Threesology Research Journal
Research into the "Threes" Phenomena
Home Excursion 1

~ The Study of Threes ~

Note: Much of the information on this page can be found elsewhere on different pages at this site.

My views of the "Threes" phenomena have changed over the years. Whereas many decades ago I began collecting various patterns-of-three examples as if they constituted some fundamental universal law, I have come to realize that many of the so-called universals exist with what may be termed an auxiliary pattern. Namely, a 3-to-1 ratio that I alternatively describe as a 3-into-1, 3-from-1, or 3-as-1, though these proportions can be turned around to read 1-into-3, 1-from-3, or 1-as-3, whether one uses numbers, letters, symbols, sounds, etc., mix or match as you will.

For example,

*** Within the context of my threes (pattern) research, when I first re-encountered the idea for the existence of a triplet codon (coding) system in DNA (Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid... [which refers to the existence of a structure having one oxygen molecule less than Ribose Nucleic Acid (RNA),] a constituent that was claimed to be an underlying component consistent with all living matter, I thought I had discovered one of, if not "THE" reason why there were so many examples of threes to be found in a variety of subject areas. Surely, or so I thought, this is what has influenced the phenomena, even though it is largely overlooked by most people.

*** I had encountered the idea of a triplet codon DNA idea very early in life while flipping through an encyclopedia at a public library. Science teachers in public schools during my early years were more focused on taking us on "field trips" around the school grounds to collect different leaves so we could press them between two pieces of wax paper. While I will admit the idea of getting out of class and going outside was always looked upon as an adventure, collecting one or two leaves for the Teacher's view of "science" was a minor issue. I wanted to collect as many as I could... quite often to the dismay of my teachers because I wasn't listening to them and following the rules like everyone else. Oh such rebelliousness!

All the science teachers I had in grade school were more interested in "artsy-craftsy" (that I now, at times call) nonsense instead of getting to the really interesting information I could only find at the library. In Jr. high the science teachers were obsessed with weights and measures expressed with decimals and fractions. This wasn't fun nor interesting, this was mindless mediocrity to fulfill some stupid educational standard so the district officers could feel good about themselves and teachers could get their paychecks for a "job well done." It's no wonder some parents want to home-school their children. I especially disliked being told I was wrong when my computations were found not to be one of the multiple choices they offered on an exam, even when I found their answers to be in error. Because none of the other students saw what I saw, my perceptions were discounted as either outright wrong, or the product of fanciful imagination. When another student did recognize what I did and chimed in their agreement, all of us were either sternly told to do it again to get the (their) right answer, or were simply given a checkmark, indicating we were wrong and given a lesser grade.

However, please understand, I am not against methods which teach the "artsy-craftsy" and "weights and measures" perspectives, they just were not right for me with my particular mental frame-work; at least not to the extent science classes appeared to be obsessively/compulsively suffused with these techniques over and over again. If only I had had a teacher who would have encouraged me to collect, catalogue and make comparisons. (Even when these methods were only used once a month, such a time interval, to me, was viewed as a day by day event. Even today, while some friends complain I don't come by very often, even if I have been absent for five years, the time interval seems more like a mere few days. My mind measures time intervals differently. Humorously, my mind is a time machine with a set of display gauges that have been calibrated by someone or something with a different perspective and experience of time. It appears that most people measure time - only - by the presence of one or more others in their lives at significantly short and consistent intervals. (Vicariously speaking the one or more others can even be a person's voice on a radio broadcast or some television show character such as in a daily or weekly program... not the least of which can be a particular writer in a given medium.)

However, I must confess that without those teachers who "forced" me to indulge in the artsy-craftsy exploits (I actually did have fun... sometimes,) my web pages might be devoid of illustrations and images since, no doubt, for some, a picture is worth a thousand words just as for the wordsmiths, a word is worth a thousand pictures. (And yes, I know, some of you prefer to alternate the word "thousand" with some exceptionally larger quantity.) Public education teaches most of the public to generally "be on the same page", even if the overall book from which the page was garnered, is later found to be less than desirable.

