Threesology Research Journal
Misc. Medical Triads

(The Study of Threes)

--- Diagnostic Triads in Medical science ---

wernicke triad: -

whipples triad: -
1)Hypoglycemic symptomp
2)Glucose infusion
3)Rapid recovery

Virchow triad:-
2)Endothelial injury

charcot's triad :-

Wiskott-aldrich triad: -

Horner syndrome triad: -

Measles prodromal triad: -

Beck's triad: -
1)Kussamauls sign
2)Pulsus paradoxus
3)Muffled heart sound{pericardial effusion}

Alport Syndrome: - 
1- Sensorineural deafness
2- Progressive renal failure
3- Ocular anomalies

Hypernephroma: - 
1- Pain 
2- Hematuria 
3- Renal mass

Parkinsonism: - 
1- Rigidity 
2- Tremor 
3- Hypokinasia 

Hemolytic uremic syndrome: -
1- hemolytic anemia
2- thrombocytopenia 
3- ARF

Henoch scholein purpura: - 
1- purpura
2- abdominal pain
3- arthritis

Optha_Triads (6K)
--- Triads in Ophthalmology ---

Triads in Ophthalmology

BÁLINT'S SYNDROME is loosely associated with a triad of visuospatial dysfunctions: simultanagnosia, optic ataxia, and ocular motor apraxia

BEHÇET'S DISEASE was initially described by Behçet in 1937 as a triad of oral ulcers, genital ulcers and hypopyon uveitis.

CEREBRAL WHIPPLE'S DISEASE includes a triad of somnolence, dementia and ophthalmoplegia.

CONE DEGENERATION includes the hallmark triad of progressive central acuity loss, color vision disturbances and photophobia.

CONGENITAL GLAUCOMA includes the commonly described triad of epiphora, blepharospasm and photophobia.

CONGENITAL RUBELLA RETINOPATHY includes the triad of cataracts, deafness and congenital heart disease which was first described by Gregg in 1941

CONGENITAL TOXOPLASMOSIS includes the classic triad of retinochoroiditis, hydrocephalus and intracranial calcifications although other signs such as fever, rash, hepatosplenomegaly, and seizures may occur if the infection is acquired earlier than the third trimester.

DE MORSIER'S SYNDROME, the congenital syndrome of septo-optic dysplasia includes the clinical triad of short stature, nystagmus and optic disc hypoplasia.

FECHTNER'S SYNDROME includes triad of nephritis, sensorineural hearing loss and eye abnormalities

GAUCHER DISEASE, classic Gaucher triad consists of trismus, strabismus, and opisthotonus.

HORNER'S SYNDROME includes classic triad of ptosis, miosis and ipsilateral anhidrosis of the face

INTRAOPERATIVE FLOPPY IRIS SYNDROME described by John Campbell and David F. Chang in 2005 which includes the triad by a flaccid iris stroma that undulates and billows in response to ordinary intraocular fluid currents, a propensity for the floppy iris stroma to prolapse toward the phaco and side-port incisions, despite proper wound construction and progressive intraoperative pupil constriction despite standard preoperative pharmacologic measures designed to maximize dilation (topical cycloplegics, phenylephrine, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications).

KEARNS–SAYRE SYNDROME includes the triad of external ophthalmoplegia, pigmentary retinopathy and cardiac conduction block during the first or second decade of life

LAMBERT–EATON MYASTHENIC SYNDROME includes triad of muscle weakness, autonomic dysfunction and hyporeflexia

MILLER-FISHER SYNDROME consists of the triad of ataxia, ophthalmoplegia and areflexia. It is described as a variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome.

OCULAR ISCHEMIC SYNDROME includes the classic triad includes mid-peripheral dot hemorrhages, dilated retinal veins and iris neovascularization.

