Threesology Research Journal
Page 1

~ The Study of Threes ~

3 at heart (16K)

In this section let us approach the "threes phenomena" from a skeptic's point of view which may include excursions in numerology, OCD (Obsessive Compulsive Disorder), and others. While many of us might evoke the old adage that "seeing is believing", though only a few question whether or not we can actually believe what we see.

For example, while sitting in one's vehicle as it is being washed via an automatic car wash, one might get the visual impression that they are moving forward as the automated rollers whisk from front to rear. In short, it is an illusion. The visual effects are misinterpreted even though for a brief moment we might think we are in fact moving forward. The information we see is falsely interpreted to represent a previously experienced reality we are familiar with. But it is nonetheless a false interpretation for a given instance.

Another example is the sight of water on a desert landscape, though such a phenomena can be seen on other forms of surfaces during a hot summer's day. It perhaps is the illusion perpetuated by primitive minds to the extent of being included in the bible concerning Jesus in which it is said he could walk on water. It is an illusion.

A third example is recalled from childhood in which during a (Tarzan?) movie Natives were shown a motion picture of an oncoming train. Some thought it was an actual event and jumped out of the way so as to avoid being hit. It too was an illusion that became understood as such as the people acquired more experience/knowledge.

In some instances a hidden desire is projected outward onto material which is used to cover-up a wish for a dream to become a reality. By doing so we can conceal our desire even though we may not be conscious of how unrealistic our interpretation of information is being assessed. In other instances our desire may be nothing more than a dream to acquire notoriety for uncovering what is interpreted and defined as a secret. In other instances a hoax can be elaborately perpetrated such as when Bush claimed Saddam had Weapons of Mass Destruction and the silly American Congress (and far too many others) went along with his administrations' scam. Part of the scam was the deliberate bombing of the Twin Towers in New York. Bush and others not only created a false trail of clues, but also the interpretation thereof. All of the Bush administration and his outside-the-government cohorts should be executed for treason and murder. For the Obama administration to have any dealings with Bush suggests the same distorted mindset is being practiced... at least in some instances.

So now that some reader's are armed with a bit of skepticism of their own by being reminded of the existence of illusions, let us begin with an article from Page 24, September 2012, Smithsonian:

"I can believe anything,
provided that it is quite incredible."
—Oscar Wilde

For Your Eyes Only
Mark Strauss

Hidden codes have existed through history— especially imaginary ones.

This past May, a Venezuelan state TV host announced he had discovered a conspiracy to assassinate the elder brother of President Hugo Chavez

His evidence? A newspaper crossword puzzle.

He pointed out that the crossword contained the word asesinen ("murder"), intersecting horizontally with the name of Chavez's brother, Adan. And directly above the name was the word ráfagas, meaning either "gusts of wind" or, more ominously, "bursts of gunfire."

David Kahn, an American historian and journalist, would call this a classic example of the "pathology of cryptology." In his seminal 1967 book, Tyhe Codebreakers, Kahn marveled at the ability of individuals to discover incredibly complex, albeit nonexistent codes, which he described as "classic instances of wishful thinking" caused by "an overactive cryptanalytic gland."

"A hidden code can be found almost anywhere because people are adept at recognizing and creating patterns," says Klaus Schmeh, a computer scientist specializing in encryption technology. Schmeh has updated Kahn's research, documenting dozens of bogus or dubious cryptograms. Some are more than a century old, but still making the rounds in books and on websites, others are more recent, such as a claim that all barcodes contain the satanic number, 666.

Amateur sleuths are driven in part by the knowledge that steganography—the art of hiding messages—has long been practiced. A 1499 novel, Hypnerotomachia Poliphili, believed to have been written by a Dominican monk, contain his guilty confession of love for a woman. The book used the first letter of its 38 chapters to spell out the Latin phrase, Poliam Frater Franciscus Columna Peramavit ("Brother Francesco Colonna loved Polia tremendously"). Centuries later, during the Boer War, Robert Baden-Powell, a British officer and artist (and founder of the Boy Scouts), pretended to be a traveling naturalist and embedded maps of enemy military emplacements within his drawings of leaves and butterfly wing patterns.

