Threesology Research Journal
Artificial Intelligence and 3sology (56K)

Artificial Intelligence Introduction

Note: the contents of this page as well as those which precede and follow, must be read as a continuation and/or overlap in order that the continuity about a relationship to/with the typical dichotomous assignment of Artificial Intelligence (such as the usage of zeros and ones used in computer programming) as well as the dichotomous arrangement of the idea that one could possibly talk seriously about peace from a different perspective... will not be lost (such as war being frequently used to describe an absence of peace and vice-versa). However, if your mind is prone to being distracted by timed or untimed commercialization (such as that seen in various types of American-based television, radio, news media and magazine publishing... not to mention the average classroom which carries over into the everyday workplace), you may be unable to sustain prolonged exposures to divergent ideas about a singular topic without becoming confused, unless the information is provided in a very simplistic manner.

AI and 3sology pages:

Artificial Intelligence and 3sology Introduction
pg1 pg2 pg3 pg4 pg5 pg6 pg7 pg8
pg9 pg10 pg11 pg12 pg13 pg14 pg15 pg16
pg17 pg18 pg19 pg20 pg21 pg22 pg23 pg24
pg25 pg26 pg27 pg28 pg29 pg30 pg31 pg32
pg33 pg34 pg35 pg36 pg37 pg38 pg39 pg40
pg41 pg42 pg43 pg44        

While working on the present project, it has come to my attention that the examples to the patterns I have been providing in the discussions, are being used by some as evidence for their belief in a theologically-based "Intelligent" Design... and therefore plan— that they may or may not then use to espouse a particular direction of theological discussion as evidence of a manifest universal logic. So let me speak plainly. I do not think in terms of any "Intelligent Design" or even super-normal intelligence when unraveling what I think are patterns or correlations. While I have mused upon the possibility of some cosmological significance, I did so at a very young age. Do any patterns, much less patterns-of-two or patterns-of-three, provide us with a tell-tale sign of some great "out there" truth waiting to be unraveled, or do the patterns exist within ourselves and are merely projected externally? Both, or neither? Let me explicitly state that Religion... to me, is a survival mechanism, and this is why there are so many different varieties thereof... because of the very many situations different humans find them in and adopt some commonality of thought to do the closed systems of language we use.

It is absolutely absurd for humanity to think that the planet Earth provides us the best position in the Universe, and the best resource materials, and that such presumed advantages guarantees us to be the most intelligent, insightful, wise and objective; thereby defining the Earth as the best laboratory and observatory for establishing truth. How very self-centered and egotistical of the human species... a creature not far removed from arboreal beginnings preceded by even more simplistic origins consistent with environmental events which continue to influence the so-called reality of truth devised by such a lowly creature. What utter nonsense. One need only look at the falsified practice of Democracy to be aware of the same level of stupidity, deception and outright lies occurring in other activities such as business and religion. Humanity has long been living in an Age of Irrationality which persists to this day.

Candidly, at the end of the day, I think religion is a fool's errand of expressed delusions masquerading in and with bits of truth... but so is science from time to time. To some, religion is their science and to others science is their religion. The long-established ambivalence between science and religion is an example of an internalized preoccupation with binary forms. Others are: sacred/profane, heathen/believer, God/Satan, etc... It is necessary that a discussion of the binary and trinary ("bernary"/ternary) include such examples... and many others from very many different subject areas. Reviewing basic patterns permits us to do so,,, and begs that we include any and all as befits the task at the moment. The gamut of exploration into subject areas that may familiar or unfamiliar to one or another reader may seem 'binarily' important/unimportant, relevant/irrelevant, necessary/unnecessary or take on some trinary measure between or external to these. However, interestingly— in a simple search for the terms "binary" and "trinary" using a wordweb dictionary, we find several for the first, but none for the last:

binary arithmetic operation
binary code
binary compound
binary digit
binary file
binary notation
binary number system
binary numeration system
binary operation
binary program
binary search
binary star
binary system
(No references were found)

