Threesology Research Journal
Artificial Intelligence and 3sology (56K)
Page 13

Note: the contents of this page as well as those which precede and follow, must be read as a continuation and/or overlap in order that the continuity about a relationship to/with the typical dichotomous assignment of Artificial Intelligence (such as the usage of zeros and ones used in computer programming) as well as the dichotomous arrangement of the idea that one could possibly talk seriously about peace from a different perspective... will not be lost (such as war being frequently used to describe an absence of peace and vice-versa). However, if your mind is prone to being distracted by timed or untimed commercialization (such as that seen in various types of American-based television, radio, news media and magazine publishing... not to mention the average classroom which carries over into the everyday workplace), you may be unable to sustain prolonged exposures to divergent ideas about a singular topic without becoming confused, unless the information is provided in a very simplistic manner.

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When early experiments of electrical properties defined the existence of a two-patterned on/off existence, this became the standard by which all electrical activity revolved around. The realization of such followed previous observations and uses of polarized ideas such as right/wrong, good/bad, up/down, hot/cold, god/devil, water/land, etc... Alternative considerations which offered a third alternative, though they may have been adopted, were not readily defined in terms of a triple mindset. A dominant usage of a dual, of a bipolar, of a schizophrenic (ambivalent) mentality was the standard by which society operated. Though we do find a conscious appreciation of an alternative to two extremes in Buddhism called "The Way", and in the practice of diplomacy as well as arbitration, these have not served to develop into a proficiently astute trinary conceptualization.

Interestingly, though we find the concepts of Four Noble Truths and the Eightfold path as tools by which a person can achieve enlightenment, later interpretations now include the usage of a modern day three-fold compartmentalization of the Eightfold path orientation:

Buddha (39K)

(The Eightfold Path) in Buddhism, (is) an early formulation of the path to enlightenment. The idea of the Eightfold Path appears in what is regarded as the first sermon of the founder of Buddhism, Siddhartha Gautama, known as the Buddha, which he delivered after his enlightenment. There he sets forth a middle way, the Eightfold Path, between the extremes of asceticism and sensual indulgence. Like the Sanskrit term Chatvari-arya-satyani, which is usually translated as Four Noble Truths, the term Astangika-marga also implies nobility and is often rendered as the “Eightfold Noble Path.” Similarly, just as what is noble about the Four Noble Truths is not the truths themselves but those who understand them, what is noble about the Eightfold Noble Path is not the path itself but those who follow it. Accordingly, Astangika-marga might be more accurately translated as the “Eightfold Path of the [spiritually] noble.” Later in the sermon, the Buddha sets forth the Four Noble Truths and identifies the fourth truth, the truth of the path, with the Eightfold Path. Each element of the path also is discussed at length in other texts.

...The Eightfold Path receives less discussion in Buddhist literature than do the Four Noble Truths. In later formulations, the eight elements are portrayed not so much as prescriptions for behaviour but as qualities that are present in the mind of a person who has understood nirvana, the state of the cessation of suffering and the goal of Buddhism.

According to a more widely used conception, the path to enlightenment consists of a threefold training in ethics, in concentration, and in wisdom. Ethics refers to the avoidance of nonvirtuous deeds, concentration refers to the control of the mind, and wisdom refers to the development of insight into the nature of reality. The components of the Eightfold Path are divided among the three forms of training as follows: correct action, correct speech, and correct livelihood are part of the training in ethics; correct effort, correct mindfulness, and correct concentration are included in the training in concentration; and correct view and correct intention are associated with the training in wisdom.

Source: "Eightfold Path." Encyclopædia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite, 2013. (Donald S. Lopez, Jr.)

The point to be may with the following is that instead of an 8, 4, 2 series appearing in Buddhism, we find an 8, 4, 3. Whereas we see the usage of doubling in computer technology, we find that the doubling in the Buddhist perspective did not unfold to what some might consider to be a logical step-wise manner. The usage of numbers to publicized (Buddhist) ideas is an early analog to digital attempt. So is the codification of laws. But far too many enumerated codes retain an over-riding application of analogy... of generalized comparison, even if such is not easily recognized by those who think that their personal usage of a digital orientation automatically transforms any and all analogies into a digital format. Just because a person whose dominant thinking is unknowingly exercised in dualities which become labeled as dichotomies, polarizations or opposites that are then unknowingly associated with a symbolically numerical 0/1 binary distinction... does not mean they aren't still thinking in terms of basic two-patterned analogies. Just because the usage of zeros and ones as a labeled binary code is referred to as being digital, does not automatically make it digital.

