Threesology Research Journal
Various 3s Examples
page 8

(The Study of Threes)

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Three 20th Century discoveries that contributed to the modern view of the Universe:

  1. Albert Einstein's 1905 Theory of Special Relativity
  2. Edward P. Hubble's 1929 Universe Expansion Theory
  3. Arno Penzia's & Robert Wilson's 1964 Background Radiation (in space) Theory

"Three" references involving Nikola Tesla's life as told in the PBS Home Video entitled "Tesla, Master of Lightning," ©2000:

  1. His mother's fingers were so nimble she could tie 3 knots in an eyelash. (she was an inventor, his father was an erudite clergyman.)
  2. On one occasion, he could hear the ticking of a time-piece 3 rooms away.
  3. Three 5000 horsepower generators were designed for the initial "Niagara plan," in which the Niagara falls would be harnessed to turn generators that would produce A.C. electrical current.
  4. A repeating "One- Two- Three" pulse was received by one of his machines which influenced him to consider that he was receiving an extra-terrestrial message. A signal that is now consider to be radio waves caused by microwave background emissions.

3 basic movement types for most resistance meters:

d'Arsanval ~ Iron-vane ~ Electrodynamometer

3 electrical circuit types: Series ~ Parallel ~ Series/Parallel (combination)

3-phase systems used in most electric generators

3 basic transistor layers: Emitter ~ Base ~ Collector

3 patterned Power "Law": Power equals Watt divided by Time

3 laws of Indices(Algebra): Multiplication ~ Division ~ Powers

3 patterned current-in-amperes equation: (I)amperes equals Q(coulombs) divided by T(seconds)

3 common electrical meter scales: Ohms ~ Volts ~ Amps

3 "Light" measurement divisions: Light year ~ Light minutes ~ Light seconds

3-patterned general formula of the Scientific Method:

  1. The observation of the phenomena and the recording of facts.
  2. The formulation of physical laws from the generalization of the phenomena.
  3. The development of a theory that is used to predict new phenomena.

A short list of "Three R's-related ideas":

  • 3 R's Education philosophy of U.S. schools: Reading ~ 'Riting ~ 'Rithmetic
  • 3 R's of Job hunting:(one) Resume ~(two) Recommendations ~ (three) References
  • 3 R's rule-of-thumb for ink usage: Reduce ~ Reuse ~ Reclaim (Printing)
  • 3 R's of a Secretary: Respect ~ Rewards ~ Recognition
  • 3 R's of typical Mafia alternative murder techniques: Revolver - Rope - Roof
  • 3 R's of those (criminals) about to be arrested: Resist - Run - Retaliate
  • 3 R's of WWII American military as depicted in the movie "Sands of Iwo Jima" starring John Wayne: Refitting - Replacements - Retraining
  • 3 R's of a cowboy sent to Speedy and read by the postal clerk Matilda in the 1940 movie entitled Hidden Gold, starring Hopalong Cassidy: Hopalong Cassidy Rarities, Disc 2: Roping - Riding - Raising a Ruckus

3 "R's" alternatives to the use of laboratory animals in research and testing: Refinement ~ Reduction ~ Replacement

History of Animal Testing

Evidence of animals being used in experiments goes back to the 1500s. However, it was not until 1959 that thoughts about the ethics of using animals in this way became a legitimate discussion point within scientific circles. This was due to Russell and Burch, who came up with the idea of an aim to meet the 3 Rs as an ethical code regarding using animals in tests:

  • Replacement; where possible a non-animal test should be implemented.
  • Reduction; the number of tests carried out and the number of animals used in tests should be reduced as far as possible.
  • Refinement; the humane treatment of animals used in testing such as conditions they are kept in and the use of anesthesia.

Even after this idea was promoted progress was slow. Years later public support, stemming from movements such as the environmental and animal welfare movements helped create a culture ripe for the setting up of the Fund For the Replacement of Animals in Medical Experiments (FRAME) in 1969.

It took until the 1980s before the 3 R's became more widely accepted and began to be more wholly incorporated into testing, research and education. In some places, such as the UK, this was even enshrined, somewhat, into law such as the UK's Animal (Scientific) Procedures Act 1986.

