Pg 1/ Pg 2
(The Study of Threes)
http://threesology.org
Researchers as of 12/6/2019
Symmetries, Duality, and the Unity of Physics Nathan Seiberg 
Duality (in art) by 13FOREST Gallery Jon Cowan & Lindsey Kocur 
Dual Natured Architecture by Argitect 
Dualism Revised Fri. Sep 11, 2020 
Britannica: Structuration Theory Restructuring Restruction Theory 
Special Issue on Dualities E. Castellani & D. Rickles 
The title of this page comes from an excellent outline of Lecture material provided by Dr. Street:
HISTORY AND SYSTEMS OF PSYCHOLOGY,
DR. WARREN R. STREET
I chanced upon the forthcoming list as I was rummaging about the internet in search of "twopatterned" examples featured as dualities or dichotomies to be used as part of a discussion on one of the pages for the Novum Organum Threesiarum preface page A section. And even though I am familiar with many of those selectively listed, it has been more years than I can remember when I last took a psychology course. Humorously, it was during an age when Freud was still in diapers (though he had a beard even then). Yet I don't in any particular way remember being introduced to the idea concerning the persistence of dichotomies. In retrospect, a profile of dichotomous thinking does in fact persist as highlighted by Dr. Street. Each of us uses our own variations of a dichotomous perspective from time to time.
Stated as such, it is necessary to point out the need for a distinction with respect to dichotomies (or if you prefer, dualities). The realization which should more rightly be proffered is that there is a Persistence of Dichotomization. At least in some respects, and obviously used quite often when philosophically discussing aspects of psychology. While some may want to argue that such a persistence in thinking is due to the actual presence of dichotomies (such as two eyes, two ears, etc...), it should be noted that an alternative array of dichotomies (or dualities) does not typically accompany nor become accumulated in a similar manner as does a listing of various trichotomies.
Let me now present the list of dichotomies exhibited on Dr. Street's page which will be followed by additional examples compiled by other "dualfocused" individualized perspectives:

Here is a short excerpt viewing dichotomies in the context of a psychological system which are part of a larger course in Theoretical Backgrounds in Psychology
With regard to the problem of what is ideally entailed by a psychological system, Marx and CronanHillix dealt with Robert Watson's "prescriptions" and with a study by Coan who had psychological theories assessed on a number of bipolar dimensions. In an attempt to make up for the lack of a psychological paradigm, Watson (1967, p. 436; 1971, p. 315; Fuchs & Kawash, 1974) isolated eighteen themes or prescriptions:
(prescriptions 5, 10, 14 have been quoted in reverse order.) The list is a little unsystematic, it will be noted. Contentual, methodological, and philosophical prescriptions have been stated in no apparent order, and some seem to overlap. Moreover, concepts such as rationalism and staticism are used in more than one sense while the meaning of the first prescription in particular leaves the present author in the dark. In coan's study (1968, 1973), six bipolar factors were found in a factoranalysis of 34 variables. The list is conveniently short compared to Watson's but its general similarity with the prescription is easily grasped:
Recently, the same number of dimensions was found by Kimble (1984). In an attempt to describe "psychology's two cultures", (cf. Schopman, 1989, Stagner, 1988) Kimple came up with the following list:
(Edited by Hans V. Rappard, Pieter J. Van Strien, Leendert P. Mos and William J. Baker) 
(J. E. Bogen)
Left Hemisphere  Right Hemisphere 
Intellect  Intuition 
Convergent  Divergent 
Digital  Analogic 
Secondary  Primary 
Abstract  Concrete 
Directed  Free 
Propositional  Imaginative 
Analytic  Relational 
Lineal  Nonlineal 
Rational  Intuitive 
Sequential  Multiple 
Analytic  Holistic 
Objective  Subjective 
Successive  Simultaneous 
(I Ching)
While the last two lists were focused on an itemization of brain hemisphere attribute differences, and Dr. Street's list was not, all three of them have the underlying intention of pointing out patternsoftwo as a fundamental thinking formula. And it should be noted that the lists were not generated because the examples were taken out of some otherwise perceived context as a juxtaposed dominating contrariety, since they were actually used in an attempt to diagram a distinction within the context of thinking. It might well be presumed that the authors genuinely thought they were providing an insight into some dominant fundamental pattern. Yet, the lists do not likewise generate the distinction concerning the recurrence of Singularities and Pluralities, with the dominant plurality appearing to be Triplicities.