(Here's an image of patterns on Butterfly Wings collected by Kjell B. Sandved that was not shown in the Smithsonian article:)

Sanved's Butterfly Poster

Schmeh says misguided cryptologists tend to believe that spectacular sources yield the most spectacular revelations. Since the 1850s, perfervid sleuths have been scrutinizing Shakespeare's plays, claiming to have found ciphers denouncing the bard as a fraud and proclaiming the true author to be Sir Francis Bacon. Generations of investigators have been convinced that—through divine revelation or the assistance of extraterrestrials—the builder of the Great Pyramid embedded the sum total of scientific knowledge within the dimensions of the structure. Fringe pyramidologists persist in their claims despite a 1992 effort to debunk them by Dutch astrophysicist Cornelis de Jager, who demonstrated the dimensions of any object can be manipulated to yield a desired outcome; he derived the speed of light and the distance between the Earth and Sun from his measurements of a bicycle.

Still, amateur code-breakers take their work seriously. According to British psychologist Tomas Chamorro-Premuzic, who has studied personality profiles of conspiracy theorists, "They are altruistic," since they think they're uncovering truths hidden from the public. For them, believing is seeing.

Learn more about the history of code cracking at:

"Cryptology" not only involves numerology, alphabetology and various other visually recognized symbols (symbology), but may also involve non-visual patterns, such as feelings, vague (hard to describe) nuances, sounds, etc. We might even want to include the many patterns (correlations) uncovered in mathematics such as the Fibonacci sequence (numbers):

Fibonacci Sequence

The Fibonacci Sequence is the series of numbers:

0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, ...

The next number is found by adding up the two numbers before it.

  • The 2 is found by adding the two numbers before it (1+1)
  • Similarly, the 3 is found by adding the two numbers before it (1+2),
  • And the 5 is (2+3),
  • and so on!

Example: the next number in the sequence above would be 21+34 = 55

It is that simple!

Here is a longer list:

0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, 144, 233, 377, 610, 987, 1597, 2584, 4181, 6765, 10946, 17711, 28657, 46368, 75025, 121393, 196418, 317811, ...

Math Is Fun!

We could also include the Pythagorean theorem of A2 + B2 = C2, regardless of the claims for the practicality of usage. Another such pattern from this same realm may be termed, in the present context, "The Prime Number Revelation," which may have been initially interpreted as such (but not necessarily labeled) by those who dabbled in this... intellectual art form. From a Random House Webster's College dictionary, a Prime Number is defined as: A positive integer that is not divisible with remainder by any integer accept itself and 1. Without further elaboration, this would include the number one. However another definition may say that the "primality" of a prime number is any number greater than one, as described in the following wikipedia article:

Prime Number

While the "Revelation" of prime numbers may provide some excitement to number-philes because of the pattern employed and the resulting pattern found; for someone to suggest there is yet another pattern to be seen and correlated with what some readers may suggest is a more primitive form of enumeration, they may try to praise the superiority of Prime Numbers and disparage the usage of numbers by earlier (primitive) peoples. The pattern can be viewed by redefining Prime Numbers as being divisible by the number one and itself, but by no other number. In other words, 3 or more is too many. This can be restated simply as 1, 2, Many.

The This is the 1, 2, Many same pattern-of-three that historians of number development have described as occurring again and again with different primitive civilizations. In other words, for all the fascination mathematicians have had with Prime Numbers, it is but a re-telling and re-usage (and re-labeling) of the same type of cognition employed by primitive peoples. This of course is but another example of crypto-3-ology in that the employed algorithm (rule to solve a problem) is a pattern-of-three, even though it may not be verbally articulated as such.