In 1987 the US teenager Jennifer Graham made the news and made many people question the necessity of animal testing in education, including the rule makers, by suing her school for making the dissection of animals a compulsory part of learning anatomy.

However, although using animals for testing, research and educational purposes may have, in some cases, become more humane and in some areas decreased, particularly in the cosmetic testing and educational spheres. It can also be countered that the numbers of animals used particularly for medical research have increased exponentially in line with the advancement of science, increases in funding and more generally increases in population, product manufacture, and consumerism.

The Derm Review: Replacement of Animal Procedures: Alternatives in Testing, Research, and Education

Submitted by:
Laura Barnes
Outreach Executive

3 R's of gang culture:


    This is of critical concern to "gang-bangers" (gang members). A rep extends not only to each individual, but to the gang as a whole. In some groups, status (or rank) is gained within the gang by having the most "juice" based largely on one's reputation. While being "juiced" is very important, the manner by which the gang member gains the "juice" is just as important. Upon interview, many gang members embellish their past gang activities in an attempt to impress their conversation partner. Gang members freely admit crimes and it has been my experience that most in fact do embellish their stories to enhance their feeling of power. In many gangs, to become a member, you must be "jumped in" by members of the gang. This entails being "beaten down" until the leader calls for it to end. Afterwards, all gang members hug one another to further the "G thing". This action is meant to bond the members together as a family. Frequently, young gang members, whether hardcore or associate, will talk of fellowship and the feeling of sharing and belonging as their reason for joining a gang.


    This is something everyone wants and some gang members carry their desire for it to the extreme. Respect is sought for not only the individual, but also for one's set or gang, family, territory, and various other things, real or perceived in the mind of the "gang-banger".

    Some gangs require, by written or spoken regulation, that the gang member must always show disrespect to rival gang members. (Referred to in gang slang as dis). If a gang member witnesses a fellow member failing to dis a rival gang through hand signs, graffiti, or a simple "mad dog" or stare-down, they can issue a "violation" to their fellow posse member and he/she can actually be "beaten down" by their own gang as punishment. After dis has been issued, if it is witnessed, the third "R" will become evident.


    It must be understood that in gang culture, no challenge goes unanswered. Many times, drive-by shootings and other acts of violence follow an event perceived as dis. A common occurrence is a confrontation between a gang set and single rival "gang-banger." Out-numbered, he departs the area and returns with his "homeboys" to complete the confrontation to keep his reputation intact. This may occur immediately or follow a delay for planning and obtaining the necessary equipment to complete the retaliatory strike. It must also be understood that many acts of violence are the result of bad drug deals or infringement on drug territory. Some question the authenticity of gang rivalry in shootings and other acts of violence. However, if a group of individuals are together committing either random or pre- planned violence, aren't they a gang? If the gang aspect is learned about, many crimes can be solved through the use of accurate intelligence gathering techniques by law enforcement agencies dealing with this problem. In gang-banging, today's witness is tomorrow's suspect, is the next day's victim.

--- American Street Gangs ---

3 R's a child needs to learn for personal growth:

1. Respect for Others
2. Respect for Self
3. Responsibility for every action.

3 R's of epistemology:

  1. Religious revelation.
  2. Scientific rationalism.
  3. Post modern relativism.

3 commonly different categories of behavioral characteristics of people during a break period:

  1. The 'hangout' in the lunch/break room group. (Some try to remain at their work station.)
  2. The go outside group (to walk, smoke, or in a few instances, do some sport such as basketball, though if an employee gets injured while playing, it is not considered a work-related injury).
  3. The "do their own thing" group (sit in offices, talk on the phone, run an errand, sit in their vehicle, etc... [singularly or with one or more others])

3 characteristic attitude developing impressions that many temporary workers experience:

  1. Employers use you.
  2. Employers abuse you (take advantage without remorse, guilt, or empathy).
  3. Employers excuse you (without warning, even though they may label you as a good, great, efficient worker whom they ask to return... but will dismiss without regard for the time, money and effort made to return such as in costs incurred for gas, child care, bus fare, etc...).

3 typical kitchen cabinet sizes:

  1. Small- typically for storing commonly used junk (stuff), towels, or utensils.
  2. Medium- typically for storing infrequently used items such as party bowls, festivity/holiday serving trays or large quantity containers.
  3. Large- typically for storing frequently used containers, pots, pans, cups, saucers, dishes/plates, food, etc...

