Threesology Research Journal
The Devil's Advocate and 3's Research
~ 5 ~
~ The Study of Threes ~

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Devil's Advocate Series:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
10 11 12 13 14A
15 16 17 18
19 20 21 22A
23 24 25 26 27
28 29 30 A 30 B 31 32 33a 33b 33c
34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 A 41 B

Photosynthesis equation

Cellular respiration
Anaerobic Respiration

Calvin cycle equation

Krebs' Cyclical equation

There are no large number values being used. This same "preoccupation" with low number values is seen in our ideologies and expressions. No matter what reason, excuse, or rationalization you may want to apply in accepting the occurrence, it is a tell-tale sign of an environmental imposition. In other words, while we can think in larger number groupings when asked to do so, we do not customarily engage in such behavior. We engage in recurring themes of low number value uses just as we see taking place in the equations of biological processes.

Let us take another look at some of the above examples coupled to a few others as a review emphasis about the low number values attached to individual atoms and the interactions:

equations list one
Chemical Reactions in Everyday Life

equations list two
Vital Information About the Various Types of Chemical Reactions

equations list three
Vital Information About the Various Types of Chemical Reactions

The above equations represent constrained repetitions which when looked at from a larger database of information from other subjects, reveals a recurring similarity that presents us with the situation we are dealing with a closed system in which equilibrium/homeostasis is not only permitted, but expected and prohibited to transgress... as well as being forced to accommodate along the course of either expansion or reduction such as might be described as evolutionary progress and deterioration. Transgressions, perhaps you might want to label them exceptions or mutations from the standard rules-of-thumb occurring in life at the present time, does not mean such exceptions or mutations will or will not become more widespread later on as the conditions of Earth change. In fact, subtle changes in these equations may well indicate some process is undergoing change that we humans should be concerned with or even assist with the development there of. In other words, if the numbers change we are given an indication of changes taking place on a subtle... if not overt level of recognition. However, we humans are often much too complacent, often take things for granted, and are not vigilant enough to detect alterations which may very will signal a changing constant, or a constant intermittancy. Such changes may possibly be overlooked by researchers dismissing them as flukes, incongruities, experimental issues, anomalies... or otherwise defining them as being irrelevant. We should be more attentive to cataloging and making note of differences just as we do to other environmental and biological phenomena and not simply call them part of a "range" of occurrences like some medical statistic shrugged off and labeled a personal quirk or person's own normalcy... like a bowel movement regularity.

Here's a list of the chemical formulas for some vitamins from the (U.S. National Library of Medicine). Please keep in mind the consideration that vitamins are a later born addition to the history of molecular substances:

Vitamin Molecular formula Alternate name
A C20H30O Beta-carotene, etc...
B-1 C12H17N4OS Thiamine, etc...
B-2 C17H20N4O6 Riboflavin, etc...
B-3 C6H5(6)NO2 Niacin, etc...
B-5 C9H17NO5 Pantothenic Acid, etc...
B-6 C8H11NO3 Pyridoxine, etc...
B-7 C10H16N2O3S Biotin, etc...
B-9 C19H19N7O6 Folic Acid, etc...
B-12 C63H88CoN14O14P Cyanocobalamin, etc...
C C6H8NO6 Ascorbic Acid, etc...
D-2 C28H44O Ergocalciferol, etc...
D-3 C27H44O Cholecalciferol, etc...
E C29H50O2 Alpha-Tocopherol, etc...
K C31H46O2 Phylloquinone, etc...

For those unfamiliar with vitamins and why so many people supplement everyday with, here is a list:

vitamins, their chemical names and functions

Source: Institute of Medicine - Food and Nutrition Board

In humans there are 13 vitamins: 4 fat-soluble (A, D, E and K) and 9 water-soluble (vitamin C and 8 B vitamins)