See for example:

One 2 Many a

Or the next page in this same series:

One 2 Many b

Included in the discussion of cryptology should be a reference (though some might prefer the word "reverence") to patterns "revealed" by signs and wonders, as is frequently found in religious contexts, such as the following link exemplifies:

Signs and Wonders

Whether you believe in the purported "messages" revealed in the "patterns" accompanying the many contexts of religious-based orientations, the fact of the matter is there are many people who are practicing this form of learning— and teaching to yet future generations of people. You may prefer the patterns revealed by experimental science instead of the fervent emotionalism characteristic of many other types of pursuits, which at sometimes includes the many fields of science... depending on the scientists involved; but we are living in a culture where "cryptological truths" are inter-mixed with fact and fiction... and some of the story-tellers are fully conscience of their manipulative efforts in providing false information, or actual information in a way that helps to secure a dominant position for an ulterior motive.

"Cryptology", generally means the usage of some type of code in order to safeguard information. Here is an example:

The story begins: When Julius Caesar sent messages to his trusted acquaintances, he didn't trust the messengers. So he replaced every A by a D, every B by a E, and so on through the alphabet. Only someone who knew the "shift by 3 rule" could decipher his messages. A crypto-system or cipher system is a method of disguising messages so that only certain people can see through the disguise. Cryptography is the art of creating and using crypto-systems.


Our present computers are designed by the recurring usage of zeros (0's) and ones (1's) based on the on/off properties of electrical switching. The usage of such codes (and others) along with their wide-spread accepted application, enables millions of people to communicate via multiple forms of electronic communication. By altering the "universal" code, or requiring a password to a "secret" code-laden edifice, individuals generally feel/think they provide themselves with a level of privacy. Again, we overlook the usage of Cryptology because of day-to-day utility, which frequently involves the exchange of money.

However, Guosong Liu, a neuroscientist at the Picower Center for Learning and Memory at MIT, says the brain's neurons communicate in a Trinary pattern:

Threesological Tract page 1

Such a pattern in the brain may thus suggest that computers will not be able to think as we do because they "think" in patterns-of-two (zeros and ones), as well as intimate that there is a physiological basis for our human insistence of conceptualizing many of our ideas, perform many of our activities, and grow along a 1- 2- 3 maturational development sequence. But of course, this is all crypto-3-ology.

The discovery of an atom's interior "code" is still underway, via the usage of viewing the atom as having three basic components (electrons- neutrons- protons), and compiling the field of atomic particle research into a three-family configuration. (There are three families of fundamental particles: Stable - Unstable - Very unstable). Again, the usage of such a code is based on a notion of utility... or, at least an attempt to find the correct holes for the present day believed in sub- sub- sub atomic particles.

And let us not mention the 3 Newton laws of motion, 3 general laws of Thermodynamics (if we include the zeroth law, we have a 3-to-1 ratio); or the 3 basic Hydrodynamic laws; or 3 Magnetism "laws": Opposites attract~ Likes repel~ inverse square; or 3 "ideal gas" laws: Robert Boyle's~ J. Charles or J. Lussac's~ Avogadro's; or the 3 laws of kepler; or 3 laws of G.R. Kirchhoff; or the 3 Faraday laws of electro-magnetic induction, etc... since the listing of all of these represents a crypto-3-'s-ology activity. It's all simply a coincidence; or that all of these researchers share the same "threes pathology", or perhaps maybe the recurrence of "threes" over such a wide and deep subject terrain suggests something other than that which describes a disparagement.

Big deal if in genetics, there is the usage of a three-patterned "codon" (coding) system used to describe DNA and RNA.

In the Christian religion there is the usage of a Trinity (Father - Son- Holy Ghost/Spirit) in describing the "code" used by God to provide understanding to humanity.

In Hinduism, it is the triad code of Brahma- Vishnu- Siva.

Millions of people understand the three-colored code used for traffic signals.

But an extra-terrestrial not familiar with our coding systems would be hard-pressed to decipher what we are doing. In looking for some root key to all our codes, they may resort to a form of enumeration. In so doing, they would, again and again find that we are using patterns-of-three, such as ending a sentence with a period, question mark or exclamation point.