OCULAR TILT REACTION consists of the triad of skew deviation, cyclotorsion of both eyes and paradoxical head tilt, all to the same side—that of the lower eye

OPTIC NERVE SHEATH MENINGIOMA are characterized by the clinical triad of the presence of optociliary venous shunts on the disc, when accompanied by diffuse disc edema (eventually replaced slowly by pallor) and insidious visual loss

OSTEOGENESIS IMPERFECTA originally described late in the 18th century, osteogenesis imperfecta (Van der Hoeve's syndrome, brittle bone disease) was not well described as a clinical syndrome until 1918 by Van der Hoeve. The syndrome includes triad of brittle bones, blue scleras and deafness (otosclerosis).

PHARYNGOCONJUNCTIVAL FEVER by Adenoviruses sometimes produces the classic triad of fever, pharyngitis and acute follicular conjunctivitis.

PIERRE ROBIN SYNDROME includes the diagnostic triad of micrognathia, glossoptosis and cleft palate.

PIGMENTARY GLAUCOMA includes the classic triad consists of corneal pigmentation (Krukenberg's spindle); slit-like, radial, midperipheral iris transillumination defects; and heavy accumulation of pigment in the trabecular meshwork.

PRESUMED OCULAR HISTOPLASMOSIS SYNDROME includes the triad: peripapillary atrophy, “punched-out” chorioretinal lesions and disciform macular scarring in young and middle-aged adults.

REITER'S SYNDROME was originally described by the classic triad of arthritis, urethritis and conjunctivitis. In 1981, the American Rheumatism Association expanded this original set of criteria.

SCHWARTZ'S SYNDROME includes the triad of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment, uveitis and glaucoma

SJÖGREN'S SYNDROME Sjögren's syndrome originally was described as a triad of dry eyes, dry mouth, and Arthritis (dry joints). It subsequently has become apparent that Sjögren's syndrome may coexist with a variety of other connective tissue diseases

SPASMUS NUTANS occurs in the first year of life and includes triad of pendular nystagmus, head nodding and torticollis.

STURGE-WEBER SYNDROME includes the triad of port wine facial telangiectasis (nevus flammeus) in the distribution of the trigeminal nerve that respects the vertical midline, ipsilateral glaucoma(ipsilateral buphthalmos)and contralateral seizures caused by ipsilateral leptomeningeal hemangiomatosis.

UGH SYNDROME— an IOL-related inflammation which involves the triad of uveitis, glaucoma and hyphema. UGH syndrome occurred more frequently in the 1970s, when iris-fixed lenses were commonly used.

Triads ...from Anatomy

The rod and cone terminals are organized as invaginating synapses, termed triads, each containing a single presynaptic ribbon, two lateral processes from horizontal cells, and a single central process from a bipolar cell. Each rod spherule contains a single triad; each cone pedicle contains several triads.


  • Yanoff & Duker: Ophthalmology, 3rd ed.

  • Tasman, William; Jaeger, Edward A. :Duane's Ophthalmology, 2008 Edition

--- Triads in Medicine: A quick revisions list

Posted on Wednesday, March 08 @ 08:13:45 IST by RxPG

This is only pooling of matter collected from nagging question forums. I have to duly acknowledge Dr. Nidhi et al who actually contributed them. They were pooled for the convenience of readers as they were scattered all through out the thread. Though Partha pooled it there itself it wasn’t organized. So I thought this would help.

Triad of Alports Syndrome
Sensorineural deafness
Progressive renal failure
Ocular anomalies

Triad of Behcet's Syndrome
Recurrent oral ulcers
Genital ulcers
[mnemonic: can’t see, can’t pee, can’t eat spicy curry]

Beck’s Triad
Muffled heart sound
Distended neck veins

Charcot’s Triad
Pain + fever + jaundice

Gradenigos Triad
Sixth cranial nerve Palsy
Persistent ear discharge
Deep seated retro orbital pain

Triad of Hypernephroma
Pain + hematuria + renal mass

Hutchinson’s Triad
Hutchison's teeth
Interstitial keratitis
Nerve deafness

Triad of Kwashiorkar
Growth retardation
Mental changes

Saint's Triad
Gall stones
Hiatus hernia

Trotter's Triad
Conductive deafness
Immobility of homolateral soft palate
Trigeminal neuralgia

