Threesology Research Journal
Threes Hypothesis Supplement 2

(The Study of Threes)

As the second Supplement to the Threes Hypothesis, which can be viewed as a supplement to the Solar Mythology pages... all of which are inter-twined, let me provide examples of "Threes" in order to present the reader with ideas expressed in a tripartite manner. And it doesn't matter if the ideas are later found to be inaccurate, the fact that a "three" model is frequently resorted to is saying something about the human psyche (and that which influenced such... even if we do not as yet know what THE pristine origin was/is).

3 Families of Fundamental Particles:

3 families of fundamental particles

--- Falkiner High Energy Physics ---

Family 1 Family 2 Family 3
Particle Mass Particle Mass Particle Mass
Electron .00054 Muon 11 Tau <.033
<10^-8 Muon
<.0003 Tau
Up Quark .0047 Charm Quark 1.6 Top Quark 189
Down Quark .0074 Strange Quark 1.6 Bottom Quark 5.2

--- The Relative Masses of the Fundamental Quantum Particles ---

Standard Model

Today's understanding of particle physics is summarized in the SM which describes all known phenomena in the world of particles and their interactions. In the SM there is a set of fundamental particles and their interactions based on fundamental forces. All known matter is made up from these particles which are spin-1/2 particles (fermions). There are two groups: the leptons and the quarks. The leptons interact electromagnetically and weakly and fall into three families, also called generations:


The quarks interact electromagnetically, weakly and strongly. All mesons and baryons are composed of the quarks which also fall into three families:


There are three fundamental forces which are the electromagnetic, the weak and the strong force. They are described by means of gauge theories and are transmitted by one or more boson(s) which are summarized in the following table:

Fundamental Forces and their Bosons

Force Boson Symbol Relative Strength
Weak Intermediate vector bosons W±, Z0 aweak = 1.02 10-5
Electromagnetic Photon g aem = 1/137
Strong Gluons g astrong (approx. 0.1)

In order to explain the spontaneous symmetry breaking in the electroweak sector a mechanism has been introduced which gives masses to the W and Z bosons. This requires in its minimal formulation another spin-less particle: the Higgs boson. This particle can also explain the masses of all the fermions of the SM. In a minimal supersymmetric extension of the SM the single Higgs boson is replaced by a set of 5 bosons: H±, h, H0, A.

--- Standard Model ---

Basic atom illustration

3 basic parts of an atom: Neutrons ~ Protons ~ Electrons

3 basic parts to fundamental parts of atoms: 3 Quarks and 3 Anti-Quarks

3 types of neutrino associated with each lepton:

  1. The electron neutrino.
  2. The muon neutrino.
  3. The tau neutrino.

300,000 kilometers per second (km/sec) is the speed of light. (Other measurement scales provide different numbers.)

3-part percentages related to early star formation:

The youngest Population I stars:

  1. 70% Hydrogen
  2. 27% Helium
  3. 3% heavier elements

The oldest Population II stars:

  1. 75% Hydrogen
  2. 25% Helium
  3. <0.01% heavier elements.

--- Lecture 39: The First Three Minutes ---

See the information via the following link for more three-patterned proportions:

--- 3-patterned proportions ---

With respect to the idea of a 1 ~ 2 ~ 3 maturational development in genetics, physiology, and consciousness (which may eventually lead to the development of a whole new form of government, education system, etc.), where many earlier processes may not be readily seen due to the time span required for a particular development to have occurred and thus has left no clearly discernible vestiges of the earlier processes; take a look at the following consideration involving Quarks:

Quarks are thought to be one of the fundamental building blocks of matter. In the Universe we know today, the particles come in pairs or threes. But when the Universe was more energetic, in its earliest moments, things were probably different. Current theory predicts that quarks must have once been single and free to move about before they joined together to form matter as we see it now.

Young, Free and Single

  • Quarks normally exist only as couples or threesomes.
  • Gluons handcuff quarks together.
  • Together, quarks and gluons make up bigger particles such as protons or neutrons.
  • Quark-gluon soup is a sort of brief particle pre-nuptial state.