3 horizontal spaces sometimes created by cabinets:

  1. The open variety - such as the top of a cabinet or a counter top.
  2. The obscured variety - offering a placement that may be used as a nook to conceal something thought valuable.
  3. The enclosed variety - covered by a partition or door.

  1. Above, (High, above head, frequently in difficult to reach places)
  2. In between, (Medium, typically at eye or stomach level in easy to reach places)
  3. Below, (Low, such as below cabinets)

3 types of hand drying methods in public restrooms

(one or two of the kinds may be found in a single restroom, but I have not found a restroom containing all three.)

  1. Paper towels
  2. Cloth towel (typically a long single one connected to a roll that upwinds the used portion as an unused portion is pulled out.)
  3. Electric hot air blow dryer.

1- 2 or 3 paper towels are typically used by those wiping their hands dry after they've washed them following a use of the restroom. However, for an historical reference, it must be said that I frequently seen people who do not wash their hands.

3rd day of week (Tuesday) is used as the day by companies trying to entice customers by providing discounted goods, such as pizza, movies, oil change, etc...

3 references to differing qualities of Newspaper sections: Front (top) page ~ Middle column ~ Below the fold

3 to 1 ratio television news categories: News ~ Weather ~ Sports (and Entertainment), which are the equivalent of the letters in the word "NEWS" and the first letters in the North ~ South ~ East and West directions idea.

3 "levels" of shipping service offered by some companies:

  1. ONE- Overnight delivery.
  2. TWO- 2nd Day Air (2 business days).
  3. MANY- Ground service (generally 2-6 days).

Various "Three" references:

  • 3 month probationary period for new employees is a standard hiring practice by many businesses.
  • 3 types of business ownership: Sole Proprietorship ~ Partnership ~ Corporation
  • 3-patterned phrase referring to the hiring policy of many companies: Employees are "Hired At Will," meaning they can lose their job anytime the company wants to let them go.
  • 3-letter abbreviation used by Human Resource departments: PTO (Paid Time Off)
  • Typical business letters are folded into thirds
  • 3 gummed sealing strips ~ 2 gummed strips ~ 1 gummed strip (on envelope flaps)
  • 3 typical designs of envelope flaps: Triangular ~ (semi-)Circular ~ Linear (straight)
  • Triple colored business forms frequently contain combinations of white ~ yellow ~ (pink/green/blue) pages (though I have seen some with an orange-colored page)
  • 3 main (U.S.) credit reporting agencies: Equifax ~ Trans Union ~ Trw
  • 3 months delayed payment: (often called 90 days same as cash)
  • 3 day end-of-August holiday weekend is practiced in Britain.

List of 3 acceptable documents needed to get a job (legally) in the U.S.:

  1. List A- Documents that establish both identity and employment eligibility... or
  2. List B- Documents that establish identity... and
  3. List C- Documents that establish employment eligibility.

3 social statements made on U.S paper currency:

  1. Political- Designated by pictures of deceased Presidents.
  2. Religious- Designated by the phrase "In God We Trust."
  3. Commerce- Designated by the phrase "This note is legal tender for all debts, public and private."

The bottom one-third of a billing statement, with payment, is requested by some Companies

3 part cautionary rule heard in various workplace environments: Never-Assume-Anything (because "Ass-u-me" means making an Ass (of) U (and) Me if you're wrong in your guess).

3 work-day divisions: Morning shift ~ Swing shift ~ Night (or Graveyard) shift

3 overall work week divisions: Day ~ Night ~ Weekend Shifts

3 overall divisions of the day in some circumstances:

  1. One-third of the day (eight hours) is for working.
  2. One-third of the day (eight hours) is for sleeping.
  3. One-third of the day (eight hours) is for personal time.

Note: Some people use more or less than eight hours for one or more of the foregoing generalized categories.)

3 common full-time hourly shifts practiced by different companies in the U.S.:

  1. 8-hour shift (4 or 5 days depending on whether "full-time" means 32 or 40 hours.)
  2. 10-hour shift (typically 4 days.)
  3. 12-hour shift (typically 3 days resulting in a higher wage and a 36 hour work week.)

