Threesology Research Journal
Various 3s Examples
page 16

(The Study of Threes)

The Rise and Fall of Class in Britain:
David Cannadine.

The author of this study argues that class "takes place at least as much inside the head as outside"(xi). He proposes that the perception of class in Britain includes three models, which usually coexist, though the relative emphasis differs primarily according to political circumstances. The models are:

  1. The hierarchical one in which every individual has his or her place in a harmonious and orderly chain of being.
  2. The dichotomous view of two opposing classes.
  3. The tripartite model of upper, middle, and lower classes.

(Notice the underlying 1- 2- 3 references labeled as Individual- Dichotomous- Tripartite.)

--- Historian: The Rise and Fall of Class in Britain (Book Review) ---

Three Orders of Medieval Society

Three Orders of Medieval Society:

Here below:
(1) some pray,
(2) others fight,
(3) still others work . . .

From the beginning, mankind has been divided into three parts:

(1) among men of prayer,
(2) farmers,
(3) and men of war . . .

Two passages written at the beginning of the 11th century -- the first by Bishop Adalbero of Laon, the second by Gerard of Cambrai. The image of a tripartite society divided by function has become a hallmark of medieval European history. I think that an understanding of this tripartite division of European society is important both for our understanding of medieval European history, but also for the subsequent history of the Continent, especially in the 18th century. It was during that century that the ancient regime faced its gravest challenge during the heady days of the French Revolution. One of the first things the revolutionaries abolished was feudalism (August 4, 1789) and with it, the remnants of a society based on status and prestige, a society based on the division of orders according to one's function -- those who work, those who fight and those who pray.

--- Lecture 23, Medieval Society: The Three Orders ---

(Note: Georges Dumezil developed a study entitled "The Tripartite Ideology of Indo-European Peoples.")

It is easy for some readers to assign a reason for the usage of such a tripartite categorization as being due to the influence of a religious trinitarian concept labeled the Father, Son and Holy Ghost/Spirit. Granted this may be the influence for many tripartite ideas, but we must then say this was influenced by one of the earlier "Trinities" such as those of Egypt, even if the ancient Egyptians did not themselves organize ideas into conscious forms of tripartition. No less, the ancient Egyptian Trinities must bow to even one or more earlier tripartite forms, or at least the remnant beginnings which produced an original tripartite idea..H.O.B.

The Russian mode of thinking is dual (bipolar), unlike Western thinking which is tripolar. For example, A bipolar mode of thinking would conclude that either you are religious or your are not. A tripolar mode of thinking would include a third option: agnosticism. This model of the Russian culture is employed by B. Uspenski and J. Lotman, A. Zinoviev, Per-Arne Bodin and many others.

--- The Russians ---

Note: This "Bipolar" model contrasts with Professor Croft's assessment of a "Tripolar" (Tripartite) perspective found in Russian Literature:
--- Triplicities in Russian Literature and Culture ---

To their great surprise, astronomers of the Max-Planck-Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn and the California Institute of Technology in Los Angeles have discovered a new molecule in space: ND3.

--- A New Molecule ---

This is a special form of ammonia, NH3, where all three hydrogen atoms are replaced by the heavier and rare isotope deuterium (similar as in heavy water - D2O). Such molecules which contain deuterium occur mostly in very cold clouds of gas and dust in our Milky Way. In such clouds, molecules with one or two deuterium atoms had been found before. The new molecule, however, is the first one with three deuterium atoms. The results are published in a letter to Astronomy & Astrophysics (Vol 388(3), L53: June IV, 2002).

--- SciTecLibrary- Scientific News ---

Most philosophers have taken a tripartite view of knowledge --- it is justified, true belief. This assumes the kind of memory that can be a belief. That is, one that can be expressed as a proposition, such as "differentiable functions are continuous." This view is very narrow relative to analyzing problem solving, which can also use knowledge in the form of, say, remembered images and procedures. Furthermore, individuals seem to acquire and use false beliefs in more-or-less the same way as true ones -- in the midst of problem solving, they are usually unable to internally detect which of their beliefs are true or adequately justified, although they may subsequently find a belief is false, e.g., by coming upon a contradiction. Even memories of direct experience can be unreliable in a way which is internally largely undetectable (Garry, Manning, Loftus, and Sherman, 1996). Thus, we do not see the tripartite view as very helpful for mathematics education. We will not now attempt to characterize which kinds of memories count as knowledge, but surely images and procedures should be included. We also do not assume one's knowledge is true, just as mathematicians do not assume sets to be nonempty.

--- Accessing Knowledge During Problem Solving ---

How can a tripartite view not be helpful to mathematics when it is part of the fundamental structure of mathematics, not to mention the primary structure of trigonometry and that so much of education is based upon tripartite rules of thumb? For example, simplistically, you take one number and multiply, divide, subtract or add it to another number in order to get a third number.