For some, the above comparison may suggest a superiority to a binary formula due to usage and keep them from even taking the time to consider the presence of patterns-of-three... be they labeled "trinary" or otherwise. Nonetheless, let us pointedly ask whether the Universe (from our vantage point) favors binary stars and binary star systems, or is it that astronomers favor such a pattern due to an unrecognized pattern-of-two orientation? Why is there a preponderance of binary star formations, and not some other number such as three, four, etc.? Why doesn't the galaxy present us with a model consistent with physics, which provides evidence of a significant usage of patterns-of-three? Are humans stuck in a "pattern-of-two" orientation in many respects and are not aware of such? Does the presence of "threes" in various subject areas detail a later development that the old galaxy does not and may never exhibit, for example, with trinary stars and star systems? Or is the galaxy too young and needs more development? Such questions and others arise when we begin to more deeply examine the circumstances in and outside the context of A.I.

I honestly don't know what "intelligence", "artificial" or "Artificial Intelligence" means when applied to a larger context such as the Universe. However, instead of admitting this, others chose to create specific definitions to apply to specific applications because our brains typically do not grasp, can not hold, and can not remember large amounts of information without engaging in massive amounts of deletion and substitution because our means and labels of categorization are so very small. Using constrained definitions is much simpler to deal with. If the Universe is "constructed", then this suggests artificiality... even if the materials used for the construction are labeled natural or normal. Even the use of the word "creation" in a religious or scientific sense implies artificiality. To me, humanity itself and all life on Earth is an "artificiality" in the sense it is the excepting and not the rule for planetary circumstances... at least in our present purview.

But the concept of "Artificial Intelligence" is a concept that has been toyed with for centuries, though expressed with different labels in different ways, such as when we ascribe some human quality to an inanimate object; a condition known as anthropomorphism... though gods themselves are characteristically seen in terms of human behavior; even though this idea is convoluted by way of a binary approach when it is said that God made man in his image... (meaning women are to be left out of the equation because they are not mentioned and god supposedly is male.) However, females do regain some presence of awareness and importance when the Earth is described as "Mother Earth" even though males retain an upper social rung by having god referred to as "Father who art in heaven above". Such was the binary tradition of old that is retained in different dichotomous ideas of today. The presence of a binary linguistic code was meant to be easily understood and related to everyday events in order to convey a naturalness and simplicity like the divisions— yet specific pro-creative values involving night/day, wet/dry, hot/cold, old/young, men/women, etc... Various rationales have been explored and developed into religious and philosophical ideas directed at some attempt to investigate and understand the centuries long appearance of a linguistic based binary codification of perceptions using a pattern-of-two formula.

In the biblical story of Noah, God instructed him to use a binary two-by-two codification as a means of populating an ark in preparation for a great flood. Indeed, in Rabbinical and Christian traditions we find a reference to the presence of god exhibited in or as or like a fire... such as the burning bush in the story of Moses... who brought with him ten laws etched out on binary complement of stone tablets. Fire is not infrequently perceived as a type of living entity consuming all and any... like a plague of locusts or ants who are said to be following some coded plan triggered into activity by certain environmental conditions. Instinct, can therefore be loosely categorized as a type of "artificial intelligence" which emerges from the presence of an accumulated body of "like-acting" entities, be they human, animal, insect, fires, or some weather or geological event. Then again, an animal or insect acting alone can be said to be engaged in intelligent activity when we cite the performances of spiders making webs, birds constructing nests, or beavers building a damn... not to mention bees making a complex hive or butterflies navigating over long distances. Yet, we humans think such activities are to be categorized as instincts and not intelligence, only because such creatures do not have an eagerness to interact with humans in a way that horses, pigs or dogs do. We use ourselves as the diving rod of defining what is or is not to be ascribed as an indication of intelligence.