The "threes phenomena" idea was very much in its beginning formative stage at this time in my life. Hence, it was too early yet to align the Triplet codon DNA information in the context of threes research. I had to "re-discover" the idea of DNA's triplet codon system in the specific context of threes research. I had the information already, except it was buried in some old dusty memory cell that had to be aired out. Along with this was many other threes examples I had taken for granted such as being on the third planet from the Sun, three colors to street lights, holding a pen or pencil with three fingers, etc... These and many other threes ideas have had to be re-discovered within the context of threes research.

Let me interject with the comment that All, every single one of the teachers I have ever met or worked with did not overtly nor openly use a teaching methodology that made use of the understanding of brain lateralization. (Some students are more inclined to left-brain activities, others are more inclined to right-brain activities, and others are part and partial both.) However, let me be fair. There are some teachers who:

  • May have known about it but restrained themselves from such an expression because it is not a standardized teaching methodology they, nor their teaching peers learned in college.
  • Used such an understanding unconsciously or "instinctively" without resorting to a structured "it's in the teaching manual" formalization.
  • Can understand it if brought into a conversation, but don't customarily use it due to lack of specificity, over-reliance on doing what the majority of other teachers do, are fearful of "harming" students by way of adopting a "fringe" teaching style, etc...

I never encountered a single teacher on the Elementary, Jr. High nor High school levels that made a point of teaching by way of identifying the cognitive learning styles of students based on an understanding of brain lateralization. The following link highlights at least one perspective of teaching via a brain lateralization method:

--- Left and Right Brain attributes pg. 5---

However, in as much as "Teaching by way of brain lateralization" is not necessarily absent from many a Teacher's box of teaching tools, it is less often to encounter anyone speaking of a teaching methodology utilizing an understanding of Astrology. To this end, a teacher employs methods which they feel are best suited for a particular student's Astrology sign. While there are some teachers utilizing such, most of them do not readily express an assertion for doing so. Even if many people on a day to day basis use their Professional or Ameturish knowledge of Astrology when "sizing" someone up for a potential relationship, business dealing, or some manner of exploitation, they keep such a tool quietly hidden away. Whether or not you use such a tool, it is of your own tool usage value to appreciate those you encounter who do rely upon such.

A similar manner of reasoning was applied to my Threes research re-discovery of the three fundamental atomic particles (Neutrons- Protons- Electrons), a tri-modal structure to all languages (Subject- Object- Verb), the many "threes" in our anatomy, as well as a few others. However, several years ago while I was pondering the commonalities of threes ideas with these presumed fundamental influencers, I was aware of a change in my thinking, as if my mind took on a new perspective similar to what may be described as the turning of a page... but even today reminds me of the visual aperture changes that occur when an optometrist is giving you an eye exam by alternating different lenses for each eye. I remember the event quite well because it took me by surprise, as if I had awakened from a sleep. Truly I had been living in a semi-comatose state for many years, though threes research in and of itself presented a new way of looking at reality. It was at this moment that I recognized that DNA's triplet codon system was actually a 3 to 1 ratio which perhaps is best understood if it is considered along with RNA (Ribose Nucleic Acid):

~ Item ~ ~ Three the same ~ ~ One is different ~
DNA = Adenosine- Cytosine- Guanine Thymine
RNA = Uracil

Yet, the "three the same, one is different" notion is not readily appreciated if we were to look separately at either DNA or RNA. Such an apparent distinction requires both to be placed side-by-side in order for us to make the comparison and highlight the existence of such a pattern. However, once the generalized idea of a "3 to 1" ratio is consciously affixed to our considerations, a list of other examples starts to gain application to various ideas that would otherwise suggest a pattern-of-four to an unsuspecting collector of diverse information, whether or not their research intent is to describe a recurrence that another prefers to use a numerical label in order to record the instance. The 3 to 1 ratio has thus become another cataloguing tool that is differentiated from and complementary to a strict "threes" formula.