Put in another way (though it is repetitive): It seems rather ludicrous (or at least silly) to suggest that a tripartite view is not helpful for mathematics education when all of mathematics appears to have a fundamental tripartite basis: In that one number (or letter or symbol) is added, subtracted, multiplied or divided from yet a second number (or letter or symbol), to produce a third number (or letter or symbol)...H.O.B.

3 Different types of jets:

  1. Galactic - produced by an imploding & wildly rotating galactic center.
  2. Stellar - produced by a fast-spinning neutron star.
  3. Atmospheric - produced by a short-lived vortex of electrons and ions at the discharge point of a lightning strike.

--- Footnotes to "Blind Science" ---

3 major droughts in Africa revealed from Mount Kilimanjaro (Tanzania) ice cores:

  1. 8,300 years ago.
  2. 5,200 years ago.
  3. 4,000 years ago. (Which went on for 300 years.)

--- Kilimanjaro's ice archive ---

Three bloodhounds considered by the FBI to be the best in the USA are being used in the 2001 Anthrax investigation:

  1. Tinkerbell- from the South Pasadena Police Department.
  2. Knight- from the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Office.
  3. Lucy- from the Long Beach Police Department.

It is believed by some readers that the so-called "terrorist" usage of Anthrax was perpetrated by the U.S. government to heighten its ability to acquire "justifiable" resources for various ulterior motives. It is difficult for many readers to believe in a government when it has sole control over determining what is and what is not "credible" evidence in determining guilt, innocence, or widely influential suspicion. The U.S. government is felt to be the main source for having perpetrated, exacerbated, and maintained conditions for various atrocities committed on the public in many venues... including other countries.

In the "Gravity Games" sport of skate boarding, contestants are permitted 3 runs, and the single best run of the 3 in comparison to all others, determines who wins.

3 inches of water is a common notion to the basic amount needed for drowning in.

3 feet around is the requirement for ensuring no flammable objects come into contact with portable electric heaters in the U.S.

3 forms of television reception:

  1. Cable connection.
  2. Satellite Dish.
  3. Conventional Broadcast/antenna.

The (U.S.) Confederate submarine H.L. Hunley was the first submarine to sink a warship in combat. It sank the Federal ship U.S.S Housatonic the night of February 17, 1864. It was a costly victory... the submarine sank and its crew perished. The little submarine ushered in the role of undersea warfare that directly affected World War I, World War II and the Cold War. (This was the third Hunley submarine made after the previous two had sunk.)

--- The story of the Hunley ---

Three mechanisms responsible for the intense rotation of a tornado:

  1. First, there is the mesocyclone, which has a diameter of 5-20 km. This circulation is at least an order of magnitude larger than the tornado itself, yet near the ground the mesocyclone can be narrowed by the strong updraft: this process, called vortex stretching, intensifies the circulation, due to angular momentum conservation. If the stretching continues, a narrow funnel may result. This funnel is made visible by the low core pressure. Adiabatic expansion causes cooling, which induces condensation, and the cloud droplets make the funnel visible.

  2. Many tornadoes result from the tilting of rotation around a horizontal axis. This horizontal vorticity is due to vertical shear of the wind in the storm's environment. Most supercell storms form in a sheared environment, with poleward winds near the ground and strong westerly winds aloft. The horizontal vortex tubes then are tilted as the air turns to rise in the storm's updraft, creating a component of spin about a vertical axis. Vertical vorticity due to vortex tilting is usually intensified further by vortex stretching. The wind shear responsible for the horizontal vorticity may be storm-induced, rather then environmental.

  3. A cold pool often forms below mature severe storms, due to the evaporation of rain below the cloud base, and because of mid-level entrainment of air with a much lower equivalent potential temperature than the surface air. The boundary between the cold pool and the warm, moist inflow is called the gust front. Horizontal vorticity is generated by the temperature gradient across the gust front. This baroclinically generated vorticity is advected into the main updraft by the low-level inflow over the gust front, and the vorticity advection spins up the updraft.

Supercell storms (which produce violent Tornadoes) form in the following environment:

  1. High convective available potential energy (CAPE), i.e. warm, moist air in the PBL and much cooler air aloft.
  2. Large wind shear, especially wind backing (veering) with height in the southern (northern) hemisphere.
  3. Some convective inhibition, i.e. a stable layer (or lid) at the top of the PBL, about 2 km above the ground.

And we have a 3 to 1 ratio circumstance by adding the following condition:

An additional factor may be the presence of dry air in the middle troposphere. Mid-level dry air may be entrained into the storm, and cooled by evaporative cooling within the mixed air parcel. This may trigger a downdraft. Stronger downdrafts may imply stronger updrafts and a more severe storm.

