draft" approach for the current (binary) AI and 3sology excursion, an adaptive "creative license" permits me to think outside conventional lines of association and correlation, whereby those dimensions of creative thinking that might otherwise be labeled as neurotic or even "momentary psychotic trespasses" (frequently termed the thin line between genius and insanity)... are roads of divergency I may wander into. (Even though some readers may prefer the "craziness" of drugs, alcohol, dancing, acting, criminality, fighting, music, art, poetry, or something else such as hunting animals for trophies, etc...) For example, using a type of numerical "clang association" comparison, we come to find the 3, 5, 7 ordering (mentioned a few paragraphs back) as reminiscent of the pattern in the Fibonnaci series: 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, ..., each of which, after the second, is the sum of the two previous numbers. (In other words, a binary formula is used in both patterns, where two numbers are added... but a third is acquired in the process.) A "Binary Association" pattern will have to be incorporated into an AI processing formula... as will multiple others involving analogies masquerading as a digital formula.

Compiling a rough draft (such as the present AI and 3sology topic) in what appears to be a rummage or yard sale fashion may seem a rather disorganized- semi-intelligent compilation and display, though each seller in their respective collection(s) may have a particular focus of interest (other that making money). With respect to my own assortment of presented items, in offering a suggestion to the three "me- myself- I" stooges (so as not to take myself too seriously and yet retain some level of entertaining self-respect), a panoramic approximation of divergent subject matter is necessary in order to achieve some level of holistic grasp from which a greater differentiation may be grasped. In other words, although the rather "messy" arrangement of materials being offered seem to have no other function but to list this and that illustration of a binary and/or trinary example; underlying the obvious is a not so obvious organizational process taking place. In other words, each of us work within the framework of our own "methods of madness".

Whereas some have looked upon the Fibonacci (binary) sequence as a tell-tale indication of a natural law found in many life forms; we must nonetheless ask if it actually exists or do we just think it does because of some developmental preference for a pattern-of-two orientation? If an entire population is subjected to a (social and/or earthly) environment with a dominant display of binary experiences, then that populations critical developmental periods will be molded, will be fashioned, by such an arrangement, and will guide perceptions to correlate ideas accordingly. Then again, we must ask if there actually exists a "critical period" of development for cognitive processing... similar to the critical period for language development that has been noted. Are many of our binary references and applications based on superstition? Could the present binary code of computers be the product of compiled superstitions set into the framework of a symbolic character... all of which keeps us chained to the adoption of a binary orientation as if it were "THE" foremost true reality? Is the binary its own "ghost in the machine"? What then of a trinary formula, and all other perceptions?

golden rectangles (20K)

If a golden rectangle ABCD is drawn and a square ABEF is removed, the remaining rectangle ECDF is also a golden rectangle. If this process is continued and circular arcs are drawn, the curve formed approximates the logarithmic spiral, a form found in nature (see Figure 4). The logarithmic spiral is the graph of the equation r = kΘ, in polar coordinates, where k = Φ2/π. The Fibonacci numbers are also exemplified by the botanical phenomenon known as phyllotaxis. Thus, the arrangement of the whorls on a pine-cone or pineapple, of petals on a sunflower, and of branches from some stems follows a sequence of Fibonacci numbers or the series of fractions:

fractions (1K)

Source: "Number Game." Encyclopædia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite, 2013.

However, while a binary formula is used in the Fibonacci numbers thesis, and is accounted for in items of nature as denoted above, there are also patterns-of-three that need to be recognized. For example, all the plants from which we humans get our cereal grains (corn, wheat, barely, oats, etc.,), are the product of three chromosomes... that, in humans, is known as a Trisomy and produces genetic defects such as the well-know Downs Syndrome. But it is of need to remind the reader that such plants have undergone cross-breeding efforts by humans, thus providing us with "artificial" food substances. Domestication of both plants and animals have turned them into artificial representations of their once true selves; and that this "artificiality" has been consumed by generations... no doubt having caused alterations in the biology of humans... even if we are not cognizant of all the changes. Humanity is a biologically-based Artificial Intelligence. But it is an AI unit which may not be able to withstand the ravages of extensive space travel, and thus must be rendered into a different type of artificiality such that cognitive processes will take place by non-organic chemistry... if we can not develop a species specifically developed for space travel. Humanity must get away from this disgusting planet, solar system and galaxy. Humanity must cut the umbilical cord to "mommy" Earth and its "daddy" nations of politics and religion.