3 days or more absenteeism from work requires a doctor's excuse (various employers)

3 common workplace telephone call excuses when trying to reach someone:

  1. They're in a meeting/conference.
  2. Out of the office
  3. Leave message for a return call (because they're away from their desk, busy with another client, you can stay on hold)

3 common workplace "leave a message" options: With a Secretary ~ On Voice Mail ~ Send an E-mail

3 different eye protectors for manufacturing jobs: Goggles ~ Face shield ~ Safety glasses

3 basic construction site requirements: Safety glasses ~ Steel-toed boots ~ Gloves

3 groupings of W-2's for income tax filling: Federal ~ State ~ Filer's copy

3-lettered abbreviations for many countries are used by U.S. businesses

3 currencies for United Nations Stamps: U.S. Dollars ~ Swiss Francs ~ Austrian Shillings

3-lettered abbreviation used in many businesses: SOP (Standard Operating Procedure)

During a meeting, a motion may be made that is "seconded" and "Thirded"

3 payment transaction types that are collectively added to determine whether or not a cashier is over or under their end-of-day cash register receipt totals:

  1. Coupons
  2. Checks
  3. Cash

(In some instances, if a cashier is $2.00 (or more?) over or under, they will get a written reprimand. After 3 such reprimands, the determination of the person's future employment is considered on an individual basis by the manager, supervisor, or owner.)

3 statistics referring to information supplied by potential employees:

  1. 45% of resumes contain false or exaggerated information.
  2. 33% of job applicants falsify employment applications.
  3. 60% of college registrars regularly experience attempts to falsify credentials.

(Above information is offered by the Insight Dynamics Corporation of San Ramon, California.)

3 common rules to be followed when wearing a work-place identification badge:

  1. Above the waist
  2. On outer clothing
  3. At all times

3 types of office dress code:

  1. Casual- (Typically on a Friday, Weekends, or Holidays)
  2. Casual business- (Typically in environments that don't meet the public directly.)
  3. Business formal/professional (Typically in environments where the public, clients, or other professionals customarily interact frequently and or employees use particular garments to make personal statements involving position, pay, or posturing.)

3 types of written materials that may be accepted by some businesses:

  1. A letter of interest.
  2. A resumé.
  3. A curriculum vitae.

3 attendant materials may be required for some positions:

  1. Copies of transcripts showing degrees that have been awarded.
  2. A statement of philosophy concerning the subject matter for which one will be involved with in the position applied for.
  3. A list of references (typically 3 but may require more depending on the position).

Some historical "Threes" references:

  • 3 wars between Rome & Carthage: Punic Wars
  • 3 Viking social classes: Nobles ~ Freemen ~ Slaves
  • 3 Estates of Medievalism: Aristocracy ~ Clergy ~ Workers
  • 3 "Affiliated" Native American Tribes: Arikaro ~ Mondan ~ Hidatso
  • 3 "fires" Native American Tribes: Potawtam ~ Chippew ~ Ottawa
  • 3 assaults, in 1775, by the British, drove American Patriots from Breed's Hill.
  • 3-masted merchant ship: Mayflower
  • 3 types of early American Colonies by location: Northern (or New) England ~ Middle ~ Southern
  • 3 types of early American Colonies by type: Royal ~ Proprietary ~ Corporate
  • 3 ships of Christopher Columbus: Nina ~ Pinta ~ Santa Maria (there was a forth ship, making the overall count a 3 to 1 ratio)
  • 3rd Monday in April is Patriots Day in Maine and Massachusetts.
  • 3 separate cracks in 3 separate castings of the U.S. Liberty Bell occurred:

  • [1st] When the Liberty Bell was first cast and rung.
  • [2nd] When the Liberty Bell was recast and rung.
  • [3rd] When the Liberty Bell was again cast and rung, and remains cracked to this day.

3 variations regarding a phrase written by King George III and found in his diary (July 4, l776- American date of Independence):

1. Nothing of Importance happened today. (five words used)
2. Nothing Important happened today. (four words used)
3. Nothing Happened today. (three words used)

I have also encountered variations of the above:

Nothing of particular interest happened today.
Nothing of consequence happened today.