VitaminsChemical Names Functions
ABeta-carotene; Retinolto promote good vision and to form and maintain healthy teeth, skeletal and soft tissue, mucous membranes, and skin. Vitamin A acts as an antioxidant and is a fat-soluble vitamin, which is derived from two sources: preformed retinoids and provitamin carotenoids
B1Thiamine; Thiaminto help the body cells convert carbohydrates into energy and to maintain proper functioning of the heart, muscles and the nervous and digestive systems. Thiamine is a water-soluble B-complex vitamin
B2Riboflavinit is a water-soluble vitamin and works with the other B vitamins. It is necessary for normal cell function, growth, and energy production
B3Niacin; Nicotinic acid; Niacinamideit is a well-accepted treatment for high cholesterol, especially when combined with cholesterol-lowering drugs. It is also important for the conversion of food to energy and assists in the functioning of the digestive system and nerves. Niacin is a water-soluble B-complex vitamin. This vitamin is also called niacinamide
B5Pantothenic acidit is a water-soluble B-complex vitamin. It helps break down carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. It is required to sustain life
B6Pyridoxineit is a water-soluble vitamin and is frequently used in combination with other B vitamins. It helps the immune system produce antibodies. Antibodies are needed to fight many diseases. Vitamin B6 helps maintain normal nerve function and form red blood cells
B7Biotinit is a water-soluble B-complex vitamin. It helps break down proteins and carbohydrates. Biotin is necessary for cell growth
B9Folic acid; Folateit is a water-soluble vitamin and is frequently used in combination with other B vitamins. It is effective in the treatment of megaloblastic and macrocytic anemias. It also helps prevent certain birth defects before and during pregnancy
B12Cyanocobalamin; Methylcobalaminit is a water-soluble vitamin and is frequently used in combination with other B vitamins. It helps maintain healthy nerve cells and red blood cells. It is also used to treat pernicious anemia
CAscorbic acidit is a water-soluble vitamin. It acts as an antioxidant (reduces harm from damaging chemical processes in the body). It is essential for the production of collagen, the basic protein in bones, blood vessels, tendons, and ligaments. It is also essential for the healing of wounds, and for the repair and maintenance of cartilage, bones, and teeth
Dvitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) and vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol)it is a fat-soluble vitamin that helps the body absorb calcium. It is essential for the absorption of calcium into the bone and for normal bone growth. Vitamin D is known as the 'sunshine vitamin' because the body manufactures the vitamin after being exposed to sunshine
ETocopherolit is a fat-soluble vitamin that acts as an antioxidant to protect body tissue from damage caused by unstable substances called free radicals. Free radicals can harm cells, tissues, and organs. Free radicals are formed primarily in the body during normal metabolism and also upon exposure to environmental factors such as cigarette smoke or pollutants
Kvitamin K1 (phylloquinone; phytonadione; phytomenadione) and vitamin K2 (menaquinone; menatetrenone) it is a fat-soluble vitamin, which is necessary for normal clotting of blood. Vitamin K is required for the liver to make factors that are necessary for blood to properly clot (coagulate)

With respect to the various minerals many people supplement their diets with, since there is no molecular formula per se as was described by the vitamins, we would have to turn to atomic structure in order to get some numerical values. However, though we may be inclined to think of them as being fundamental, a bit of thought will have to be imparted in this direction since the contemplation of what is and is not fundamental... since the inception of the Earth after the inception of the Sun... after the inception of the Universe... (thinking retrogradively); I will exclude such values for the time being. Yet, I will provide some information on the minerals taken from Harvard Medical School Listing of Vitamins:

RECOMMENDED AMOUNT (daily RDA* or daily AI**)
UPPER LIMIT (UL) per day
CALCIUM Builds and protects bones and teeth. Helps with muscle contractions and relaxation, blood clotting, and nerve impulse transmission. Plays a role in hormone secretion and enzyme activation. Helps maintain healthy blood pressure 31-50: M: 1,000 mg, W: 1,000 mg 51-70: M: 1,000 mg, W: 1,200 mg, 71+: M: 1,200 mg, W: 1,200 mg 2,500 mg Yogurt, cheese, milk, tofu, sardines, salmon, fortified juices, leafy green vegetables, such as broccoli and kale (but not spinach or Swiss chard, which have binders that lessen absorption) Adults absorb roughly 30% of calcium ingested, but this can vary depending on the source. Diets very high in calcium may increase the risk of prostate cancer.
CHLORIDE Balances fluids in the body. A component of stomach acid, essential to digestion 14-50: M/W: 2.3 g, 51-70 M/W: 2.0 g, 71+: M/W: 1.8 g Not known Salt (sodium chloride), soy sauce, processed foods New recommendations (DRIs) for chloride are under development by the Institute of Medicine.
CHROMIUM Enhances the activity of insulin, helps maintain normal blood glucose levels, and is needed to free energy from glucose 14-50: M: 35 mcg, 14-18: W: 24 mcg 19-50: W: 25 mcg 51+: M: 30 mcg, W: 20 mcg Not known Meat, poultry, fish, eggs, potatoes, some cereals, nuts, cheese Unrefined foods such as brewer's yeast, nuts, and cheeses are the best sources of chromium, but brewer's yeast can sometimes cause bloating and nausea, so you may choose to get chromium from other food sources.
COPPER Plays an important role in iron metabolism and immune system. Helps make red blood cells M: 900 mcg, W: 900 mcg 10,000 mcg Liver, shellfish, nuts, seeds, whole-grain products, beans, prunes, cocoa, black pepper More than half of the copper in foods is absorbed.
FLUORIDE Encourages strong bone formation. Keeps dental cavities from starting or worsening M: 4 mg, W: 3 mg 10 mg Water that is fluoridated, toothpaste with fluoride, marine fish, teas Harmful to children in excessive amounts.
IODINE Part of thyroid hormone, which helps set body temperature and influences nerve and muscle function, reproduction, and growth. Prevents goiter and a congenital thyroid disorder M: 150 mcg, W: 150 mcg 1,100 mcg Iodized salt, processed foods, seafood To prevent iodine deficiencies, some countries add iodine to salt, bread, or drinking water.
IRON Helps hemoglobin in red blood cells and myoglobin in muscle cells ferry oxygen throughout the body. Needed for chemical reactions in the body and for making amino acids, collagen, neurotransmitters, and hormones 19-50: M: 8 mg, W: 18 mg 51+: M: 8 mg, W: 8 mg 45 mg Red meat, poultry, eggs, fruits, green vegetables, fortified bread and grain products Many women of childbearing age don't get enough iron. Women who do not menstruate probably need the same amount of iron as men. Because iron is harder to absorb from plants, experts suggest vegetarians get twice the recommended amount (assuming the source is food).
MAGNESIUM Needed for many chemical reactions in the body Works with calcium in muscle contraction, blood clotting, and regulation of blood pressure. Helps build bones and teeth 18+: M: 420 mg, W: 320 mg 350 mg (Note: This upper limit applies to supplements and medicines, such as laxatives, not to dietary magnesium.) Green vegetables such as spinach and broccoli, legumes, cashews, sunflower seeds and other seeds, halibut, whole-wheat bread, milk The majority of magnesium in the body is found in bones. If your blood levels are low, your body may tap into these reserves to correct the problem.
MANGANESE Helps form bones. Helps metabolize amino acids, cholesterol, and carbohydrates M: 2.3 mg, W: 1.8 mg 11 mg Fish, nuts, legumes, whole grains, tea If you take supplements or have manganese in your drinking water, be careful not to exceed the upper limit. Those with liver damage or whose diets supply abundant manganese should be especially vigilant.
MOLYBDENUM Part of several enzymes, one of which helps ward off a form of severe neurological damage in infants that can lead to early death M: 45 mcg, W: 45 mcg 2,000 mcg Legumes, nuts, grain products, milk Molybdenum deficiencies are rare.
PHOSPHORUS Helps build and protect bones and teeth. Part of DNA and RNA. Helps convert food into energy. Part of phospholipids, which carry lipids in blood and help shuttle nutrients into and out of cells M: 700 mg, W: 700 mg 31-70: 4,000 mg 71+: 3,000 mg Wide variety of foods, including milk and dairy products, meat, fish, poultry, eggs, liver, green peas, broccoli, potatoes, almonds Certain drugs bind with phosphorus, making it unavailable and causing bone loss, weakness, and pain.
POTASSIUM Balances fluids in the body. Helps maintain steady heartbeat and send nerve impulses. Needed for muscle contractions. A diet rich in potassium seems to lower blood pressure. Getting enough potassium from your diet may benefit bones M: 4.7 g, W: 4.7 g Not known Meat, milk, fruits, vegetables, grains, legumes Food sources do not cause toxicity, but high-dose supplements might.
SELENIUM Acts as an antioxidant, neutralizing unstable molecules that can damage cells. Helps regulate thyroid hormone activity M: 55 mcg, W: 55 mcg 400 mcg Organ meats, seafood, walnuts, sometimes plants (depends on soil content), grain products Researchers are investigating whether selenium may help reduce the risk of developing cancer, but with mixed results.
SODIUM Balances fluids in the body. Helps send nerve impulses. Needed for muscle contractions. Impacts blood pressure; even modest reductions in salt consumption can lower blood pressure M: 2,300 mg, W: 2,300 mg Not determined Salt, soy sauce, processed foods, vegetables While experts recommend that people limit sodium intake to 2,300 mg, most Americans consume 4,000-6,000 mg a day.
SULFUR Helps form bridges that shape and stabilize some protein structures. Needed for healthy hair, skin, and nails Unknown Unknown Protein-rich foods, such as meats, fish, poultry, nuts, legumes Sulfur is a component of thiamin and certain amino acids. There is no recommended amount for sulfur. Deficiencies occur only with a severe lack of protein.
ZINC Helps form many enzymes and proteins and create new cells. Frees vitamin A from storage in the liver. Needed for immune system, taste, smell, and wound healing. When taken with certain antioxidants, zinc may delay the progression of age-related macular degeneration M: 11 mg, W: 8 mg 40 mg Red meat, poultry, oysters and some other seafood, fortified cereals, beans, nuts Because vegetarians absorb less zinc, experts suggest that they get twice the recommended requirement of zinc from plant foods.
*Recommended dietary allowance **Adequate intake

As a service to our readers, Harvard Health Publishing provides access to our library of archived content. Please note the date of last review on all articles. No content on this site, regardless of date, should ever be used as a substitute for direct medical advice from your doctor or other qualified clinician.

Harvard Health Publishing

And let us not forget to describe some common sugars:

Image 1 on common sugars

Image 2 on common sugars
Chemical Formula

And how about let's provide some formulas for everyday goods well-known to many people:

US National Library of Medicine

  • Caffeine: C8H10N4O2
  • Nicotine: C10H14N2
  • Tea: (Camellia sinensis extract)- C50H50N4O26

Origination date: Tuesday, June 25, 2019... 4:41 AM
Initial Posting: Friday, August 30, 2019... 8:53 AM
Updated Posting: Tuesday, January 17, 2023... 11:51 AM

Your Questions, Comments or Additional Information are welcomed:
Herb O. Buckland