And let us now add a simplified perspective of Protein structure (though there are others):

Item --- Three the same --- --- One is different ---
Protein = Primary- Secondary- Tertiary conformations Quaternary as a composite of the first three

This link provides the beginning of several pages involving examples of the 3 to 1 ratio:

--- Three "to" One ---

While some will readily add such a tool to their research tool box, for me it became but another (short-lived) stumbling block towards identifying what may have been THE initial influence of the previously cited universal influencers for the threes phenomena. In other words, after identifying the threes in biology and physiology, I began to wonder what could have fashioned them into their present design? Why was DNA in a triplet (3 to 1) ratio pattern and not some other pattern such as the superstitious seven or thirteen? If DNA influenced the "threes" in physiology and the threes in physiology influenced threes ideas in other subject areas, what could have influenced DNA's design?

Others may exclaim that the three-in-1 patterned "Father- Son- Holy Ghost/Spirit" or Brahma- Vishnu- Siva was the first influence. Nonetheless, I chose to look elsewhere. As far as I could tell, there is only one visible "entity" that could have influenced not only the development of life's fundamental precursors (RNA- DNA- Proteins), but also played a role in their evolutionary-adapted design. Namely, the Sun. The Sun predates life by billions of years and it has, from our perspective, a pattern-of-three; 3-to-1 called the Dawn- Noon- Dusk.


With respect to religion, I continue to encounter a similar self-centered orientation that people of exploration, such as Copernicus, encountered long ago. However, instead of religious people of today claiming that the Sun revolves around the Earth (and hence, their religious perspective), the many threes examples coming to light from a variety of subject areas are being forced to revolve around their specific Trinitarian perspectives... and thus, once again, around their religious belief.

The history of religions and religious ideas provide us with several examples of Trinities that may alternatively be described as triads:

  • Hinduism: Brahma ~ Vishnu ~ Siva
  • Triad in Mesopotamian religion: Anu (An) ~ Bel (Enilil) ~ Ea (Sumerian Enki)
  • 3 Taoist gods: Yu Ch'ing, Pearly Azure ~ Shang Ch'ing, Upper Azure ~ T'ai Ch'ing, Supreme Azure
  • 3 ancient Egyptian gods for solar "phases": Horus (morning) ~ Ra (noon) ~ Atum (dusk)
  • 3 Indian deities for solar "phases": Apollo (rising) ~ Hari/Vishnu (midday) ~ Indra (setting)

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  • Trinity of the Celtic Brigantian Empire: Virgin ~ Mother ~ Crone
  • Ancient Egypt Theban Triad: Amun ~ Mut ~ and their son Khans
  • 3 ancient Egypt central religious figures: Horus ~ Isis ~ Osiris
  • Historical Trinity of government worshippers:

    (Hear no evil- See no evil- Speak no evil)

And these few examples barely scratch the surface of the many triads that are referred to specifically as mythology (and were not necessarily designated a "trinity" or "triad" by the people believing in them during their particular juncture in history) such as the three Fates, three Furies, three Gorgons, etc... Regardless, people believed in this stuff just like they do with present religions... all of which may amount to nothing more than different examples of an environmentally influenced disposition towards some form of "threes" construction, whether or not the person using a particular threes idea is even aware of their usage or how many threes ideas exist in various subject areas. People get too caught up in the type and level of feelings they have for a particular belief they have difficulty in grasping it in any other context which prevents them from making any other type of assessment except for what they are socially used to and comfortable with.

Additionally, it should be noted that we of the present day and age are using the words "trinity and triad" as single words for three entities. In other words, they are another example of new words that have developed to assist in our cognitive state which, in the present discussion, refers to "3 to 1" (3 as 1) cognitive representations.