It is of interest to note that my first example in the above series contains 5 words, the second contains 4 words, and the third contains 3 words. Perhaps this is a reference to a change in language usage from a cognitive perspective and/or a reference to how a phrase can change according to time, place, usage and having no direct access to the actual diary in order to read it for ourselves. One must wonder whether the subtlety of the 3-4-5 sequencing is similar to the cognitive generation of the Pythagorean theorem: [3 3 + 44 + 55]. In other words, there are particular cognitive patterns that recur again and again amongst different people during different times and places. Social standards from place to place and time alter the symbolism being used... making cross-cultural decipherment difficult for most researchers.

Three classes of western lands as devised by Major John Wesley Powell in his "Report on the lands of the Arid Region of the United States (1879):

  1. Irrigable lands
  2. Timber lands
  3. Pasturage lands

Page 440, The American Nation (A History of the United States) by John A. Garraty, ©1979, ISBN 0-06-042269-6 (Hardcover)

3 columns of U.S. Calvary troops were sent into the field in the Summer of 1876 against the Native American Sioux. One of these was sent ahead by General H. Terry with orders to locate the Indians' camp and then block their escape route into the inaccessible Bighorn Mountains. The 264 men 7th Calvary detachment, led by the rash and vain Colonel George A. Custer decided to attack the Indians. They surrounded him and his men with 2,500 Sioux warriors under the command of Rain-in-the-Face, Crazy Horse, and Sitting Bull.

Page 423, The American Nation (A History of the United States) by John A. Garraty, ©1979, ISBN 0-06-042269-6 (Hardcover)

3 letters during Nathan Hale's imprisonment: One to his mother ~ A second to his sisters ~ A third to his betrothed.

3 rode from Lexington to Concord: Paul Revere ~ William Dawes ~ Dr. Samuel Prescott.

3 days, July 1st ~ 2nd ~ 3rd in 1863, is when the Battle of Gettysburg was fought.

3 factors largely determining the characteristics of Frontier society:

  1. Distance of settlement from the old Eastern communities
  2. Lines of communication and transportation
  3. Effectiveness of churches, schools, and town governments

3 divisions of the 15th century Frisian lands:

  1. East, in the hands of the Aristocratic Circsern family.
  2. West, in the hands of Charles V.
  3. Between West and East, dominated by the town of Groningen.

German Enigma code machine

3 roller Enigma code machine was used by Germany in World War II.

3 roller Enigma code machine was typical, but 4 and 5 wheel varieties were used.

Three wheels (rollers) were selected from a set of five in the case of the Army and Air Force machines and from a set of eight in the case of the Naval machines. The daily [or other periodic] instructions would also specify the reflector [Umkehrwalze] and, in the case of the Kriegmarine's M4, the selection of the fourth, 'Greek' wheel and its 'thin' reflector.

3 suggestions of who broke the Enigma code:

  1. Poles (Poland)
  2. Brits (Britain)
  3. Others (German code defector, etc...)

3-wheel Enigma with reflector and six plug connections generated the following 39 three-patterned number of coding positions:

3 283 883 513 796 974 198 700 882 069 882 752 878
379 955 261 095 623 685 444 055 315 226 006 433 616
627 409 666 933 182 371 154 802 769 920 000 000 000

Enigma information sources:
--- Enigma ---

--- Enigma ---

--- Enigma ---

3 representations are provided at the end of the motion picture U-571 which was dedicated to the bravery of Allied sailors and officers who risked their lives capturing enigma materials from U-boats during the battle of the Atlantic:

  1. May 9, 1941- Enigma machine and coding documents were captured from U-110 by HMS Bulldog and HMS Aubretta of the 3rd escort group.
  2. Oct. 9, 1942- Short weather cipher captured from U-559 by HMS Petard.
  3. June 4, 1944- Enigma machine and coding documents captured from U-505 by U.S. Navy task force 22.3.

3 last commands of Hitler:

  1. Total Destruction of Germany.
  2. Marries Ava Braun.
  3. Burn his body after his suicide.

30 January, 1933 is when Hitler is said to have come to power.

Various "Threes" references:

  • 3rd Reich: Adolf Hitler's Empire
  • 3rd Rome: Old name for Russia
  • 3rd Estate: French Revolution
  • 3rd Way: Mussolini's social movement
  • 3rd Wave: Newt Gingrich's social movement (U.S.)

Third Communist International was founded in 1919 by Vladimir Ilyich Lenin. He is said to have died after a 3rd stroke, and he was the third child by his mother and father.