--- Tornado Formation ---

Three things needed to have a thunderstorm which create the conditions for a tornado:

  1. Instability.
  2. An uplifting mechanism.
  3. Moisture in the mid to lower levels of the atmosphere.

--- Tornado Formation ---

Three different calibers for the Walther WA 2000 Sniper Rifle of which only 72 were made:

Walther 2000 rifle
  1. .300 Winchester Magnum.
  2. .308 (7.62 Nato).
  3. 7.5x51mm Swiss.

Probably the best Sniper Rifles ever made, the WA 2000 was originally designed as an Olympic target rifle but became popular as a Sniper Rifle. The most common caliber is the .300 Winchester Magnum which the rifle was originally designed. The .300 was chosen as the primary caliber because of its long range accuracy and its consistency at all ranges.

--- Walther WA 2000 Sniper Rifle ---

Three reasons for Medicine's interest in mummies:

  1. The first - today only of historic interest - regards their past use as medicine.

  2. The second reason regards research on the conservation of organic tissue, a vast and difficult area of research which has a long history and two distinct aims. The imitation of the methodology of the ancient Egyptians was, on the one hand, useful in embalming illustrious personages, a practice which lasted until the nineteenth century. On the other hand, following the sixteenth-century reform of Anatomy, it was of interest for the study and teaching of Medicine. The absolute secrecy maintained in all these experiments and the almost total disappearance of original specimens prevent us from evaluating the results which were often considered amazing by contemporaries. Among the many perpetrators we shall mention here only the Dutchman Frederik Ruysch (1638-1731) and the Italian Ludovico Brunetti (1813-1899) many of whose "tannizzazioni" are conserved in Padova.

  3. The third, more recent reason relates to paleopathology, the branch of Medicine which studies the origin, evolution and diffusion of diseases in the past and which has found an irreplaceable wealth of information in mummified tissues.

--- La Curiositàe L'ingegno- Mummies ---

The mitochondrial multi-enzyme cytochrome P450 systems catalyze the first regulatory step in steroid hormone biosynthesis in all steroidogenic tissues (the conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone), and C-11-hydroxylation of adrenal corticosteroids in the adrenal cortex only. These systems include three enzymes: adrenodoxin reductase, adrenodoxin, and a cytochrome P450 (P450scc or P450c11) which constitute an electron transport chain similar to the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation chain.

--- Major Research Achievements of our Laboratory ---

In analysis of total RNA samples harvested at 2, 6, 12 and 20 h (hours) after (Chlamydia trachomatis) infection, using conditions under which a single chlamydial transcript per infected cell is detected, three major temporal classes of gene expression were resolved. Initiation of transcription appears to occur in three temporal classes which we have operationally defined as:

  1. Early, which are detected by 2 h after infection during the germination of EBs to RBs;

  2. Mid-cycle, which appear between 6 and 12 h (hours) after infection and represent transcripts expressed during the growth and multiplication of RBs;

  3. Or late, which appear between 12 and 20 h (hours) after infection and represent those genes transcribed during the terminal differentiation of RBs to EBs.

--- 3 temporal classes of gene expression during Chlamydia trachomatis developmental cycle ---

A basidiomycetous fungus Flavodon flavus (Klotzsch) Ryvarden (strain 312), isolated from decaying sea grass from a coral lagoon off the west coast of India, mineralized nearly 24% of 14C-labeled synthetic lignin to 14CO2 in 24 days. When grown in low-nitrogen medium (2.4 mM N) this fungus produced three major classes of extracellular lignin-modifying enzymes (LMEs):

  1. Manganese-dependent peroxidase (MNP)
  2. Lignin peroxidase (LIP)
  3. Laccase.

--- Lignin-Modifying Enzymes of Flavodon flavus ---

Three major classes of enzymes:

  1. Metabolic enzymes (enzymes which work in blood, tissues, and organs).
  2. Food enzymes (from raw food).
  3. Digestive enzymes.

--- Enzyme Therapy for your Health ---

Tri-choderma viride (eventually renamed Trichoderma reesei), is the ancestor of many of the most potent enzyme-producing fungi in commercial use today.

Three major classes of cellulase enzymes are recognized today:

  1. Endoglucanases, which act randomly on soluble and insoluble glucose chains.

  2. Exoglucanases, which include glucanhydrolases that preferentially liberate glucose monomers from the end of the cellulose chain and cellobiohydrolases that preferentially liberate cellobiose (glucose dimers) from the end of the cellulose chain.

  3. ß-glucosidases, which liberate D-glucose from cellobiose dimers and soluble cellodextrins.

--- Enzymatic Hydrolysis ---

Your Questions, Comments or Additional Information are welcomed:

Herb O. Buckland