Virchow’s Triad
Vessel injury

Whipple’s Triad
Hypoglycaemia during attacks (Sugar glucose 10%)
Lytic bone lesions

Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome Triad
Renal failure

Fanconi Syndrome Triad

Tetany in Children - Triad

Alkaptonuria Triad
Ochronotic arthritis
Ochronotic pigmentation
Urine darkens on standing

Anderson Triad
Cystic fibrosis
Vitamin A deficiency

Triad of Albinism
Black locks
Occulo-cutaneous Albinism
Deafness of sensorineural type
[mnemonic: BADS]

Triad of Causes of Biotin Deficiency

Triple Test
Estimation of hcg,
and AFP
(for diagnosis of downs syndrome)

O’ Donoghue Triad -twisting force in a weight bearing knee joint causes injury to:

  1. Medial collateral ligament

  2. Anterior cruciate ligament

  3. Medial meniscus

Congestive Heart Failure Triad
Tender hepatomegaly

Cushing Triad of Increased Intracranial Pressure

Hemobilia - Triad (Triad of Sandblom)
Obstructive jaundice
Biliary colic
[mnemonic: MOB]

Kartagener’s Syndrome Triad
Triad of bronchiectasis
Recurrent sinusitis, and
Situs inversus

This list was originally summarised from the discussion threads at

--- The Free ---

Triad (redirected from Triads)

/tri·ad/ (tri´ad)

  1. any trivalent element.

  2. a group of three associated entities or objects.

Beck's triad = rising venous pressure, falling arterial pressure, and small quiet heart; characteristic of cardiac compression.

Currarino's triad = a complex of congenital anomalies in the anococcygeal region, in varying combinations and degrees, with scimitar sacrum; presacral anterior meningocele, teratoma or cyst; and rectal malformations.

Hutchinson's triad = diffuse interstitial keratitis, labyrinthine disease, and Hutchinson's teeth, seen in congenital syphilis.

Saint's triad = hiatus hernia, colonic diverticula, and cholelithiasis.


tri ad
  1. A collection of three things or symptoms having something in common.
  2. The transverse tubule, and the terminal cisternae on each side of it, in a skeletal muscle fiber.




Etymology: Gk, trias, three

...a combination of three, such as two parents and a child.

Mosby MD


  1. an element with a valence of three.
  2. a group of three similar bodies, or a complex composed of three items or units.

Acute compression triad Beck's triad.

Andersen's triad Andersen's syndrome.

Beck's triad rising venous pressure, falling arterial pressure, and small quiet heart; characteristic of cardiac compression; called also acute compression triad.

Cushing's triad decreased pulse, increased blood pressure, and a widening pulse pressure associated with increased intracranial pressure; it is a late clinical sign and may indicate brainstem herniation.

Hutchinson's triad diffuse interstitial keratitis, labyrinthine disease, and Hutchinson's teeth, seen in congenital syphilis.

Saint's triad hiatus hernia, colonic diverticula, and cholelithiasis.

Miller Keane


  1. an element with a valence of three.
  2. a group of three similar bodies, or a complex composed of three items or units.

Triad's of the tarsus: = the various combinations of (usually three) injuries that occur in trauma to the hock joint, based first on injury to the central tarsal bone.

Virchow's triad: = see Virchow's triad.

Whipple's triad: = see Whipple's triad.


Triad: A trilogy of clinical or pathologic findings, first described as typical for a particular disease, which often prove to be nonspecific. See Asthma triad, Autonomic triad, Behçet's triad, Carney's triad, Christian's triad, Charcot's triad, Epidemiologic triad, Female athlete triad, Hemochromatosis triad, Lennox's triad, Negative triad, Petit's triad, Renal cell carcinoma triad, Saint's triad, Somatostatinoma triad, Toxoplasmosis triad, Trotter's triad, Virchow's triad, Waterhouse-Friderichsen triad, Whipple's triad, Wilson's triad.

Your Questions, Comments or Additional Information are welcomed:
Herb O. Buckland