Some are arrogant enough to even believe that their religion is at the center of the Universe, and therefore, at the center or God's thoughts and affections, if not THE representation of God. It is the same self-absorbed religious ego-centricism that no longer dons the hooded habits of cloistered monks, but attempts to magnify the insinuation of credibility of its belief by adopting various forms of going-to-church garments, which includes religious texts, a religious vernacular, and a montage of behavioral specifics. Whereas some churches practice a "professional" dress attire as seen in a corporate-like atmosphere, others adopt a "casual Friday" appearance as the standard of acceptability and expectation. In other words, some people are easily persuaded to believe in the validity of a view based simply on superficiality. And in some instances, if you don't do this, they say you're an atheist because you refuse to provide them with a mirror-image of what they want to believe about themselves... and then when they once again don their business attire and workplace jargon, they will nickel and dime you to death. In other words, their practice of giving attendance, attention and acceptance to a religious perspective in the social environment they inhabit, is believed as a right to conduct various forms of swindling money, goods or services out of you so long as they use the three- patterned phrase of "It's just business" (or, "It's only business"). The word "business" (Busy-ness) in their view, gives them a god-given sanction to do whatever they can to get what they want... typically within so-called judicious laws, but frequently outside these same laws.


There are a few who might venture to think that life on Earth developed by way of a Frankenstein-like scenario in that lightning-discharged-electrical-current was a primary element to "get the juices of life flowing." Yet, it may actually have been the intensity of solar irradiation in an oxygen poor setting with a fast spinning Earth. Hence, chemical evolution experiments to-date have been using the wrong experimental procedures, even thought some components found in present life have been created. In other words, there may be a variety of ways in which one or more components of life's basic ingredients can be made, but there may be but one or a very specialized "organizational methodology" from which only life as we presently know it, can arise. This methodology may require the "conditionals" such as intense solar irradiation (perhaps due to an oxygen poor atmosphere/environment), along with a fast spinning earth that frequently evokes the image of life's basic components being spun in a centrifuge, with a specific (alternating?) magnetic field.

But the discovery doesn't end here because change is underway. If we accept the notion that the three (in 1) moments (Dawn- Noon- Dusk) of the Sun have indeed influenced the 3 in 1 triplet codon system in DNA (as well as RNA), it is of value to make note of the fact that the Sun (and Moon) and Earth's relationship is changing. The Moon is moving away from the Earth resulting in tidal changes, the Earth's rotation is slowing, and the Sun is expanding along its trek towards a burnout. As the Sun enlarges and the Earth's rotation slows, the three "moments" of the Sun are, in effect, "fusing" together. Thus, they are exhibiting a true "3- into- 1" expression. For those interested in experimental ventures, the reverse of these events must be taken into account. Thus, the Earth was spinning faster, the Sun was further away, and the Moon's effects were more manifest.

3in1 (15K)

If we disagree with the consideration that the Sun's three "moments" Dawn - Noon - Dusk had an effect on Biological development in any specific "three"- patterned way (in concert with the Sun's expansion and the Earth's slowing rotation... not to mention the receding Moon), what effect(s), if any, did/does it have?

These changes have been affecting us long before our arrival on the pre-hominid ("homonoid") scene. The usage of "threes" ideas in so many subject areas is an indication of these changes. The "threes" phenomena has increased as humanity has developed. Earlier human groups appear to have used three-patterned ideas less than later born groups, but we don't have an accurate record of the threes phenomena because it is not now, nor has it been widely known in the past. However, it should also be stated that I am only presuming that there is an increase in the usage of threes ideas, where in fact the increase may be due merely to an increase in population. Yet, it should be identified and noted as to whether a specific population is using more "threes" than some other population, such as an increased usage in "threes" by those that were/are occupied by a military force from a country that uses a variety of cultural "threes," whether or not the culture is aware of such... as in the case where the American military has had an enduring presence in other countries that did not use a lot of "threes" prior to the presence.

But the expansion of the Sun and its engulfing of the Earth as it proceeds, does not afford some readers with the ability to recognize another threes-related phenomena that may very well have had its earliest influences from the Sun as well. Specifically, as the Sun "progresses" from Dawn to Noon to Dusk on a daily basis, most people do not pay personal witness to the solar path. It is particularly triangular:

The following image is of the Moon in eclipse, though the picture could just as easily be a picture of the Sun. I inverted the picture in order to show the complete pathway of ascent and descent. This is a picture taken from page 80 of the 10/97 issue of Natural History magazine showing a time-elapsed image of the Moon during a daily trek but we could also consider a similar image could be offered for the Sun, even though I have not found one as yet. Perhaps someone reading this may know of one, or someone who could provide such, and would send it my way.)