Perhaps some poetically-minded reader might even want to include the notion that a field of flowers is an intelligent activity, even if we humans don't understand what the intelligence is. Resorting to the notion of a "poetic license", "woman's "intuition" or "musefulness" permits a person the latitude to explore unconventionalized ideas like permitting a college class the ability to think freely by asserting that the course will be conducted on the predication of having an agreement to disagree... particularly when the notions of creativity, originality, and free associations are not only permissible, but ideally expected. (For some students, it appears that being able to write their name with a pen or pencil... instead of typing it... is thought of as an expression of creativity— particularly when they write in cursive.)

Whereas we don't think of god as "acting out" for or against humanity when we witness or experience a slight breeze or warm day; an increase in weather intensity (and therefore activity), brings to mind the action of some intelligence intervening in our lives... be it good or evil. An awareness of "difference" is a binary orientation, even if we do not have a specific word or label to describe a difference. For example, imagine living as an early hominid without a practiced language of communicating ideas and being subjected to the (memorized) extremes of hot and cold. Whereas we may react to the differences, we do not necessarily have a linguistic means of describing are reactions. In such a situation, a binary event takes place, but there is no shared codification of the experience(s). In the face of such things, humanity acts more like a hypervigilant bird that is startled to flight by any unsettling movement, sound or measurement value (such as hot and cold). Both extremes, a conservation and an increase... when repeated; may lead a few to suspect some sort of intelligent structure/design (or being) is at work... like the adoption of a binary computer code as a reflection of so many "naturally occurring" binary circumstances (such as two eyes, two ears, two legs, etc.). In short, compilation can be interpreted by some to mean the emergent presence of some intelligence... just like those who once interpreted various observations of extreme conditions (love, war, anger, deformity, survival, wealth, strength, craftiness, aptitude, etc.,) to be a reference to some god or attribute thereof.

As previously mentioned: If the Universe is "constructed", then this suggests artificiality... even if the materials used for the construction are labeled natural or normal. While some decry the uses of science to create circumstances which are described as "trying to play god", this is exactly what an "artificially created" Universe does. It tries to play god by influencing some into thinking all of existence is (a) god and that there is some plan; that this plan is an intelligent design, and humanity has a (special) role to play. Frequency of appearance by way of a process which may not be fully understood, does not necessarily mean the appearance of any life form is thus "Natural" and not artificial. Humanity and all of life may well be an artificiality because it is an exception and not the rule... though some would prefer to interpret this as uniqueness and an indication of importance as well as supremacy. Then again, does "natural" mean a standard occurrence, or could so-called "natural laws" be another kind of artificiality? Is life as we know it actually natural... or is it more accurately defined as a natural artificiality? Such questions evolve in the "natural" intellectual course of thinking about artificial intelligence, and must be permitted to participate in a philosophical discourse that will prove to be immensely divergent.

Writing about the topic of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in no way suggests I am claiming to be an expert on the subject, if any such person even actually exists. I can only speak of it by way of both analogical and digital processing methods to provide information that may very well be in sequences which you think are not logical, or could be of more value to others if arranged according to what you think is a better step-wise formula of presentation. Indeed, you may think that one aspect of Artificial Intelligence should be focused on and all others are irrelevant. Different people have different ways of reading just like different people have different ways of writing, collecting, arranging and presenting information. Yet, all those who have some grasp of the creative process knows that information goes through different receptive filters in different brains. How does one organize a topic when the information is Encyclopedic in length and diversity... yet there actually is no model dealing with the topic of AI and 3sology? Whereas AI literature is being constructed in terms of a present day binary orientation, those interested in binary contemplations are not necessarily aware of trichotomies... and how it too is an important formula of human cognition. Though my preference has been for patterns-of-three, I know all too well the role patterns-of-two have played. Thus, let it be said that the present venture is an exercise in publicly displaying a work-in-progress (a rough draft) that someone else may have to refine in the event that my age takes its toll. (The males in my immediate family line have not lived to ripe old ages.)

And it should be kept in the minds of readers that the information being provided is not intended to be in the form and function of a computer, physics, engineering, mathematics, music, art, anatomy, military tactics, extraterrestrial, medicine, religious, theatre, biology, genetics, astrology, or any other conventional class which ventures into theoretical considerations. The present topic involves the word "Threesology", and should be noted as such; because that is the context in which your are finding the exploration.