The lists also do not themselves venture into an attempt to provide the supposition of pristine influence other than to align differences with different brain structures, though Dr. Street's list does not make any such suggestion one way or another. As such, it is rather curious that while the two brain hemispheres can be used to suggest a role in the development of dichotomous ideas, the idea of a triune brain as outlined by Paul D. MacLean has not received an equal weight of organizational influence on threepatterned ideas.
However, I do not want to give the impression that the above twopatterned examples are in any way representative of a limitation having been reached in supplying the reader with examples. There are multiple other examples, but once you have surveyed them as well, you will then be able to describe for yourself that a limitation does in fact exist not only for "twos" in their multiple forms, but all number patterns being used. Let me provide a few more examples of twopatterned groupings, though many of them are aligned around or has some precursor arrangement/relationship to the yin/yang (or yang/yin) concept even if this is not implied.
The following list of dichotomies labeled "dualities" comes from: Wiikipedia: List of dualities, though there is another page described as Wikipedia: Twins in Mythology, as well as other twopatterned collections. We might also want to include: The 35 Greatest TV Duos of All Time by Adam Vitcavage, January 8, 2012, 8:15 am. However, the range in which dichotomies play out in the behavior of gangs and gangsters, political systems, religious systems, economic systems, military leaderships and campaigns, science teams, sports teams, male/female relationships, biological development, atomic particle interactions, planetary events (such as twin stars), language expressions, selective hearing, thinking, etc., has not actually been explored very deeply. Present humanity is pretty superficial, superstitions, and supercilious (or shall we say, engaging in a range of super silliness).
 Alexander duality
 Alvisâ€“Curtis duality
 Betadual space
 Coherent duality
 De Groot dual
 Dual abelian variety
 Dual basis in a field extension
 Dual bundle
 Dual curve
 Dual (category theory)
 Dual graph
 Dual group
 Dual object
 Dual pair
 Dual polygon
 Dual polyhedron
 Dual problem
 Dual representation
 Dual qHahn polynomials
 Dual qKrawtchouk polynomials
 Dual space
 Dual topology
 Dual wavelet
 Duality (optimization)
 Duality (order theory)
 Duality of stereotype spaces
 Duality (projective geometry)
 Duality theory for distributive lattices
 Dualizing complex
 Dualizing sheaf
 Eckmannâ€“Hilton duality
 Esakia duality
 Fenchel's duality theorem
 Hodge dual
 JÃ³nssonâ€“Tarski duality
 Lagrange duality
 Langlands dual
 Lefschetz duality
 Local Tate duality
 Opposite category
 PoincarÃ© duality
 Poitouâ€“Tate duality
 Pontryagin duality
 Sduality (homotopy theory)
 Schurâ€“Weyl duality
 Serre duality
 Spanierâ€“Whitehead duality
 Stone's duality
 Tannakaâ€“Krein duality
 Verdier duality
Philosophy and religion
Science: Engineering
 Duality (electrical circuits)
 Duality (mechanical engineering)
 Observability/Controllability in control theory
Science: Physics
 Complementarity (physics)
 Dual resonance model
 Duality (electricity and magnetism)
 Englertâ€“Greenberger duality relation
 Holographic duality
 Kramersâ€“Wannier duality
 Mirror symmetry
 3D mirror symmetry
 Montonenâ€“Olive duality
 Mysterious duality (Mtheory)
 Seiberg duality
 String duality
 Waveparticle duality
We could also include words with the "bi" prefix, which stands for two: (Prefix BI). However, the following list is quite brief when we take in the stock of examples from: Category: English words prefixed with bi
 Biangular
 Biannual
 Biaxial
 Bicameral
 Bicapsular
 Bicarbonate
 Bicentennial
 Bicephalous
 Biceps
 Biconcave
 Biconvex
 Bicuspid
 Bicycle
 Biennial
 Bifocals
 Biform
 Bifurcate
 Bigamy
 Bilabial
 Bilateral
 Bilingual
 Bimanual
 Bimonthly
 Binaural
 Binocular
 Binomial
 Biography
 Bipartisan
 Biped
 Biphenyl
 Bipinnate
 Bipolar
 Biracial
 Bisect
 Bisexual
 Bivalve
 Biweekly
 Biyearly
If we then attempt to provide a list of words prefixed with the alternative "di", we run into the situation that it requires multiple pages, so let us hope this link is sufficient for those who are curious: Category: English words prefixed with di