Three-patterned slogan printed on posters portraying Lenin: Lenin Lived ~ Lenin Lives ~ Lenin will always Live!

3-part slogan of Lenin: Land, Bread, Peace

3 final orders that were withheld (for a time) from the Japanese Naval attack fleet commanders:

  1. Date of sailing.
  2. Date of mid-ocean fueling.
  3. Date of attack (Pearl Harbor)

3-part phrase "East-Wind-Rain" on Japanese radio during a weather report indicated the (World War II) conflict with the U.S. had begun.

3 "first" atom bomb occurrences that changed the world: Trinity site ~ Hiroshima ~ Nagasaki...(Occurred 3 days after Hiroshima)

3 early attempts failed before the external threat of France's declaration of war in 1870 led to the development of a central government in Germany:

  1. The Frankfurt Parliament of 1848
  2. The restored German Confederation of 1850
  3. The North German Confederation of 1866

3 types of typical explosive devices used against water craft during war time:

  1. Torpedoes
  2. Mines
  3. Depth Charges

Early 20th century treaties

The World's "Axis of Bullies" -AKA- "Axis of Shameful Conduct" -AKA- "Axis of Terrorists":

Bush-created Axis divisions
  • United States- (George W. Bush)
  • United Kingdom- (Tony Blair)
  • Israel- (Ariel Sharon)

George W. Bush's 2002 "Axis of (primary) Evil":

  1. Iran- (Mohammed Khatami)
  2. Iraq- (Saddam Hussein)
  3. North Korea- (Kim Jong-il)

G.W. Bush's "Axis of Interference":

  1. Russia- (Vladimir Putin)
  2. Germany- (Joschka Fischer)
  3. France- (Jacques Chirac)

G.W. Bush's "Axis of (secondary) Evil":

  1. Cuba- (Fidel Castro)
  2. Libya- (Mu'ammar Abu-Minyar al-Qadhafi)
  3. Syria- Bashar al-Assad

Triad of War-mongering, War-salivating, War-obsessed "strategists":

  1. Washington, D.C.
  2. London, England
  3. Madrid, Spain

Additional "Axis of Evil" nations considered:

  • Axis of Somewhat Evil: Cuba, Sudan, Serbia
  • Axis of Occasionally Evil: Somalia, Uganda, Myanmar
  • Axis of Not So Much Evil Really As Just Generally Disagreeable: Bulgaria, Indonesia, Russia
  • Axis of Countries That Aren't the Worst But Certainly Won't Be Asked to Host the Olympic's: Sierra Leone, El Salvador, Rwanda
  • Axis of Nations That Are Actually Quite Nice But Secretly Have Nasty Thoughts About America: Canada, Mexico, Australia
  • Axis of Countries that should be Allowed to ask sheep to wear Lipstick: Spain, Scotland, New Zealand

--- "Axis of Evil"? ---

3 September 1939: Prime Minister Chamberlain says that a state of war exists between Germany and Great Britain.

3 measures called The Reform Acts extended voting rights in 19th century England.

3 wars before French & Indian War: King William's ~ Queen Anne's ~ King George's

3-patterned phrase to avoid the Black Plague: Go quickly ~ Go far ~ And return late

3 patterned reference to the Black (bubonic) Plague in a child's lyrics:

  1. Ring-around-the-rosey (victims of bubonic plague had red spots on their skin).
  2. A pocket full of posies (this is a reference to herbal remedies thought to assist in preventing {or curing} someone from getting the illness).
  3. Ashes, ashes, we all fall down (this refers to death and the burning of plague infested bodies as an attempt to prevent the disease from spreading).

(By separating the death {falling down} and the burning {ashes} of the last line, we could interpret this as a 3 to 1 ratio).

Medieval Black Death Was Probably Not Bubonic Plague

The Black Death of the 1300s was probably not the modern disease known as bubonic plague, according to a team of anthropologists studying on these 14th century epidemics.

"Although on the surface, seem to have been similar, we are not convinced that the epidemic in the 14th century and the present day bubonic plague are the same," says Dr. James Wood, professor of anthropology and demography at Penn State. "Old descriptions of disease symptoms are usually too non-specific to be a reliable basis for diagnosis."