Semantic variations aside, the specificity of a generality is still a generality. The word "digital" as applied to computers refers to information put into discrete form, of which the values "O" and "1" are being used. The word "analog" as applied to computers refers to information derived from variations used to measure, move, or mediate that to be analyzed. The usage of "digits" is based on an arbitrary association (analogy) of yet another analogy. In the case of computers, the "off" and "on" states of an electrical circuit are arbitrarily assigned with the values of "0" and "1". These are then assigned to additional arbitrarily chosen symbols called letters, symbols or numbers. In other words, they were made up at one time. In fact, all of language was once made up. However, when we exercise an act of repetition, to make certain vocal sounds represent certain words, we are engaging in a type of discretion, a type of digital practice. However, if the words change over time, we find that the presumed digital (discrete) practice has a fluidity that is best described as an analog. The fluidity of language allows us to develop ideas beyond constraints imposed by earlier ideas. In short, the definitions of analog and digital should not be made discrete, that is, concrete... whereby our ideas about computers are not permitted to grow beyond these parameters:

(Digital computer:) any of a class of devices capable of solving problems by processing information in discrete form. It operates on data, including magnitudes, letters, and symbols, that are expressed in binary form—i.e., using only the two digits 0 and 1. By counting, comparing, and manipulating these digits or their combinations according to a set of instructions held in its memory, a digital computer can perform such tasks as to control industrial processes and regulate the operations of machines; analyze and organize vast amounts of business data; and simulate the behaviour of dynamic systems (e.g., global weather patterns and chemical reactions) in scientific research.

Source: "Digital computer." Encyclopædia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite, 2013.

(Analog computer:) any of a class of devices in which continuously variable physical quantities such as electrical potential, fluid pressure, or mechanical motion are represented in a way analogous to the corresponding quantities in the problem to be solved. The analog system is set up according to initial conditions and then allowed to change freely. Answers to the problem are obtained by measuring the variables in the analog model.

Source: "Analog computer." Encyclopædia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite, 2013.

In terms of being analog or digital, how would we describe life? Or Chemistry viewed as a separate subject? Or how about physics? Do they operate by an analog or digital formula... or something else? How about a combination thereof? And what of the three-patterned concept we label as Hell- Purgatory- Heaven? Why think in terms of a middle position between the two... the binary formula of Heaven and Hell? And if we deliberately attach numerical values (symbols) to these three concepts, should we use the aforementioned -1, 0, 1 (on page: AI and 3sology pg2) as theorized by Guosong Liu? Or should we instead take the image of a butterfly as an analogy to this three-patterned formula and denote the recurrence of another binary formula expressed in a mirror image representation?

Monarch Butterfly (70K)

From the above butterfly perspective, the formula -1, 0, 1 is not actually a three-patterned one, but a two-patterned binary one expressed as a three-formula. Nonetheless, it attempts to describe a circumstance which differs from the customary two-patterned usage. I use the analogy of the numbers and the butterfly to create a more distinct, a more discrete digital image. This is similar to humanity's developing sense of accepting digital concepts as being more accurate, even though many digital formulas remain heavily reliant on analogical interpretations. For example, the concept of 1 Universal God has gained acceptance over the previous analogical array, but it retains a wide-spread usage of defined multiplicity in terms of the existence of multiple religions. Humanity has not developed the digital formula of 1 religion... which includes the notion of no religion. However, humanity has tried on various occasions throughout history to develop a more digital interpretation of God and life, by creating numerical references which include the practice of science. Despite people using Science as a tool with which numerical values are derived for examination and analysis, there remains the usage of analogy called comparison, statistics, approximation, etc...

When a Jewish community turns to numbers as a means of attempting to derive a greater appreciation of their sense of God in their lives, they are experimenting with a digital formula linked to an over-riding value placed on analogical referencing. The Old Testament didn't begin a written reference to numerical indices until the 4th book called Numbers, though numerical values for many other instances quite obviously occur. Nonetheless, it remains uncustomary to view the usage of numerical indices as an expression of humanity's cognitive maturation involving a pseudo form of digital referencing. While the usage of numbers do occur, it is of value to note that mention of the frequency and manner of number usage takes on an analogical description which keeps the digital organization attached to the domain of religion instead of stepping outside of itself to gather a greater appreciation. Nor does it offer an invitation to do so as the following poem describes about the recurrence of patterns-of-three in the Life of Jesus... thus detailing an increased usage of the "three" value attached to the leading figure of the Bible who occurs in the later- born New Testament. Being "later born" describes a developmental trend in human consciousness using a "three" value, though the presence of the repetition has long been overlooked:

Three Wise Men came to me
with three gifts, on Christmas morn
they had followed a star to see
the saviour-king who was newly born

And when I was a young child
exploring the world as a child plays
I got lost for three days
but within a home of God, I smiled

A spirit led me into the wilderness
to be three times tempted by the Devil
Satan wanted to make me one of his
but I gave visiting angels my soul

I taught so that all might remember-
"to Ask, to Seek and to Knock"
for with these keys, all things surrender
and Heaven's doors unlock

I was 3 times ten plus 3 years old
speaking out for Faith, Hope & Charity
some thought me evil, others called me bold
but what I did, I did for thee

"I am not," was all that Peter would say
when asked if he is one of my disciples
his third denial came after I was led away,
before the moment a cock crows

Many think I dropped the cross three times
on the way to my crucifixion
and with two others found guilty of crimes,
that 3 of us had embarked towards Heaven

It is believed that three nails were used
to bind each hand and both feet
—my executioners expected to be abused
but with words like these I chose to speak:

"And though my flesh deeply pangs for water
while blood also trickles from each hand,
please forgive them oh Father
for they do not understand"

It was Pilate who inscribed above my head,
in Greek, Latin and Hebrew,
on a wooden plaque that could be read:
'Jesus the Nazarene the King of every Jew'

When at 3 o'clock, I was to take my leave
so that future generations might believe,
some say I said this simple phrase of three:

"I am thirsty"

One nearby, rushed up to me
with a sponge soaked in sour wine
but others around said "Let him be!",
to see if God would save me in time

It was on the third day that I rose
after having been crucified
and every kind-hearted person knows,
it was for each of you that I died

Three women with spices sweet,
came to soothe their hearts by anointing me
but I had gone before them, to Galilee
for it is there we were to meet

To my disciples behind shut doors,
I came twice to be heard
then near the sea of the Tiberieas shores,
meant this visit was my third

I asked Simon Peter three questions
knowing he would answer the same
my undying love was given in these lessons,
so that all the future might gain

All authority in Heaven and on Earth
had been given to me on the day,
that I had known since my birth
I would be ascending with yet much to say

but, so that all nations might realize
hoping all peoples would come to hear it
my disciples were sent out to baptize,
"in the name of the Father, Son & Holy Spirit"

Like a thief in the night,
I am to come unto you
though some believe this untrue,
I pray your heart shines my light

Tis not a mystical coincidence
that my life's story has patterns-of-three
you must come to know of its significance
as my love for you has not forsaken thee.

The above poem was written as a digital account of the recurrence of the "three" reference not only because references were made to other numbers such as two and seven, but as an indication that if other historical figures (and events) are looked at, we might well find some significant account of the "three" as a primary variable. The absence of such is just as revealing with respect to an overall digital accountability of observations. In other words, it is the application of a digital on top of the analogical, just as it has been done in the computer industry with a binary code. Such a practice will also help us to derive a more accurate digital formula, or indicate a realization that both the analog an digital formulas are little more than mental doodlings we are presently preoccupied with.

(Note: the ancient interest in "seven" quite possibly was the adoption of the number of known planets and/or the number of stars in the Big Dipper. Yet, it is strange that other patterns based on other cosmological events did not occupy thoughts to the same symbolic extent... unless historians have failed to record them.)

It should also be mentioned that I have been told that the "Sea" of the Tiberias shores is actually a lake, which means the words "sea" and "lake" have at times been used inter-changeably. Also, the three-word phrase "I am thirsty" can be rendered as a two-word phrase "I thirst", depending on the language used for translation... though one might image a scene in which a throat-parched person simply uses a single-word such as "thirsty". Nonetheless, despite some variations which may be encountered, the digital account of a recurring "three" reference remains understood, if not now appreciated as a fledgling attempt to describe the presence of an unrealized digital perspective concealed in words... and that words are analogies.

The presence of the "three" intimates we should incline ourselves to introducing the concept of a trinary code so that this is the primary perspective being used to reanalyze our practice of electrical circuitry, since it was the presence of a "two" mentality which influenced the two-part electrical circuit being used as the foundation for a binary formula. The presence of a "three" value has shown itself to be a stable representation in the triplet coding of DNA and the concept of three large atomic particles called Electrons- Neutrons- Protons, but there are numerous other examples that one could list as a supportive reference that not only recognizes the increasing practice of digital formulations... but that the present digital orientation is a binary analog being described as a digital portrait; and that the usage of a trinary basis may well invite the development of a perspective exceeding this concept.