By studying the properties of this quark-gluon" soup or plasma, and the laws it obeys, scientists will learn more about how the Universe developed during one of its formative phases. In short, scientists believe the reason why there are stars, galaxies and indeed planets and people is because of the properties of the quark-gluon plasma.

--- BBC News- 'Little Bang' creates cosmic soup ---

We should also consider that this idea of a "3" having initially been a "one" also applies to the Earth, which is presently the 3rd planet from the Sun, but may have not only been the 1st planet from the Sun billions of years ago, but is also part of a 1~ 2- 3 evolutionary development process.

3-patterned representation of E=MC2:

In 1928, British physicist Paul A.M. Dirac revised Einstein's famous equation E=mc2. Dirac said that Einstein didn't consider that the "m" in the equation (matter) could have negative properties as well as positive. Dirac's equation (E = + or - mc2) allowed for the existence of anti-particles in our universe.

It may be of interest to those interested in the "legend" of Einstein, that, involving the 1905 ("miracle year") of Einstein, they might want to make note that some articles reference he wrote 5 historic papers, others reference 4 papers, and still others describe 3 papers, but until now, no one (that I know of) have taken the time to collectively make reference to all three of these separate accounts which reveals a type of Pythagorean "3, 4, 5" theorem. (But then again, it's all relative to the observer.):

Einstein's "Five" 1905 Papers:

  1. Completed in March 1905, showed how the particle theory could explain phenomena that puzzled wave theorists.

  2. He followed up (the first) with yet another paper claiming that the mysterious jiggling of microscopic particles, known as Brownian motion, were actually caused by molecular collisions.

  3. In April 1905, Einstein finally completed his thesis, laying out how the properties of solutions could be used to determine the dimensions of molecules.

  4. In June 1905, Einstein published a paper answering his own teenage riddle: It would be impossible to catch up with a light beam. No matter how fast you were running, the beam would flash away at its usual speed. (Was the heart of Einstein's special theory of relativity).

  5. September, proposing an equivalence between mass and energy expressed by the formula E=mc2.

--- Einstein's Revolution enters Second Century ---

Einstein's "Four" 1905 Papers:

Title (translated) Area of focus Received Published Significance
On a Heuristic Viewpoint Concerning the Production and Transformation of Light Photoelectric effect 18 March 9 June Resolved an unsolved puzzle by suggesting that energy is exchanged only in discrete amounts (quanta). This idea was pivotal to the early development of quantum theory.
On the Motion of Small Particles Suspended in a Stationary Liquid, as Required by the Molecular Kinetic Theory of Heat Brownian motion 11 May 18 July Explained empirical evidence for the atomic theory, supporting the application of statistical physics.
On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies Special relativity 30 June 26 September Reconciled Maxwell's equations for electricity and magnetism with the laws of mechanics by introducing major changes to mechanics close to the speed of light, resulting from analysis based on empirical evidence that the speed of light is independent of the motion of the observer. Discredited the concept of a "luminiferous ether.
Does the Inertia of a Body Depend Upon Its Energy Content? Matter–energy equivalence 27 September 21 November Equivalence of matter and energy, E = mc2 (and by implication, the ability of gravity to "bend" light), the existence of "rest energy", and the basis of nuclear energy.

--- Albert Einstein: Wikipedia ---

Einstein's "Three" 1905 Papers:

  1. The photoelectric effect.
  2. Brownian motion.
  3. Special relativity.

--- Einstein’s significant 1905 papers ---

3 symmetry principles/operations (Closely related to conservation laws) that apply to changing the total circumstances of an event rather than changing a particular quantity:

  1. Charge conjugation (C), which is equivalent to exchanging particles and antiparticles.
  2. Parity (P), which is a kind of mirror-image symmetry involving the exchange of left and right.
  3. Time-reversal (T), which reverses the order in which events occur.

--- Elementary Particles ---

3 basic types of energy that could curve spacetime:

  1. Vacuum energy
  2. Radiation
  3. Matter

--- The structure of the Universe ---

3 fundamental forces of nature:

  1. Gravitational
  2. Nuclear
  3. Electromagnetic

3 degrees: Temperature of Outer Space (This is the middle point between the 2.5° to 3.5° examples encountered in various publications.)