They might very well think it hilarious to encounter such a repetition and conclude it to be an exercize in "Crypto-3-ology" whether or not the participants are cognizant of their "exercising" routines... at least not in the manner some diehard weight lifting enthusiasts will perform three sets of this and then three sets of another, all on three days of the week. They may or may not be curious to find out why the usage of such a pattern occurs as it does. Is it culture? Is it physiology? Is it genetics? Is it atomic structure? Is it related to the formation of life on earth? Thus considering the possibility that planetary and biological sciences are very much inter-twined, even if such a connection is not broadly recognized? (I have referred to this "inter-twinning" as a planetary/biological sciences "collision".)

Or would such an alien mind, such as some have thought of me, consider, as I did, that a collection of differing patterns-of-three found in a variety of subject areas and human activities, is little more than numerically rationalized superficial correlations?

Could it be that an entire culture that is using a multiplicity of "threes" be seeking a type of source code to life and not even realize they are collectively focused on a similar venture in their own haphazard way? While geneticists claim that DNA's triplet coding system is THE source code (of life anyway), some physicists might claim that they will find a more fundamental source code (for the Universe.. thus claiming themselves to be greater detectives), via the present three-patterned codes in use by their field of inquiry. Yet, what if the codes of genetics and physics also have a source code that is even more fundamental? (And no, I am not talking about the theological claims that a particular trinity is "THE" source code for both life and the Universe.)

Is such a foregoing question nonsense? Is it part of a "Fuzzy Logic" brought on by an obsessive compulsion to not only collect various types of three-patterned associations, but then to surmise there might be some underlying reason, explanation or even purpose... aside from a wide-spread neurosis?

All the duck-blind hidden aliens keeping a watch on human activity might be rolling in the aisles with laughter, afraid to make contact with a sick-minded species, or are at a total loss at understanding the recurring business of threes... even in our physiology! They might well think we are the aliens of the Universe!

Although we humans consider our mathematics to have reached a sophistication on par with any presumed sentient being elsewhere in the galaxy or beyond, the very numbers, symbols and arrangements thereof might be totally unintelligible to an extra-terrestrial. (No matter how "rational" Hollywood makes an effort... to be believed by a gullible public to whole-heartedly agree with its assumptions about the efficacy of prime numbers... in suggesting the usage of a mathematical sequence provides a "universal" language script in order that we could communicate "intelligently" with those who have devised inter-stellar or inter-dimensional modes of transportation.) Hollywood preys on the arrogance and self-centeredness of humans who are perhaps little different than the microbial life-forms taken for granted on a daily basis.

To an alien mind, our numbers, symbols and arrangements thereof might just be as unintelligible as they are to young children. Not to mention the symbols and rules used to write with. With respect to mathematics, children are taught value (quantitative) (one - to - one) association that may also have qualitative characteristics, depending on the situation such as how or when numbers and/or symbols are employed. In this sense, logic would thus be demonstrative presumptions based on derived correlations of fixed patterns. While to some this may appear to prove that logic, as is expressed with mathematical rigor, exists as a separate entity; (independent of language for instance), we do not know the true nature of a logic which is independent of mathematically arranged expressions... we know only assumed-to-be-logic inferences. If logic exists independent of mathematics, then one might want to argue that God is independent of humanity; despite the religious-based philosophical claims that humans are in the image of God. Is mathematics made in the image of logic? Is Logic made in the image of mathematics? Or is their a third entity, revealing yet a truer trinity and all others are but poor facsimiles thereof?

It might very well appear to an alien mind that the word "logic" is but another practice in cryptology, since it frequently is used as a manifested characterization of the human ego supported by man-made symbolic notions called mathematical equations or "statements". In this sense, Logic is a made-up word to describe made-up inter-relationships of made-up symbols... which is yet another "three" practice.

On the other hand, some human form of intellect might want to add the notion of an existing universal law inherent in logic that is independent of human thought. However in doing so, we might well convince an alien intellect that we are engaging in intellectualization as a defense mechanism by trying to convince ourselves that a mathematically-based logic has enabled us to uncover an unalterable truth in "a code that any sophisticated sentient being would know" and recognize that we are indeed an intelligent species. Unless they would think that communicating with us would be like some researcher attempting to teach a rudimentary form of sign language to a chimpanzee.