If we choose to use a three-patterned trinary code and the present valuation of a code is rendered in whole symbols such as numbers not involving fractions, then we must proceed to use 0,1,2 and not 0,.5,1, because the -1,0,1 formula has been shown to be a different kind of binary rendering. Yet, since "0" is not nothing, being used to account for an active value such as "OFF", this state of existence should rightly be viewed as "1" and the more "ON" existence should be viewed as "2". This then leaves a third (trinary) value to be rendered with the appropriate denotation of "3". This then serves to replicate humanity's development of number usage following a one- two- many course, as indicated by historians of number concept development. The development of a trinary circuit, whether in the form of an atomic, biological, chemical, electrical, or some other subject area's materiality; will no doubt transform all of human society as the pre-vigilance for the analogical slips away into a digital form of application to produce sustained creativity, talent and even genius... now denoted as behavioral variables.

The "0" value is not nothing but can be dispensed with just as the "1" was dispensed with in chemical notation of molecular presence. While the "1" was previously used to describe a single molecule, it was later realized that the mere usage of an element's presence was all that was required to reference a "1", thus inviting a means to simplify a chemical expression through reduction. For example instead of H2O1 for water, we have H2O. In a trinary system, the "0" can be dropped because there are three functionalities. An absence of functionality would thus be zero, and more consistent with all analogical references later to be displayed with a "trigital" format. (If "di-gital" refers to "two", then "tri-gital" refers to "three".) Because the present sense of 'digital' is basically an analog, or generality made into a specificity, like an actor or actress playing a sustained role; a trigital formula will necessarily be a repeat of this unless we can find a natural source of number without need of human symbolism which replicates patterns-of-two into a variety of disguises.

Many early disguises employed the usage of words with clearly definable correlates such as good/bad and right/wrong. But other disguises presented us with a great deal more ambiguity, thus making some correlations become described as stretches of imagination such as the night sky and stars compared to a dark sheet of paper with pin holes that allow specks of light to poke through. While correlating the ON/OFF switching of electrical circuits to adopted dualities of pre-electrical eras, and then applying the two characteristics to the numerical symbols "0" and "1" has assisted in the development of computer languages: the presence of three-patterned occurrences in multiple subject areas begs the question of whether or not a three-patterned switching mechanism would not produce a more favorable computing system. If the usage of electricity is not amenable to such a three-patterned "language" imprint since all vocal languages are said to have a trimodal construction consisting of Subject- Object- Verb (though not necessarily in this order); then the usage of some other medium should be considered. Because many previous two-patterned ideas are developing three-part structures, it should appear rather appropriate to look for a three-part alternative to the present two-part binary code sometimes referred to as the basic foundation of computational language (in computers).

Because the binary formula is referred to as a language, let us note that language, may alternatively be described as a (trimodal) structure of three modes: phonology, grammar, and lexicon. If we compare the binary arrangement to human speech development from basic vocal utterances, an explicit history from the vegetative sounds of infants progressing into a babbling stage and then a word development stage... is missing. The usage of a "binary" formula represents more of a primitive organism's development than the development of a complex one. The fascination such a system has on many people is like the mental behavior of an isolated tribe of humans commercially bartering with shiny pebbles, shells and plant or animal delicacies, and are likewise amused with very simple gestures and trinkets. It is a simplistic language that has been developed into a specialized jargon, with a rudimentary architecture that gives the impression of complexity because of a concealed system of applied analogy giving rise to multiple perceptions being claimed as an expression of intelligence, albeit an artificialized one.

Because the comparison of 0's and 1's to an OFF and On switch is being analogously (and not digitally) described as a language, the areas of language and linguistics are frequently reviewed and studied in an effort to ascertain whether or not the binary computer language might well be improved. The trouble is that because of the binary constraint, language and linguistics are commonly forced into a like-patterned compliance, instead of the other way around. The primivity of the binary "tongue", like the forked tongue of a snake, are not appreciably accounted for in this context; because there remains a wide-spread lack of appreciating a "Threesological" reality. Far too many researchers can't get past childish notions of the "three" as either a symbol of some religious obsession or as some representative character of the mystical and magical involving superstition.