The researchers note that it was the symptom of lymphatic swelling that led 19th century bacteriologists to identify the 14th century epidemic as bubonic plague.

"The symptoms of the Black Death included high fevers, fetid breath, coughing, vomiting of blood and foul body odor," says Rebecca Ferrell, graduate student in anthropology. "Other symptoms were red bruising or hemorrhaging of skin and swollen lymph nodes. Many of these symptoms do appear in bubonic plague, but they can appear in many other diseases as well."

The researchers, who also include Sharon DeWitt-Avina, Penn State graduate student in anthropology, Stephen Matthews and Mark Shriver, both professors in the Population Research Institute at Penn State, and Darryl Holman, assistant professor of anthropology, University of Washington, Seattle, are investigating church records and other documents from England to reconstruct the virulence, spatial diffusion and temporal dynamics of the Black Death.

--- Medieval Black Death Was Probably Not Bubonic Plague ---

3 to 1 ratio of ships used by Vasco da Gama as he sailed around the Southern Cape of Africa:

3 regular ships (São Gabriel~ São Rafael~ Bérnio) + 1 supply ship... whose captains were, respectively, Vasco Da Gama ~ Paulo da Gama ~ Nicolau Coelho + Gonçalo Numes

Three most important events that led up to, and caused the American Revolution:

1. The --- Boston Massacre --

2. The --- Boston Tea Party ---

3. The --- Stamp Act ---

--- American Revolution Persuaders ---

Three references to the Boston Tea Party:

  • 3 British ships were raided during the Boston Tea Party
  • 3 individuals are said to have arose as leaders of the group to direct the raid.
  • 3 individual groups (parties) raided the 3 ships.

--- The Boston Tea Party, 1773 ---

3 ships of the Boston Tea party attacked by the Mohawk-dressed Sons of Liberty: Dartmouth-Eleanor-Beaver. Three hundred and forty two crates of tea "bricks" were dumped into the harbor in less than three hours. (The 3 cent tax charged by the British was cheaper than the money charged by John Hancock who, like so many of the businessmen of his day, were smugglers.)

  • 3-cornered (Tricorn) hats: Continental Infantry
  • 33 years old: Thomas Jefferson when he drafted the Declaration of Independence.
  • 3-piece silver ink stand: (used by signers of the Declaration of Independence)

3 part design of prosecuting the 1846-1848 Mexican War by U.S. President James K. Polk:

  1. He would clear the Mexicans from Texas and occupy the northern provinces of Mexico.
  2. He would take possession of California and New Mexico.
  3. He would march on Mexico City.

... Page 270, The American Nation: A History of the United States, fourth edition, John A. Garraty, ©1979, ISBN (hardcover) 0-06-042269-6.

3 major West Coast harbors in the 1840's America: San Diego - San Francisco - Straight of Juan de Fuca

3 squadrons commanded by General Claire Lee Chennualt: The Flying Tigers

3 major Native American take-overs in the early 1910's:

  1. Alcatraz Island in San Francisco Bay
  2. Bureau of Indian Affairs in Washington D.C.
  3. Wounded Knee in South Dakota

  • 3 noted figures of the Alamo: William Travis~ David Crockett~ James Bowie
  • 3-time ruler: Antonio Lopez De Santa Anna of Mexico
  • 3 World War II Allies: Russia~ England~ U.S.
  • 3 World War II Axis powers: Germany~ Italy~ Japan
  • 3 patterned phrase of Winston Churchill: Never have so many ~ Owed so much ~ To so few

3rd Army Infantry division of U.S. Military is the main force in the attack of Iraq in 2003.

U.S. 3rd Army was run by General Patton in World War II.

The first 3 German jet planes (not "prop-eller" planes) in WWII are said to have been shot down by the (all Negro) 332nd fighter group. This information was provided at the end of the movie entitled "The Tuskegee Airmen."

