Tour de France 2019
Tour de France 2019

~ The Study of Threes ~

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Reference for the triple Diamond frame: Four Questions: History of the Bicycle

Bicycle History Course outline: Bicycle History Course

Instead of a "2"- or "3"-patterned frame of reference philosophy, perhaps a singularity or philosophy of diversification is preferred:

Holistic philosophy

Philosophical Diversity

The Ordinary or Penny Farthing bicycle Elizabeth the II and her tricycle

When we look at the "diversity" of bike styles and think to consider that this is an expression of democracy and an expression of human innovation and uniqueness, our ego is inclined to overlook the underlying basic pattern of design and not describe the different designs as mere elaborations or embellishments. Nor do we care to make note that as an analogy to biology with its presumed multiplicity of life forms, the life forms are different styles of bicycles typically used as vehicles for the same kind of singular life form, namely humans, though some humans have transported pets, fleas, lice, and other smaller organisms. No less, as with the different styles of bicycles representing different life forms carrying around humans, humans and other life forms viewed as different types of vehicles are carrying around the primary rider called DNA. Whereas you could destroy 99 percent of all the different bicycles as well as biological life forms, humans would still ride bicycles and DNA would still ride around on/in whatever life form was left. In the absence of all bicycles, humans would walk or create some other form of transportation. Likewise, in the event that most present day life forms (including humans) become extinct, we might want to think that some other form of biologically manufactured vehicle for transporting DNA (and/or RNA and other cellular materials) would eventually arise.

However, genetics is in a race against time and the environment... with "environment" not limited to Earth's environment, but encompasses the whole of the solar system, galaxy and Universe. Nor is time limited to human definition and neither is genetics to be restricted to that understood by humanity living under the constrained system of Earth.

There ere three generalities of thought... of cognition that we can identify and associate with cycling, some of which are applicable ideas involving multiple scenarios of adaptation to the type of social vehicle in use:

  1. Single rider or singularity, solitary, holism, unification, monarchism, dictatorship, non-competitive, nationalism, Imperialism, egotism, etc...
  2. Companion rider or duality, duplicity, dichotomy, parallelism, mirror-image, polarity, couple, partnership, isolated competition, master/slave, parent/child, dominant/subordinate, etc...
  3. Riding in a group, or multiplicity, diversity, democracy, gang, mob, coalition, monopoly, Nationalism, etc.,

In other words, the notion of "single rider", "two riders", and "multiple or many riders" can be attached with a variety of labels according to the context in which they are being used as a metaphor. Hence, some labeling's can be applied in all three cases. Just because there are a multiple array of different life forms as there are an array of different styles of bikes, let us not forget that they are caricatures of one another and that there is a basic underlying pattern of design which can exist without the diversity of style if need be. Diversity can breed an unhealthy competition for survival, just as the presence of too many riders in a race whose parameters are limited, like so many resource limitations; makes for a very bad condition of potential... that is probable, accidents waiting to happen. And even if every single person had their own style of bicycle, there would nonetheless exist a basic design common to all, just as the multiplicity of ideas and beliefs have an underlying similarity of patterning... a patterning that is particularly restrictive just like the restricted usage of only a few amino acids for biological development, not to mention the restrictive usage of the "three" pattern in DNA and RNA which appears to be "tax exempt" from having to evolve... like the three fundamental particles of atoms which also are "tax exempt" from having to share atoms with a multiplicity or enlarged diversity because for some reason the "three" is how the systems are rigged... like rigged governments, elections systems, gambling systems, laws, stock market, education systems, lottery, sports contests, etc...

While initially this article was written solely for the intention of voicing my opinion about the tragedy of circumstances which prevailed that caused one favoured winner (Julian Alaphilippe) to be replaced by someone (Egan Bernal) who was not and had not established themselves as deserving the yellow jersey; I have since applied some comments regarding the usage of the bicycle as a representation of developmental cognition via a philosophical formula, as well as a few "threes" examples to go along with the reference to the Sociologically-loaded French usage of the word "Domestique", which delineates those riders who are relegated to a status of working for someone viewed as being entitled to be their leader (no doubt by way of a non-democratic voting process). Hence, the world of professional cycling has adopted a sociological frame of mind split characteristically into three general divisions of riders (despite various "positionally organized" name tags) that can be recognized as referring to the upper, middle and lower (working: "Domestic") classes (akin to indentured servants); despite any ceremonialism and journalistic hype applied to "favored domestic servants", as is so often found in wealthy households with servants that are viewed as "one of the family", but nonetheless remain and retain a servant entitlement and are rarely if ever remembered by way of historical declarations. In many senses, professional cycling like many other sports, entertainment, business, educational, religious and military organizations are exercised as pseudo-political entities. It is therefore appropriate that I provide an image referencing the recurrence of a fundamental cognitive profile:

Standard Cognitive Model
Cenocracy: Standard Cognitive Model

There are riders who simply love the role of a mystique (like Michael Barry), just as there are people who like being told what to do, when to do something, how to do something and how to think, such as soldiers and many workers who work under the watchful eye of a Big Brother or Big Sister, owner, manager, lead person, Mother Superior, Jailer or some presumed God, ancestor, guiding spirit, etc...