The field of linguistics may be divided in terms of three dichotomies: synchronic versus diachronic, theoretical versus applied, and microlinguistics versus macrolinguistics. A synchronic description of a language describes the language as it is at a given time; a diachronic description is concerned with the historical development of the language and the structural changes that have taken place in it. The goal of theoretical linguistics is the construction of a general theory of the structure of language or of a general theoretical framework for the description of languages; the aim of applied linguistics is the application of the findings and techniques of the scientific study of language to practical tasks, especially to the elaboration of improved methods of language teaching. The terms microlinguistics and macrolinguistics are not yet well established, and they are, in fact, used here purely for convenience. The former refers to a narrower and the latter to a much broader view of the scope of linguistics. According to the microlinguistic view, languages should be analyzed for their own sake and without reference to their social function, to the manner in which they are acquired by children, to the psychological mechanisms that underlie the production and reception of speech, to the literary and the aesthetic or communicative function of language, and so on. In contrast, macrolinguistics embraces all of these aspects of language. Various areas within macrolinguistics have been given terminological recognition: psycholinguistics, sociolinguistics, anthropological linguistics, dialectology, mathematical and computational linguistics, and stylistics. Macrolinguistics should not be identified with applied linguistics. The application of linguistic methods and concepts to language teaching may well involve other disciplines in a way that microlinguistics does not. But there is, in principle, a theoretical aspect to every part of macrolinguistics, no less than to microlinguistics.

Source: "Linguistics." Encyclopædia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite, 2013.

In studying language (linguistics), one necessarily comes across references to Noam Chomsky's three-patterned labeled idea known as "Transformational Generative Grammar". The word "Transformational" is meant to be viewed in a dynamic sense, while the word "Generative" is meant to be viewed in a static sense as the following description outlines:

It is important to interpret the term generate in a static, rather than a dynamic, sense. The statement that the grammar generates a particular sentence means that the sentence is one of the totality of sentences that the grammar defines to be grammatical or well formed. All the sentences are generated, as it were, simultaneously. The notion of generation must be interpreted as would be a mathematical formula containing variables. For example, in evaluating the formula y 2 + y for different values of y, one does not say that the formula itself generates these various resultant values (2, when y = 1; 5, when y = 2; etc.) one after another or at different times; one says that the formula generates them all simultaneously or, better still perhaps, timelessly. The situation is similar for a generative grammar. Although one sentence rather than another can be derived on some particular occasion by making one choice rather than another at particular places in the grammar, the grammar must be thought of as generating all sentences statically or timelessly.

Source: "Linguistics." Encyclopædia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite, 2013.

With the word "Transformational" taken at face value in terms of dynamics, and the word "Generative" interpreted in a static sense, the word "Grammar" is the descriptive context in which this type of binary code is taking place.

For example, we could say "Transformational Generative Number", "Transformational Generative Sounds", "Transformational Generative Feelings", "Transformational Generative Music", "Transformational Generative Ideas", "Transformational Generative Perceptions", "Transformational Generative Money", "Transformational Generative War", "Transformational Generative Economy", "Transformational Generative Government", "Transformational Generative Healthcare", "Transformational Generative Poverty", "Transformational Generative Diplomacy", "Transformational Generative Education", "Transformational Generative Religion", "Transformational Generative Talent", "Transformational Generative Code", etc... Yet each of these is a three-patterned phrase representing a binary formula. The occupations of "dynamic" and "static" are complementary polarizations like an On/Off type of circuit. The word "Grammar" is the type of circuit the type of polarization is meant to compliment itself as an intended discrete and complete idea as an all-encompassing theory... like the (anatomical) three-patterned Grand Unifying Theory (Gut) or Theory of Everything (Toe) found in Physics— though the "TGG" in 'Transformational Generative Grammar' looks more like an amino acid configuration.

Yet despite the appearance of the Binary code being displayed in Chomsky's "TTG" theory, it is referenced as having a three-part organization:

Chomsky's system of transformational grammar, though it was developed on the basis of his work with Harris, differed from (Zellig S.) Harris's in a number of respects. It was Chomsky's system that attracted the most attention and received the most extensive exemplification and further development. As outlined in Syntactic Structures (1957), it comprised three sections, or components: the phrase-structure component, the transformational component, and the morphophonemic component. Each of these components consisted of a set of rules operating upon a certain "input" to yield a certain "output". The notion of phrase structure may be dealt with independently of its incorporation in the larger system.

Source: "Linguistics." Encyclopædia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite, 2013.

Subject page first Originated (saved into a folder): Thursday, November 13, 2014... 5:50 AM
Page re-Originated: Sunday, 24-Jan-2016... 08:51 AM
Initial Posting: Saturday, 13-Feb-2016... 10:59 AM
Updated Posting: Sunday, 23-June-2019... 3:15 PM

Your Questions, Comments or Additional Information are welcomed:
Herb O. Buckland