By comparison, in order to make a specific reference to the fact that not all numbers have quantityfocused prefixes, and that the list is quite small, let me provide a few alternative references to other prefixes highlighting an enumeration, though its actual adopted usage in more familiar and everyday words may be sparse or relatively nonexistent. (Metric (SI) Prefixes)
Prefixes  
Purpose  Prefix Name  Pronunciation  Prefix Symbol  Value  

larger quantities or whole units 
yotta  yot'uh  Y  10^{24}  Septillion 
zetta  zet'uh  Z  10^{21}  Sextillion  
exa  ex'a a as in about 
E  10^{18}  Quintillion  
peta  as in petal  P  10^{15}  Quadrillion  
tera  as in terrace  T  10^{12}  Trillion  
giga  jig'a a as in about 
G  10^{9}  Billion  
mega  as in megaphone  M  10^{6}  Million  
kilo  as in kilowatt  k  10^{3}  Thousand  
hecto  heck'toe  h  10^{2}  Hundred  
deka  deck'a a as in about 
da  10^{1}  Ten  
10^{0}  One  
smaller quantities or sub units 
deci  as in decimal  d  10^{1}  Tenth 
centi  as in sentiment  c  10^{2}  Hundredth  
milli  as in military  m  10^{3}  Thousandth  
micro  as in microphone  Âµ  10^{6}  Millionth  
nano  nan'oh an as in ant 
n  10^{9}  Billionth  
pico  peek'oh  p  10^{12}  Trillionth  
femto  fem'toe fem as in feminine 
f  10^{15}  Quadrillionth  
atto  as in anatomy  a  10^{18}  Quintillionth  
zepto  zep'toe  z  10^{21}  Sextillionth  
yocto  yok'toe  y  10^{24}  Septillionth 
Whole Units  Decimal Units  
thousands  hundreds  tens  basic unit  tenths  hundredths  thousandths 

1000  100  10  1  0.1  0.01  0.001 
kilo  hecto  deka  meter gram liter 
deci  centi  milli 
When we get to the more familiar prefixes which have spread to various nooks and crannies of language usage, no doubt due to a longer history of application, let us make note of the greek and Latin variations: (Numerical Prefixes)
 mathematical bases "al"
 adjectives of relation "nary"
 groups of musicians "tet"
 words for multiples of something "uple"
 number of years between two events "ennial"
 number of sides of something "lateral"
 words for large numbers / exponents "illion"
 less common categories: number of leaflets or petals on a leaf or flower "foliate", chemical valencies "valent"; division into parts "partite" or "fid".
In this first table, I've listed the Latin words for 1 through 12 along with the appropriate prefix that is derived from it. For each of the above categories, check the appropriate column and find the word list. In cases where the word couldn't be found in regular dictionaries, I've extrapolated from the other words and used appropriate prefixes and endings to construct the correct form. In such hypothetical cases, the word is marked with an asterisk and put it in italics.
Numeral  Prefix  Base  Relation  Music  Multiple  Yearly  Sides  Exponent  

1  unus  uni  N/A  unary  (solo)  (single)  (annual)  unilateral  (million) 
2  duo  bi/duo  binal  binary  duet  duple/double  biennial  bilateral  billion 
3  tres, tria  tri  trial, tertial  trinary, ternary  trio  triple/treble  triennial  trilateral  trillion 
4  quattuor  quadri/quart  quartal  quaternary  quartet  quadruple  quadriennial  quadrilateral  quadrillion 
5  quinque  quinque/quint  quintal  quinary, quinquenary 
quintet  quintuple  quinquennial  quinquelateral  quintillion 
6  sex  sex(t), se  sextal  senary/sexenary  sextet  sextuple  sexennial  *sexilateral  sextillion 
7  septem  sept  septimal  septenary  septet  septuple  septennial  septilateral  septillion 
8  octo  oct  octal, octaval  octonary  octet  octuple  octennial  octilateral  octillion 
9  novem  nonus/novem  nonal  nonary  nonet  nonuple, noncuple 
novennial  *nonilateral  nonillion 
10  decem  dec(a), de  decimal  denary  dectet  decuple  decennial  *decilateral  decillion 
11  undecim  undec, unde  undecimal  undenary  *undectet  *undecuple  undecennial  *undecilateral  undecillion 
12  duodecim  duodec, duode  duodecimal  duodenary  *duodectet  duodecuple  duodecennial  *duodecilateral  duodecillion 
So far, so good. We can see that there are a few exceptions to the general rule, particularly for the numbers 1 and 2, and in some cases such as "quinary / quinquenary" where multiple forms exist. Since I'm not being hardline about "proper" forms, I'm including all the forms normally used, even when they don't strictly follow the rules. Up to 12, the Latin prefixes hold up pretty well; most of the forms exist; only "sexilateral", of all the hypotheticals, is less than nine. My theory is that it sounds too lewd to have been adopted as the term for something with six sides. Well enough, then.