While providing examples of patterns-of-three along with some philosophical impressions takes an enormous amount of effort, this is exponentially increased by adding patterns-of-two and then attempting some point of integration in a given singular topic without trying to be biased towards any idea. In fact, please understand I am not even sure that a trinary (ternary) computation for a computer, is that which we should be trying to devise. We in fact may be selling ourselves quite short. However, in devising a computational formula, we are doing so based on some basic "switching" profile; such that a binary system represents an "ON/OFF" circumstance, and a trinary (or if you prefer: ternary) system, at present, is being suggested in the form of -1, 0, 1. But to me, this arrangement seems rather silly and is like saying that two halves equal a whole, but that the whole actually represents a third of the whole set. While this may seem a little confusing, let me explain after an illustration of different binary switching speeds:

slow (16K)

A normal human switching speed.
slow (16K)

After drinking coffee or an energy drink.
slow (16K)

A very slow computer.

Note: the pattern-of-three found in the triplet coding of DNA and RNA may have occurred as the result of a three-patterned environmental event in the very distant past, when amino acids were being developed during the "primordial soup" era when the rate of the Earth's rotation would have been accelerated; thus producing the condition in which the Sun's three "moments" acted as an accelerated three-patterned strobe light because of the fast rate at which the Earth was rotating. As the Sun expands towards its eventual burnout and the rotation of the Earth continues to decrease, these moments will, in a sense, "fuse" together thus causing a like-scenario in the triplet coding system... thus giving us a three to one or three into one circumstance. We as a species, and the artificial intelligence(s) which we design, will reflect this influence.

However, since the Earth's environment appears to be the exception and not the rule of planetary design, insofar as we can presently surmise from this Earthly observatory and laboratory; it is surprisingly easy to understand why some readers are inclined to think of humanity as a biologically-based artificial intelligence. Being the exception and not the rule describes a type of artificiality, just as does belief systems. The ability to be modified behaviorally... mentally and emotionally, as well as biologically and physiologically over short, inter-mediate and long spans of time under different familial, social and environmental conditions; clearly denotes a form of artificiality. Hence, adaptation via evolutionary standards is an artificial program constructed for the purpose of trying to sustain the different forms of life on Earth. And yet, some models of life appear to function as an artificial life form that do not need to be appreciably altered due to changing environmental conditions which can be a death knell for others. But other conditions can bring about an explosion of life such as that denoted by a period of time referred to as the Cambrian explosion. Unfortunately, researchers in the field have not correlated the event to the rate of the Earth's rotation and the length-of-day. If they would do so, they would find that such an emergence of life took place when the rate of rotation was in a 23 hour duration, whereas there was a different level and diversity of life when the rotation rate was faster. Necessarily so, we should consider the possibility that such life forms are umbilically attached and may not do so well when the rate of the Earth's rotation slows down. An internalized fast rate, when subjected to an external (environmental) condition of a slowed rate, may create an attempt to sustain the rate via various forms of social hyperactivity.

Cambrianexplosion (138K)

All life forms have been created by an "artificial" set of environmental conditions unique to Earth's circumstances. Such conditions are not the rule of thumb for all planets. Hence, humanity is an artificial intelligence that appears to have been provided with the capacity to evolve into a higher order intelligence, but gets trapped in codes which produce self-defeating loops of behavior. Instead of trying to increase its abilities, humans engage in activities which create conditions of abuse, exploitation, manipulation and subservience by way of various kinds of indentured servitude labeled as work, jobs, or careers. Because belief systems are the result of differentiated circumstances of reward and punishment... whether or not a person is able to consciously perceive or understand the intricacies and complexities some systems are organized on; behaviors ear-marked as kindness, compassion, civility, love, patriotism, sacrifice, etc., are artificial constructs— because their counter-parts could very well be entrained into a person's personality. If such behaviors were so-called "natural", they wouldn't need to be trained by someone's belief system. Necessarily so, as part of a larger philosophical inquiry, one would have to ask if reflexes are natural... or by-products constructed over large expanses of time and particular conditions.