3 degrees: Typical temperature at which ice cream is served.

3 atmospheric gas content constants on Earth: 78% Nitrogen ~ 21% Oxygen ~ 1% all other gases

3 inches per year: The North American continent is said to be moving in a westerly direction.

3 known allotropic forms of oxygen:

  1. Ordinary oxygen in the air {O2}
  2. Ozone {O3} (This one is the topic of wide-spread concern.)
  3. The rare, very unstable, nonmagnetic, pale-blue {O4}

3% per decade is the approximate rate the ozone has been gradually decreasing all over the globe.

3 months of 2002 (Jan.- Feb.- Mar.) were the warmest globally since records began in 1860 and probably for 1,000 years. (This item was recorded in 2005.)

--- Dan's Earth Changes ---

3 content percentages of Gunpowder: 75% Potassium nitrate ~ 15% Charcoal ~ 10% Sulfur

3 times as powerful as an equal amount of gunpowder: Nitroglycerin (C3H5(ONO2)- The principle explosive ingredient in dynamite.

3 types of telescopes frequently used to study "outerspace": Visual ~ Radio ~ Xray

3 separate but integrated theories of matter: Wave~ Particle~ Quantum

3 basic components to nitroglycerin: Glycerol ~ Nitric acid ~ Sulfuric acid

3-lettered explosive (TNT) Tri-nitrotoluene, is a standard by which all other explosives are measured for cost, transport, and flexibility of use.

3 processes of nuclear energy: Fission ~ Fusion ~ Combination(?)

3 ideas displaying Solid (whole, single)/ versus Layered structure: (3-to-1 ratio)
Age of (approx.) Appearance Þ Ancient Theory Late 19th early 20th centuries Present day
Earth theory (Geologists) Solid (whole/single) 2-layered mantle "Many"-layered...(three?)
[Core- Mantle- Crust]
Cell theory (Biologists) Solid (single) 2-layered
(Tri-laminar appearance in electron micrographs)
Atomic theory (Physicists) Solid (single/particle) "2-layered"?
3-layered due to "leakage"?

Some Geologists suggest that the Earth "leaks." In essence, this idea is explained by recognizing the Earth's structure as a combination of the two previously opposing whole-mantle versus convection system views. While it is quite easy for some to envision how a cell might "leak," we should apply this idea of "leakage" to the physicists' notion of wave versus particle idea to explain atomic structure and behavior. (And maybe even the design of the Universe.)

Whereas each scientific endeavor relies on its own discipline-specific language labels for description, analysis, and interpretation, the similarity of design suggests an underlying cognitive template related to the human type of physiology. Clearly there is an indication of a 1~ 2~ 3 formula, with these numerical values sometimes substituted with discipline-specific labels. However, the substitutions can be found to be more difficult to recognize when a specific discipline mixes their typical labels with era, gender, and cultural- specific colloquialisms, slang, or inebriated impulses.

3 used grades of Plutonium-239:

  1. Less than 80% is reactor grade
  2. 80-93% is fuel grade
  3. 93% is weapons grade

3 naturally occurring radioactive isotopes of uranium: U-234 ~ U-235 ~ U-238

3 percentages content of Natural uranium: {99.3% U-238} ~ {.7% U-235} ~ and {a trace of U-234}

3 theories concerning form of Universe:
Flat Spherical Saddle-shaped
Flat Closed Open
Zero Curvature Positive Curvature Negative Curvature
Linear? Circular? Triangular?
A singular-dimensional type of 3-dimension? A dual-dimensional type of 3-dimension? A triple-dimensional type of 3-dimension?

3 X 3 Forms of Matter:

  • Commonly referred to: [Solids]~ [Liquids]~ [Gasses]
  • Uncommonly referred to: [Plasma] ~ [Man-made Bose-Einstein condensate] ~ [fermionic condensate]

Your Questions, Comments or Additional Information are welcomed:
Herb O. Buckland