Poaceae (formerly called Gramineae)

(Poaceae is the name of a) grass family of monocotyledonous flowering plants, a division of the order Poales. The Poaceae are the world's single most important source of food. They rank among the top five families of flowering plants in terms of the number of species, but they are clearly the most abundant and important family of the Earth's flora. They grow on all continents, in desert to freshwater and marine habitats, and at all but the highest elevations. Plant communities dominated by grasses account for about 24 percent of the Earth's vegetation.

The processes of hybridization and polyploidization have produced many valuable crops. Normally during sexual reproduction, two haploid gametes (n) fuse to form a diploid zygote (2n). In polyploidy, one or both gametes remain diploid because the chromosomes fail to separate during an early stage of meiosis. Consequently, fusion of three or more complete sets of chromosomes produce offspring that may be incapable of reproducing with the parent strain and thus constitute a new species. The importance of this condition rests in the larger store of genes, which imparts a greater evolutionary potential on the hybrid. Hybridization is important because, in crossing breeds, a more uniform product replaces the often heterogenous parent generations.

An example of the improvement that results from these two evolutionary processes can be found in the gradual domestication of wheat. Among wheats there are three levels of ploidy, or sets of chromosome complements:

  1. Diploid (2n), the normal condition
  2. Tetraploid (2n = 14, resulting from the fusion of diploid gametes)
  3. Hexaploid (2n = 21).

An example of a domesticated diploid wheat is einkorn wheat (Triticum monococcum), one of the earliest domesticated wheat species. Hybridization of a diploid wheat with Aegilops speltoides (a closely allied species of grass), followed by doubling of the chromosome complement, produced tetraploid wheats. In one of these, emmer wheat (T. dicoccon), the grain is tightly clasped by the hull (lemma and palea), a characteristic of wild species that depend on the hull for dispersal. Threshing and winnowing—the separation of chaff from grain—is far easier when the hull separates freely from the grain, as in the cultivated tetraploid macaroni wheat (T. durum), a major commercial wheat species. The development of bread wheat (T. aestivum), a hexaploid wheat, involved the hybridization of a tetraploid wheat with A. tauschii, a closely allied diploid species of grass, followed by chromosome doubling to 42.

Distribution and abundance

There are about 10,000 grass species, most of them confined to a single continent. An exception, the cosmopolitan species Phragmites australis, the giant reed grass, has the widest geographic range of any flowering plant. This remarkably versatile species extends north to south in a wide band around the Earth between latitudes 70° N and 40° S and is most abundant in the Old World temperate regions; it is not native to the extreme south of South America, the Amazon basin, New Zealand, Polynesia, and parts of Australia, however. Humans have played an important role in expanding the range of many grasses, including weeds such as Digitaria sanguinalis (crabgrass), Echinochloa crus-galli (barnyard grass, or cockspur), and Poa annua (bluegrass). Endemism, or restricted geographic distribution, is fairly common among grasses, especially at the southern tips of continents and on mountain ranges.

The nearly 800 genera of grasses fall into three distributional patterns. Nearly three-quarters are confined to one of seven basic centres of distribution: Africa, Australia, Eurasia north of the Himalayas, South and Southeast Asia, North America, temperate South America, and tropical America. About one-fifth of the genera encompass even broader distribution patterns throughout temperate or tropical regions of the world. Somewhat less than one-tenth of the genera have established discontinuous distributions on adjacent continents; 12 genera, for example, have such disjunct distributions between North and South America, 11 genera show these patterns between North America and Europe, and 7 genera are discontinuous between North America and northern Asia. Brachyeletrum erectum exemplifies the latter distributional pattern. This attractive herb inhabits woodlands of eastern North America and eastern Asia, a common pattern in many plant groups that is thought to represent the remnants of a once more continuous distribution around the north temperate zone.

Source: "Poaceae." Encyclopædia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite, 2013.

(Ploidy) in genetics, (refers to) the number of chromosomes occurring in the nucleus of a cell. In normal somatic (body) cells, the chromosomes exist in pairs. The condition is called diploidy. During meiosis the cell produces gametes, or germ cells, each containing half the normal or somatic number of chromosomes. This condition is called haploidy. When two germ cells (e.g., egg and sperm) unite, the diploid condition is restored.

H.O.B. note: Think of "haploidy" as "half"-loidy.

Polyploidy refers to cells the nuclei of which have three or more times the number of chromosomes found in haploid cells. This condition frequently occurs in plants and may result from chromosome duplication without division of the cytoplasm or from the union of two diploid gametes. Polyploid animals, because they have more than the normal number of sex chromosomes, are usually sterile.