It is pure arrogance to think that our human excursions (on Earth) into repetitive symbol usage and meaning, such as the prime number sequence is a code of universal application. Alien minds do not have to think as we do. But we expect them to because our arrogance has spent centuries in convincing ourselves we are engaged in what we define as a search for truth; but may be something else entirely different— and th"search for truth" is a metaphor... or nothing more than a type of brain itch that we a4re accustomed to scratching in a particular way... called logic or mathematics. And not only do we use a customary fashion of what we think are "higher symbolic forms" of self-expression, but we teach it over and over again like some compulsive addiction and expect generations of children to follow suit!

In analogy, thus we become as an insect colony, like honey bees, that would have a costly existence if forced to live otherwise than by the "logic" (of communication, hive construction, food foraging, etc...) instilled upon them by their forebearers.

The same symbols with the same values always produces the same result ("answer"). In order to produce a different answer; different symbols and/or different values, and/or different applications can produce a different result. (In this sense, the result may not be "THE" answer, but nonetheless a different one with greater usage value.)

To a mathematician, or anyone employing in the most basic form of taught arithmetic, a 3 and 3 and 3... compilation does not result in a "3". It is being viewed as a basic algorithm with the word "and" reinterpreted to mean "+", just as they were taught from gradeschool on. Hence, for someone to claim that numerous examples of "threes" add up to a 3's-based result, seems (mathematically) illogical. They might humorously claim it to be "Fuzzy" logic... like the "fudging of numbers" employed by some tax report preparers who either want to receive more of a tax refund or at least want to escape from having to pay additional monies owed for taxes.

It is easy to see why a person with a typical mathematical mindset would reject a result that might claim or at least suggest any type of 3's-based philosophical venture due to such a form of "addition", and say that this type of thinking is little more than a numerology akin to a personalized form of astrology-like interpretations.

Astrology, like mathematics, has a history of providing wrong answers that, overtime, are refined through reformulation to produce a result more accurate to a given circumstance; or in the case of Astrology, more accurate to the lives people are suggestively forced into by a "variable fate measure" based on the numerousity of an artificially created calender and daily (or yearly, weekly, etc.,) time sequencing which brings their artificially created date of birth in-line with associated stellar events. Mathematics and Astrology, based on numbers, are viewed as "sciences" by their respective adherents because of the quantity of people who employ the same methods of analysis and interpretation. Nonetheless, both are different forms of number-cryptology. Each in their own way reinterprets their data accordingly, when the result is not quite what the "numbers" initially told them.

And I am not referring to all the silly numerological nonsense encountered with religious texts or the multifarious interpretations thereof. Fanatical adherents thereof would stop at nothing to produce a result that suggests, to them, that the referenced numbers or numbered references are factual instead of fanatical. For example, they would gladly instigate disruptive social occurrences to "show everyone" that one or more of their religious beliefs are true. This is no different than telling everyone that one day one of their hands is going to be cut off and then create the necessary conditions whereby the event takes place. Granted, the usage of a code may be necessary under certain conditions such as concealing ideas that might get one killed or instigate a level of opposition that it ostracises oneself into an oblivion that can be equated with a slow death.

While the following example of cryptology is not explicitly focused on the usage of a three-patterned arrangement clearly identified, it nonetheless is an example of a code being used in light of the aforementioned personal safety measure:

Lucas Mason-Brown, a senior mathematics major at Brown University, helped crack a mysterious shorthand code developed and used by religious dissident Roger Williams in the 17th century. The handwritten code surrounds the printed text on the preface page:

lucas Mason (64K)

PROVIDENCE, R.I. — The obscure book's margins are virtually filled with clusters of curious foreign characters — a mysterious shorthand used by 17th century religious dissident Roger Williams.