To take a so-called "real world" example, those who are being labeled as "antivaxers" (those against immunizations), think they are abiding by a greater truth if they refuse to have themselves or their children vaccinated against one or another potential disease that has been found to be a regular occurrence. It is a behavior of protest which enables them some semblance of control in their lives, when so much of their liberties are slowly being stripped away by governing processes which are anti-thetical to the concepts of self-will, freedom and in short, what a democracy is supposed to represent... a government, a society that is based on the premise denoted by being "Of, By and For" the people. Whereas millions of people recognize laws as artificial constructs, and thus the society in which they live; they then come to realize that so much of their life is based upon one or another artificiality... that they must seek out some formula of actuality in order to regain what they believe as real, as true, as natural and thus a real meaning to life, liberty and pursuit of genuine happiness... and not be subjected to the belief systems of those business, government and religions, which use their positions to produce false realities so that a few can be granted entitlements over the many.

One must be amused by those claiming to seek out some "natural" expression of living because the word "natural" describes something unique, valuable, true and thus exhibiting an honesty beyond reproach. It is absurd to think one can live in a so-called "natural" environment when they have been variously polluted. A "back to earth" approach to nature and therefore some pristine naturalness would mean you would have to go nude in some wilderness unscathed by the ram paging and raping of resources conducted by one or another human. You would have to toss away all your "artificial" medicines and rely upon "natural" remedies created by someone practicing a crude form of apothecary... in mixing and matching this and that so-called natural herb, into an unnatural concoction or cocktail made from ingredients grown in an artificial garden watered by artificial tap water, nutrients and garden tools wielded by a gardener who artificially removes weeds from a so-called natural pot filled with artificial soil purchased by an artificial bartering system in an artificial place called a retail outlet. Even so called "revealed" religion is an artificial construct. Real religion, if ever it could exist, would not be in an artificial setting such as an unnatural building spoken by way of an socially constructed artificial language by those wearing artificially created clothes and performing artificially created rituals and beliefs. Anti-vaxers like so many of those spouting some preference for "naturalness", are a bunch of hypocrites because they live a life filled with artificiality.

Where is the so-called naturalness when one turns on a light bulb, television, radio or some appliance? Where is the so-called natural goodness of humanity when newscasters prefer to speak about death, destruction, conflict and anything else which may incite a reader's attention so that advertisers can get a chance to convince you to buy their artificially created products? Why use toilet paper, deodorant, or other personal hygiene products... since none of them are natural. On an occasion many years ago, while as a counselor working with youth, there was a protest amongst some of them about having to make their bed; argued with the rationale that they would simply sleep in it again. But trying to force them by way of my authoritative position would be a binary-focused head-butting exercise. An alternative— (a trinary) approach was needed. So I simply removed the toilet paper and put their food on the dirty dishes they refused to wash. I used their same argument about re-usage: They didn't need to clean their butt because they were going to use it again. And they didn't need to wash their dishes because they too would be used again. And from then on, I argued, there was no need for them to shower, use toiletries or change clothes... There was no need to clean a body or clothes if they were going to be used again... Needless to say, their adolescent rebelliousness was based on faulty arguments that, when confronted by the same stupid rationale they were trying to offer as sound logic, show itself to be nonsense... a nonsense they no longer wanted to be a part of.

In a trinary situation, (under current considerations by present day research into a trinary-based computational code), there are three positions being itemized, where one of the positions has a +1 value, but another has zero value "0", and the third has a -1 value. A standard addition result would be zero "0" for all three... with the center "0" place acting as a sort of defined area of neutrality, (sacred or otherwise). But an electrically-used circuit needs to define differences, whereby analogically speaking, we are inclined to use words such as direction, duration, dissipation, increase, stoppage, etc... In other words, the three values are associated with a means of making a distinction to different applications... like a sort of crossroads to shortcuts, stopping, delay, redirection, etc... In this sense, all three have a value, though the usage of the word "stop" once again invites the perspective of zero ("0"), corresponding to the "0" in a binary digital formula.