And this is no doubt why many people like Trump because he is viewed as a leader in the eyes of those who do not routinely like to think for themselves and are easily swayed by a braggart and Narcissist, because they use his crude vociferousness as a projected part of themselves that may rarely get a chance to express itself. It is an image that Congress and the Stock Market thrives under because it excuses so many other personal faults and inadequacies as well. And this no doubt is why so many people believe in the nonsense of advertisements, or songs written by idiots, or opinionated talk show hosts, ill-informed politicians, celebrities, neighbors, police officers, business executives and religious leaders. Because there are so many mindless followers living in the U.S., it is not surprising when an idiot retains the presidency for two terms... or when priests are permitted to molest children for decades, or when women are denied equal rights, or when corporations are permitted to continually dupe the public, or when laws remain unjust, or when there is an absence of a National Health care system, or a tax on the poor called a lottery system, or an accepted "dumbed-down" education system which celebrates mediocrity because the majority of citizens have domestic servant mentalities, or when entertainment personalities are chosen for social roles that they have no business in, or the very many other ridiculous social circumstances that help to perpetuate a ridiculous society... not only in America, but China, Russia, Italy, Spain, France, Brazil, etc...

Then again, why do people support a given individual for leadership if their leadership is solely dependent on assistance, and they themselves, on their own merits, are unable to rise to the occasion of being a leader that is without the need of dependency? Indeed, analogously, why do many people want to give to those who are already wealthy? Or choose to be socially viewed as supporting a given individual, a given idea, a given institution, a given religion, etc., if that which they are supporting is as great as they claim it is? Why are there so very few great things without support? Professional cycling, like so many other human activities, exhibits one or more of the three kinds of relationship found in biology, and that the status of a relationship may alternate between/amongst the three from time to time. You need only to imaginatively substitute the exampled species with the different "species" of professional cyclists (and attendants... as well as sponsorships, commentators, fans, etc...) in a given race in order to pay witness to how the different symbiotic relationships are being played out:

3 types of symbiotic Relationships

3 to 1 ratio of the Tour de France Jerseys

There is a three-to-one ratio of champion jerseys worn at the Tour de France. A yellow one for the overall race leader, a Green one for the fastest Sprinter, a white with red polka dots one for the "King of the Mountain" classification, and then one for the fastest amongst the under 25 years of age group. It is also typical for us to see pictures taken of each individual winner flanked by two attractive women. Customarily, flowers may be given, a trophy such as a teddy bear, and an exchange of cheek kissing from the woman presenting the gifts. Despite the delay in the Tour de France's position from maturing away from such childish and inappropriate gifts as teddy bears and flowers (if not the custom of having zippers on the back of the Jerseys) which reek of an antiquated sentimentality that the Tour needs to mature out of, many people simply accommodate this embraced cycling nonsense. Nonetheless, despite the behind-the-scenes politics, pampering of cyclists whose immune systems are weakened by training schedules, endurance requirements and reduction in weight centered nutritional regimes, many people love cycling events (even though they discredit America's many-fault Senior games cycling events with its pathetic organizational formats in which races are sometimes conducted without traffic being stopped on isolated courses as they did this year near Santa Fe, New Mexico).

And because this "Threesology Research Journal" site is focused on identifying patterns-of-three, let me briefly mention that bicycles can have a single, double or triple front chain ring, and that the front wheel, front sprocket(s) and rear wheel are a pattern-of-three, since the rear sprockets are attached to the rear wheel... unless you want to count this as a 3-to-1 ratio.

1, 2, or 3 front chain rings

Yet, I will not get into a discussion of why the right side of the bicycle is favored for placing the sprockets and chain on, when the left side could be used as well. Nor will I discuss my alternative idea as to what configuration the front and rear sprockets might be... in order to enhance cycling speed and endurance based upon correlating geometries I uncovered... and that even the front and rear wheels might also be configured in, though by today's perceptual standards such a bicycle would be viewed as an eccentricity.

Here is another "three" reference to cycling (specifically, the Triple Crown of Cycling), each of which is 3 weeks in duration:

Triple Crown Of Cyclling

I should also mention that various types of triple crowns that take place on National and local levels as well. Please note there are no outstanding double, quadruple, etc. crown contests, though single crown winners for given racers and teams is noted. Here are a few (mostly USA) examples:


The goal of any good bike manufacturer is to put the material where you need it. And you need the material where the bike frame undergoes the most stress—at each end of the various tubes. This process is known as butting.

  1. Internal Butting: Looking at the tube, you won't notice butting because it's hidden within the tube. So how do you know if the bike is butted? Bike manufacturers will certainly tell you, as it's a big selling point.
  2. External Butting: The older, more expensive way is to add material onto the outside of the tube. This is rarely done anymore. However, you sometimes will see an extended weld.