Some cells have an abnormal number of chromosomes that is not a whole multiple of the haploid number. This condition, called aneuploidy, is most often caused by some error resulting in an unequal distribution of chromosomes to the daughter cells. Organisms in which aneuploidy occurs may deviate noticeably from the norm in appearance and behaviour.

Source: "Ploidy." Encyclopædia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite, 2013.

Note: it is necessary for us to look upon the "two" and "three" patterns as we might plants that are used with more frequency than other "plants" of this (numerical) structure. We must acquire a greater insight into the range, diversity, as well as both natural and artificial distribution and developmental processes. We need to establish how much mutation is taking place as well as how much destruction humanity has imparted on natural occurrences which now exhibit a "three" or some other pattern. We must also ascertain how many "twos" are in existence due to a "three" that has been truncated. It is because there are no models with which to mirror our efforts in an analysis of AI (binary) and 3ological (trinary) constructs thereof, we need to develop our own model. But what kind should we use? A mechanical one? Biological? Physics? Genetics? Mathematical? Literary? Artistic? Musical? Political? Religious? Anatomical?

Fertilization and embryogenesis

After penetrating the degenerated synergid, the pollen tube releases the two sperm into the embryo sac, where one fuses with the egg and forms a zygote and the other fuses with the two polar nuclei of the central cell and forms a triple fusion, or endosperm, nucleus. This is called double fertilization because the true fertilization (fusion of a sperm with an egg) is accompanied by another fusion process (that of a sperm with the polar nuclei) that resembles fertilization. Double fertilization of this type is unique to angiosperms. The zygote now has a full complement of chromosomes (i.e., it is diploid), and the endosperm nucleus has three chromosomes (triploid). The endosperm nucleus divides mitotically to form the endosperm of the seed, which is a food-storage tissue utilized by the developing embryo and the subsequent germinating seed. It has been shown that some of the most basal angiosperms actually form diploid endosperm, although they still experience double fertilization.

The three principal types of endosperm formation found in angiosperms—nuclear, cellular, and helobial—are classified on the basis of when the cell wall forms. In nuclear endosperm formation, repeated free-nuclear divisions take place; if a cell wall is formed, it will form after free-nuclear division. In cellular endosperm formation, cell-wall formation is coincident with nuclear divisions. In helobial endosperm formation, a cell wall is laid down between the first two nuclei, after which one half develops endosperm along the cellular pattern and the other half along the nuclear pattern. Helobial endosperm is most commonly found in the Alismatales (monocotyledons). In many plants, however, the endosperm degenerates, and food is stored by the embryo (e.g., peanut [groundnut], Arachis hypogaea), the remaining nucellus (known as perisperm; e.g., beet), or even the seed coat (mature integuments). Cellular endosperm is the least specialized type of endosperm with nuclear and helobial types derived from it.

The three principal types of endosperm formation found in angiosperms—nuclear, cellular, and helobial—are classified on the basis of when the cell wall forms. In nuclear endosperm formation, repeated free-nuclear divisions take place; if a cell wall is formed, it will form after free-nuclear division. In cellular endosperm formation, cell-wall formation is coincident with nuclear divisions. In helobial endosperm formation, a cell wall is laid down between the first two nuclei, after which one half develops endosperm along the cellular pattern and the other half along the nuclear pattern. Helobial endosperm is most commonly found in the Alismatales (monocotyledons). In many plants, however, the endosperm degenerates, and food is stored by the embryo (e.g., peanut [groundnut], Arachis hypogaea), the remaining nucellus (known as perisperm; e.g., beet), or even the seed coat (mature integuments). Cellular endosperm is the least specialized type of endosperm with nuclear and helobial types derived from it.

floral structures (77K)

A complete flower is composed of four organs attached to the floral stalk by a receptacle. From the base of the receptacle upward these four organs are the sepals, petals, stamens, and carpels. In dicots the organs are generally grouped in multiples of four or five (rarely in threes), and in monocots they are grouped in multiples of three.

Source: Source: "Angiosperm." Encyclopædia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite, 2013.

Subject page first Originated (saved into a folder): Thursday, November 13, 2014... 5:50 AM
Page re-Originated:Sunday, 24-Jan-2016... 08:51 AM
Initial Posting: Saturday, 13-Feb-2016... 10:59 AM
Updated Posting: Saturday, 09-Apr-2016... 12:38 PM

Your Questions, Comments or Additional Information are welcomed:
Herb O. Buckland