For centuries the scribbles went undeciphered. But a team of Brown University students has finally cracked the code. Historians call the now-readable writings the most significant addition to Williams scholarship in a generation or more. Williams is Rhode Island's founder and best known as the first figure to argue for the principle of the separation of church and state that would later be enshrined in the Bill of Rights. His coded writings are in the form of notes in the margins of a book at the university's John Carter Brown Library. The nearly 250-page volume, "An Essay Towards the Reconciling of Differences Among Christians," was donated in the 1800s and included a handwritten note identifying Williams as the notes' author — though even that was uncertain at first.

A group including former library director Edward Widmer, Williams scholar and Rhode Island College history professor emeritus J. Stanley Lemons and others at Brown started trying to unravel the so-called "Mystery Book" a few years ago. But the most intense work began earlier this year after the university opened up the challenge to undergraduates, several of whom launched an independent project. "No one had ever looked at it systematically like this in generations," said Widmer. "I think people probably looked at it and shrugged."

Senior math major Lucas Mason-Brown, who has done the majority of the decoding, said his first instinct was to develop a statistical tool. The 21-year-old from Belmont, Mass., used frequency analysis, which looks at the frequency of letters or groups of letters in a text, but initially didn't get far. He picked up critical clues after learning Williams had been trained in shorthand as a court stenographer in London, and built his own proprietary shorthand off an existing system. Lucas-Brown refined his analysis and came up with a rough key.

Williams' system consisted of 28 symbols that stand for a combination of English letters or sounds. How they're arranged is key to their meaning; arrange them one way and you get one word, arrange them another, you get something different. One major complication, according to Mason-Brown: Williams often improvised. From there, Mason-Brown was able to translate scattered fragments, and the students determined there were three separate sections of notes. Two are Williams' writings on other books, a 17th century historical geography and a medical text. The third — and most intriguing — is 20 pages of Williams' original thoughts on one of the major theological issues of the day: infant baptism.

Williams also weighed in on the conversion of Native Americans, implying it was being achieved through treachery and coercion, said Linford Fisher, a history professor at Brown who has been working with Mason-Brown.

Fisher said the new material is important in part because it's among Williams' last work, believed to have been written after 1679 in the last four years of his life.

Widmer said the new discovery is remarkable on several levels.

"Part of it was the excitement of a mystery being cracked, and part of it was Roger Williams is very famous in Rhode Island — no other state has a founder as tied up with the state's identity as Rhode Island," he said. "To have a major new source, a major new document, from Roger Williams is a big deal."

--- Founding Father Code ---

German Enigma code machine

3 roller Enigma code machine was used by Germany in World War II.

3 roller Enigma code machine was typical, but 4 and 5 wheel varieties were used.

Three wheels (rollers) were selected from a set of five in the case of the Army and Air Force machines and from a set of eight in the case of the Naval machines. The daily [or other periodic] instructions would also specify the reflector [Umkehrwalze] and, in the case of the Kriegmarine's M4, the selection of the fourth, 'Greek' wheel and its 'thin' reflector.

3 suggestions of who broke the Enigma code:

  1. Poles (Poland)
  2. Brits (Britain)
  3. Others (German code defector, etc...)

3-wheel Enigma with reflector and six plug connections generated the following 39 three-patterned number of coding positions:

3 283 883 513 796 974 198 700 882 069 882 752 878
379 955 261 095 623 685 444 055 315 226 006 433 616
627 409 666 933 182 371 154 802 769 920 000 000 000

Enigma information sources:
--- Enigma ---

--- Enigma ---

--- Enigma ---

3 representations are provided at the end of the motion picture U-571 which was dedicated to the bravery of Allied sailors and officers who risked their lives capturing enigma materials from U-boats during the battle of the Atlantic:

  1. May 9, 1941- Enigma machine and coding documents were captured from U-110 by HMS Bulldog and HMS Aubretta of the 3rd escort group.

  2. Oct. 9, 1942- Short weather cipher captured from U-559 by HMS Petard.

  3. June 4, 1944- Enigma machine and coding documents captured from U-505 by U.S. Navy task force 22.3.

  4. Your Questions, Comments or Additional Information are welcomed:
    Herb O. Buckland