Let's turn to the Greek prefixes (mono, di, tri ...), which are used for the following categories:
 number of angles of plane figures "gon"
 number of faces of solid figures "hedron"
 number of angles in a shape or line "angle"
 number of rulers in a government "archy"
 number of meters in a poetic verse"meter"
 number of objects in a group "ad"
 number of events in an athletic competition "athlon"
 less common categories: numbers of syllables in words "syllabic"; sets of books or other works "logy"; number of fingers "dactylic"; number of languages spoken "glot"; number of parts "merous"; number of columns "style"; amount of carbon in many chemical molecules "ane", "ene", "yne".
And now, Table 2 shows us the Greek numeral words and prefixes in conjunction with the appropriate suffixes for the above categories.
Numeral  Prefix  Polygon  Polyhedron  Angle  Ruler  Meter  Group  Event  

1  en  mono  N/A  N/A  N/A  monarch  N/A  monad  N/A 
2  dyo/duo/di  di/dy  N/A  N/A  N/A  diarch, dyarch  dimeter  dyad  biathlon 
3  treis, tria  tri  triangle  N/A  triangle  triarch  trimeter  triad  triathlon 
4  tessera  tetra  tetragon  tetrahedron  quadrangle  tetrarch  tetrameter  tetrad  tetrathlon 
5  pente  penta  pentagon  pentahedron  pentangle  pentarch  pentameter  pentad  pentathlon 
6  hexa  hex  hexagon  hexahedron  hexangle  hexarch  hexameter  hexad  *hexathlon 
7  hepta  hept  heptagon  heptahedron  heptangle  heptarch  heptameter  heptad  heptathlon 
8  okto  oct  octagon  octohedron  octangle  octarch  octameter  octad  *octathlon 
9  ennea  ennea  enneagon, nonagon 
enneahedron  *enneangle  *ennearch  *enneameter  ennead  *enneathlon 
10  deka  dec(a)  decagon  decahedron  decangle  decarch  decameter  decad(e)  decathlon 
11  hendeka  hendec(a)  hendecagon, undecagon 
hendecahedron  *hendecangle  hendecarch  *hendecameter  *hendecad  *hendecathlon 
12  dodeka  dodec(a)  dodecagon  dodecahedron  *dodecangle  dodecarch  *dodecameter  dodecad(e)  *dodecathlon 
The situation with the Greek terms is a little more complex than with the Latin, but not excessively so. Latin prefixes are used for some words for polygons, although the Greek prefix is to be preferred. "Biathlon" should, by all rights, be "diathlon", "triangle" is used for a plane figure as well as angles (instead of 'triagon'), and there are very few terms for 1 and 2. Of course, this is partly because there's no such thing as a twofaced polyhedron, and not much point in describing a single athletic event as a "monathlon" ...
So far, we've stuck to the numbers 1 through 12. We have pretty solid sequences of words, although the words relating to 9 and 11 are, to be fair, extremely rare. But moving to the teens, decades, 100 and 1000, the words become much more sparse. Still, given the right adjectives and a little creativity, we can construct many hypothetical words that should be understandable. Table 3 lists the higher Latin numbers and prefixes. I'll stick to listing the numerical bases and adjectives of relation, and let you figure out the rest on your own, on the pattern described above. Most of the other terms aren't found in dictionaries (how often do you need to describe something that recurs every 60 years?), with the exception of those for 20, where terms like vicennial and vigintillion are sometimes used.
Initial Posting date: May, 22, 2014
Updated posting: Thursday, September 30th, 2021... 12:38 PM
Herb O. Buckland
herbobuckland@hotmail.com