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The usage of time-lapsed photography gives us some indication of the environmental conditions early biological life processes were subjected to many billions of years ago when the Earth was spinning faster. Early biological processes would have been subjected to a repeating triangular image for long periods of time in an environment considerably different from today if we can believe what others have written about such times, such as a lessened ozone, volcanic activity, geological activity, precipitation, etc...

It should be no wonder that we find this (triangular) image being expressed in a variety of ways by different organisms, within the limitations of their physical/mental ability to do so. If we humans of today can get sun-burned with the current protective ozone levels/layer, it's not too difficult to appreciate how such a triangular image could have been "branded" on the sensitive, impressionable, (highly "suggestible") "hide" of (our) early biological beginnings.

On a personnel note, since some have wondered where the idea of a fast spinning Earth came from; as a child, I would get the from time-to-time recurring image of standing on a fast spinning Earth and watching the Sun, Moon, and Stars whisk by in a flickering (blinking) motion. The flickering motion was influenced by the episodic sun/shade alternations I saw while riding a school bus as we traveled along roads with intermittently spaced trees. The light/darkness episodes were later reinforced by my experiments with plants, such that apple seeds require a period of "darkness" (wintering) prior to germination. Hence, the terms "light and dark" can be quite metaphorical.

I have mentioned the triangular image because it is a pattern-of-three (in geometric form) that must be taken into account when someone is devising a theory as to the phenomena of threes. We must account not only for the 1- 2- 3, A- B- C, etc., varieties of patterns-of-three that make up most "threes" lists, but also the 3 to 1 variables and geometric forms. Whereas some "threes origin" theories account for specific one- two- three varieties, they don't include a provision for elucidating the 3 to 1 or geometric forms. The actions/events of the Sun over the billions of years of biological development appears to do so.

Sun and Moon along triangular pathways

The above image was adapted from:

--- University of Massachusetts Sunwheel ---

...and you can find a link for the original on this page at the Sunwheel logo:

--- Solar Folklore ---

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While The above images clearly show that there is a triangular pathway, you don't find the discussion of the event with any regularity. What you find is the comments of those that are intrigued or captivated by what is called an analemma. It is the position of the Sun along its triangular pathway over the interval of a year. Some may humorously refer to the image as figure-of-eight or a bowling pin, unless of course you have some specific reference to apply due to personal experiences that most people may not have.

Image source:

--- Astronomy Picture of the Day ---

Too many researchers who have catalogued the threes phenomena have done so with the intent of validating some religious or esoteric philosophical idea related to some all encompassing formulaic expression of completeness or oneness, not realizing that their "completeness" or "oneness" or inclination towards some representation of singularity are themselves a three-into-one reference:

They research threes with the intent of presenting the scope of the phenomena as the representation of a single purpose... some principled standard of unity, unification, or centrality... or in combating such a notion, they resort to an adolescent oppositional gesture of multiplicity based on negativity, one upmanship polarization, or chip-on-the-shoulder transgressions claiming such licenses as freedom, creativity, or adventuresome hubris when proclaiming multiple answers, multiple children, multiple components, multiple dimensions, multiple divisions, multiple experiences, multiple fractals, multiple gods, multiple illnesses, multiple incomes, multiple inferences, multiple intelligences, multiple lovers, multiple offers, multiple positions, multiple pregnancies, multiple results, multiple scenarios, multiple surgeries, multiple wins, etc... even though the word "multiple" may not be used. In other words, when someone claims a 3 to 1 (from many to a singularity/one), they claim a 1 to a 3 (from a single/one to a multiplicity, with the multiplicity sometimes exhibited as a duality).

Those interested in the threes phenomena must be wary of the inclination to assess the re-occurrence of threes in a variety of subject areas with a perspective that is itself but another example of thinking in terms of a model that uses a three- patterned schematic such as the widespread usage of G - O - D. It is of more value to attempt some measure of deciphering what has and is influencing the many different forms of threes (which includes triangular forms), in order to establish whether or not that which is influencing the threes proclivity, is or will be changing, and thus change humanity as well.