3's in the Military life of America's most decorated Combat soldier of WWII (Audie L. Murphy):

  • 3rd Infantry Division
  • 33 awards and decorations
  • 3 wounds received
  • 3 years active military service
  • 3 promotions shown in the movie "To Hell and Back": Corporal - Sergeant - Lieutenant

For more information on Audie L. Murphy:

--- Biographical Sketch of Audie Leon Murphy ---

3 surviving combat soldiers of WWII who were credited with raising the American flag on Iwo Jima participated in the motion picture "Sands of Iwo Jima" (1949) Starring John Wayne:

  1. PFc. Rene A. Gagon
  2. PFc. Ira H. Hayes
  3. PM3/c John H. Bradley

3 directions are said to have been used by the American military to extend its control of Iraq's capital (8th April 2003):

  1. Outwards from their central enclave.
  2. From the north-west.
  3. From the south-east.

33rd parallel: Baghdad, Iraq.

Iraq's flag

3 stars and three stripes to the Iraqi National flag, with the three-part phrase of "God Is Great" in between the stars. The phrase is said to be in the hand writing of Saddam Hussein, and was placed on the flag after the Iraq/Iran war.

3-stage process (offered by the British Prime Minister Tony Blair) under which Iraq (after the American and British invasion of 2003) will move from essentially military rule through an interim Iraqi administration to a representative government:

  1. Stage one: Military rule- US and UK military will be in charge of security and in overall command.
  2. Stage two: Interim Iraqi Administration (IIA)- This is where the British Government wants the UN to take a leading role by organizing a conference in Baghdad which would appoint members of the IIA.
  3. Stage three: Representative government- The phrase "representative government" will have to be defined.

--- BBC news: Three stages to a new Iraq ---

3 Expeditions were led by John Franklin (1786- 1847), in the Arctic seeking to traverse the Northwest passage (Late in the 20th Century, 3 of his men were found buried.)

Triangle references:

  • Triangular trade route: New England~ West Indies~ Africa (etc.)
  • Bermuda triangle: Southern U.S. Coast~ Bermuda~ Greater Antilles
  • Polynesian triangle: Fiji~ Hawaii~ Tahiti
  • Suppression of a fire is accomplished by breaking the "Fire Triangle" consisting of: Fuel ~ Temperature ~ Oxygen
  • "Sunni Triangle": a region between the cities of Tikrit, Baghdad and Ar Ramadi, considered by U.S. defense officials to be a hotbed of Saddam Hussein loyalists.
  • Triangle of animosity: Cities of Leicester, Derby and Nottingham.

Three brilliant stars form this stellar right triangle making it our best heavenly landmark in the August night sky. Vega high above and its western point appears the brightest of the three. Deneb, also high above and to the east of Vega, appears the dimmest. Altair shines below in the south, forming the most distant point of this great triad. These three stunning stars are an unofficial star group or asterism that link the three constellations ... Lyra, Cygnus the Swan and Aquila the Eagle. This Summer Triangle lies high above, over the Milky Way which now sweeps across the heavens from north to south.

summertriangle (23K)

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  • 3 great Greek Playwrites of tragedy: Euripides~ Aeschylus~ Sophocles
  • 3 years of age: Orson Welles was said to have been recognized as a genius at this age.
  • 3 (traditional) great taboos in textbook publishing: Sex~ Religion~ Social Class
  • 3-part rule-of-thumb: Early to bed ~ Early to rise ~ Makes a man healthy, wealthy, and wise
  • 3-part radio jargon: Roger ~ Wilco (will comply) ~ Out
  • 3 (U.S.) bus fare divisions: Student ~ Adult ~ Senior (Honored) Citizen
  • 3 chief types of woven rugs and carpets: Velvet ~ Wilton ~ Axminister
  • 3 basic kinds of weaves: Plain or Tabby ~ Twill ~ Satin (When we include complex weaves known as Fancy, our example not only is a 3-to-1 ratio, but the three simple designs compared to a complex design is reminiscent of the arrangement found in protein structures.

3 (Main Companies):

  • TV: ABC ~ CBS ~ NBC (U.S.)
  • Auto: GMC ~ Ford ~ Chrysler (U.S.)
  • Turkeys: British United ~ Canadian Hybrid ~ Nicholas Breeding;
  • Outboard Motors: Yamaha ~ Mercury ~ Evinrude (U.S.)

Origination date: Tuesday, February 26, 2019, 3:16:02 PM
Previous Updated Posting: Saturday, 17-June-2007... 4:26 PM
Latest Update: Tuesday, 23rd February, 2021... 10:19 AM
Your Questions, Comments or Additional Information are welcomed:
Herb O. Buckland