(Note: in my way of thinking it might serve us better to use a 1,2,3 or 0,1,2,3 matrix... even though I consider the possibility that we are selling ourselves short by limiting the computation to a trinary code.)

By trying to apply an equal numerical, non-quantitative (digital) value to all three, for an equalized trinary circuit, we divide 2 by 3 to get a rough 2/3rds division. If we use the formula of taking half of 2 values to create a third whole, we come to find that we are involved in a type of musical chairs arrangement... giving us a whole value to one and 1/2 values to two others; but all three represent a whole trinary set of values. Nonetheless, the usage of such numerical fragmentation is more reminiscent of the fractions found in atomic particles and has given rise to the notion that a ternary (trinary) computation requires an atomic type of computer, particularly when we discover the existence of an under-the-surface pairing of subatomic (quark) particles existing in a three-generations formula:

Three generations

standard-chart (64K)

There are three "sets" of quark pairs and lepton pairs. Each "set" of these particles is called a generation, or family. The up/down quarks are first generation quarks, while the electron/electron neutrino leptons are first generation leptons.

Why are there exactly three generations of matter?

The generations increase in mass and higher generation particles tend to decay into lower generation particles. In the every-day world we observe only the first-generation particles (electrons and up/down quarks). We do not know why the natural world "needs" the two other generations, and we do not know why there are exactly three generations in total.

Source: Particle Adventure
quark bonding (30K)

(Note: "Static" and "Dynamic" are another type of binary association used later on in the discussion, many pages distant from this point... for a different illustrative purpose.)

It appears that there is a conservation of number taking place, and that this conservation is a type of semi-articulated fusion, though the "fusion" may not actually be complete... and is more of in a seemingly stable pairing in the direction of an unaccomplished singularity... or so I am assuming in terms of a reversed (a fusing) 1- 2- 3 sequencing that I apprehended from a previous consideration for inclusion in the present topic. (The 1- 2- 3 is becoming a 3- 2- 1 sequence [is collapsing] due to decay of the planet, solar system and perhaps galaxy as well.)

The other effort being thought of for creating a trinary computing system is in the realm of genetics, with its triplet coding system under-pinned with the presence of paired amino acids. A "triplet code" is the result of a deduction based on the least number of amino acid bases needed to produce all the presently recognized amino acids. A doublet coding system only provides us with 16 "words" and a singlet code with only 4 "words" as the following table illustrates:

Singlet code (4 "words")
Doublet code (16 "words")
Triplet code (64 "words")

The pairings take place as such: Adenine with Thymine (DNA), Adenine with Uracil (RNA), and Cytosine with Guanine. There are three pairings just like there are in the subatomic particle Quark circumstance. (The three large particles "Electrons- Neutrons- Protons") are all said to contain the assemblage of three quarks and three anti-quarks... to be analogically viewed like On and Off positions.

particles (8K) Amino acids (11K)

Yes, I was trying to be museful in my usage of the same underlying scaffolding for both subject areas. And yes, one might want to include Proteins as a third instance of primary biological substrate. Nonetheless, both use pairing and triplicity in functionality. This no doubt is one of the reasons that such ideas are being looked at alternative computational structures involving the binary and trinary configurations. There is so much information to cover in trying to uncover the possibility of other subjects providing the model for a new type of computer system (in this instance and AI unit), that we should get (back) to it.

Subject page first Originated (saved into a folder): Thursday, November 13, 2014... 5:50 AM
This Page first Originated: Sunday, 20-Mar-2016... 05:38 AM
Initial Posting: Saturday, 26-Mar-2016... 11:28 AM
Updated Posting: Sunday, 23-June-2019... 2:21 PM

Your Questions, Comments or Additional Information are welcomed:
Herb O. Buckland