We need a far more comprehensive database of the threes phenomena in order to establish whether or not the phenomena is increasing, staying the same, or decreasing, regardless of a change in population. Let us look at a handful of questions that need to be answered:

  • We need to know if one race prefers its usage over one or more other races.
  • Do men prefer to use it more than women?
  • Do precocious children use threes more than so-called "normal" (non-precocious) children?
  • Why do criminals tend to use a dichotomous (polarized) world-view instead of adopting some measure of a tri-partite perspective, according to what little research has been done in this area?
  • Do Indo-Europeans use patterns-of-three more than Asians, Africans, Native Americans or some other group?
  • Do the infants/children of all cultures exhibit a one- two- three babbling and word development stages?
  • Why does a modern religion such as Mormonism exhibit more patterns-of-three in its social structuring than religions that were developed more anciently?
  • Do three families of fundamental atomic particles actually exist, or do physicists only think they do because the dominant human perspective amongst physicists is three-pattern oriented?
  • Do segments of cultures that are occupied militarily by the U.S. government adopt dominant three-patterned orientations? For example, did the Japanese and (South) Korean populations exhibit a usage of less "threes" prior to the establishment of U.S. military bases? (Koreans have come to adopt a three-patterned Yin-Unity-Yang as opposed to a two-patterned Yin-Yang.) In contrast, the presence of the U.S. military in Germany would not show a distinctive increase in a cultural "threeness" usage because Germans already did so, even prior to the establishment of Hitler's Third Reich that was to last a thousand years... even though in many respects it is very much a part of our lives with respect to its lingering effects on people and technology.
  • Are there more people acquiring a "threes phenomena" perspective because there is a developmental change in human cognition?
  • Is the adoption of a three-point shot in basketball an indication of a developmental change in human cognition along a three-patterned orientation?

For those of you who are quite familiar with "phenomena of threes" as may be encountered in academic settings such as cultural or linguistic anthropology, yet may be unaware of the varied Research interests occurring outside mainstream academia, with respect to those involved with this particular pursuit, it is necessary that I pay tribute and reference to source materials. Let me now acknowledge (in alphabetical order) some references with a "threes" theme (the list is not meant to be comprehensive):

Professor L.B. Croft:

People in Threes Going Up in Smoke...
and Other Triplicities in Russian Literature and Culture

His article has brought much to the table of threes research considerations. His thesis needs to be explored more comprehensively.

Professor Alan Dundez

The Number Three in The American Culture

Dr. Dundez' chapter designated "The Number Three in The American Culture", can be found in a copyrighted 1967-1968 book entitled "Every Man His Way." I have included the chapter in its entirety, in 3 pages listed as (Dundez 1, Dundez 2, and Dundez 3). For threes collectors, this is a "must have" piece of written threes history. (There is also a great need for the funding of a Threes-related museum and library as well as experimentally based research to test hypothesis derived from the issues of "threes-related" questions that need to be answered and not remain in the realm of speculative philosophy.

Michael Eck

A Subject Reference Triclopedia

Michael Eck's efforts have quite possibly been the most enduring on the internet. The persistence and clarity of his work is cherished by all those who have a sustained interest in threes research, and we heart-fully acknowledge our indebtedness.

Dr. McNulty

List of Threes in human anatomy

Dr. McNulty's list is highly prized breath of refreshed air amongst those threes researchers who appreciate his (and others) efforts in compiling a list that illuminates a consistency not typically influenced (for the most part) by cultural fads, hearsay, or historical misrepresentations.

Simon Kelsey


Mr. Kelsey's efforts are an interesting exploration into the threes phenomena as elucidating the need for adopting a comprehensive and comprehensible program-in-development criteria, the many facets of which are in the making.

And here are two perspectives using a "threes" theme applied with the intent of improving our lives via changes in our social self-governing structures:

--- Cenocracy ---

--- Proportionality Manifesto ---
(For the Triune Game of the World)

Page initially created: Tuesday, January 8, 2013
Most recent posting: Friday, 18th May 2018... 9:39 AM

Your Questions, Comments or Additional Information are welcomed:
Herb O. Buckland