There are two methods used to butt a frame tube.

  1. Double Butting: As the tube is shaped, extra material is allowed internally at each end of the tube. By increasing these areas of the tube, the overall tube wall thickness can be reduced, thus saving weight.
  2. Triple Butting: To save even more weight, the double butting process is refined by stepping down the material at the ends of the tube. This means the butting starts out in the standard, double-butted manner but then is thinned before stepping down again to the normal tube wall thickness. In a cutaway, the inside of the tube looks like three terraced rice paddies on a hillside.

Wielding - There are essentially 3 ways to join frame tubes:

  1. Weld them using the same material as the tube (TIG welding).
  2. Braze the tubes together using silver or brass.
  3. Use lugs to join the tubes.

Understanding Bike Frame Materials

The primary purpose of this page is to voice my personal selection of the Tour de France winner, who is Julian Alaphilippe of France:

Alaphilippe won the hearts and minds of the people

Julian Alaphilippe won the hearts and minds of many people the world over. The person for whom the title of winner was given to due to a problematic course creating the necessity for it to be shut down and fore-shortened, was Egan Bernal of Columbia:

Egan Bernal of Columbia

This is not to say that the young man is not a talented cyclist. I mean no disrespect to Egan Bernal, his team Ineos nor his country Columbia. But none of these three are loved by the people... and as such, despite the circumstances beyond their control, their so-called win will not achieve the adulation which has been ascribed to the podium of winners in past years of Tour de France cycling adventures. He, his team, and his country won by a default that should have catapulted him, his team and his country to promoted a greater presence of mind, a greater wisdom, a greater cycling ideal, a greater "esprit de corps" by declining the win because the three want to be remembered as having won the Tour de France on their own merits, without being subjected to a array of possibly discrediting reprisals which question their actual abilities, the Tour's management (despite the correct decision to not let the riders be confronted by the hazardous weather conditions), and the overall cycling rules.

Surely there is a way that the cycling commission can set forth alternative measures which do not produce the conditions of a psychological detour or blockade which impedes the tenor and disposition of the race causing entrenched disgruntling which negatively affects everyone who embraces the cycling event. Surely the Tour's management could have established protocols in place (which are decades overdue) to continue or resume the race in such situations so as to make the race proceed in a demeanor of perceived fairness for everyone involved and not react to conditions (which may have been avoidable in the first place), like a child afraid of the dark and will therefore not venture forth and wants everyone to accept their "my way or the highway" decision.

While I agree with the position of the Tour's management that the safety of the cyclists is paramount, this should not detour them from striving to make amends to everyone, including the spectators, through a series of race-way substitutions instead of truncations which amount to little more than antiquated acts of lobotomy, limb severance, or crucifixion... none of which expresses the level of conscientiousness that humanity living today should be exhibiting in all activities (business, government, religion), but fall very short from because there is a traditionalized practice of merely wanting to wash one's hands of a given (economically-driven authoritative) occurrence— like Pilate did to Jesus. However, the religious analogy is not meant to poke the sensibilities of those who are inclined to resort to interpreting the race as an "act of god" or "god's will" in order to justify their desire for interpreting the race as it turned out. In short, the fans, the cyclists, mediators and assorted others were pointedly given up on and off-handedly dismissed.

Even though in the end, because the established conveyor belt mentality of cycling events has become routinized by traditions that are not themselves routinely questioned... but should be as an expressed reverie of philosophical contemplation in an effort to enhance the dignity of sport and its strivings for a mature professionalism:

  1. Whereby Egan Bernal and the others may have nonetheless been awarded the jerseys they now possess;
  2. Even if they had had the presence of mind to defer judgment of the win to their peers without regard to sponsorship, nationalism or narcissistic inclinations of self-promotion;
  3. Because of the conditions which came into play... and has altered the Tour de France course along a path of enlarging suspicion tied to ulterior motivations circling overhead with a ravenous rapport of tentacles being sharpened for pecuniary-enticed justifications;

...Such an act of going above and beyond the ordinary level of professionalism (as so many cyclists, soldiers, social workers, politicians, teachers, day to day workers and politicians do in their efforts without being given due credit for), would have been greatly appreciated and respected the world over instead of subjecting them to being garland with a level of prevaricating, precarious and predatory accreditation... despite any and all heroic efforts leading up to the point in time of the present Tour de France controversy.

Many people will come to discount this year's Tour de France and are thinking in terms of retaliation and retribution for next year. Yet I am hoping for a revitalization of respect for the Tour de France that will needlessly diminish more so if the current state of affairs repeats itself and creates an enduring stigma of professionalized mediocrity.

A handful of multi-various reading sources:

Page initially created: Monday, 29th July 2019... 5:31 AM
Page initially posted: Monday, 29th July 2019... 8:41 AM
Page updated: (flag counter added) Tuesday, 30th July 2019... 3:10 PM
Page Updated: Saturday, 9th November 2019... 4:25 AM

Your Questions, Comments or Additional Information are welcomed:
Herb O. Buckland