Threesology Research Journal
Biological/Physiological 3s
page 11

(The Study of Threes)

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Pages in the Biological & Physiological 3s Series:
B/P 3s pg. 1 B/P 3s pg. 2 B/P 3s pg. 3
B/P 3s pg. 4 B/P 3s pg. 5 B/P 3s pg. 6
B/P 3s pg. 7 B/P 3s pg. 8 B/P 3s pg. 9
B/P 3s pg. 10 B/P 3s pg. 11 The Devil's Advocate and 3s Research

There are three types of plague:

  1. Bubonic, which infects the lymph nodes.
  2. Pneumonic, which infects the lungs.
  3. Septicemic, which infects the blood.

3 distinctions of vertebrates with respect to limbs (does not include mutations nor lost limbs):

Some vertebrates lack both pairs of limbs...

  • Caecilians (apodans)
  • Most snakes
  • Snake-like lizards

Some vertebrates have forelimbs only:

  • Manatees & dugongs
  • Dolphins
  • --- Cetaceans ---

    (Whales- vestigial elements may be embedded in body wall)

  • Sirens (salamander)

Some vertebrates have both pairs of limbs:

  • Humans, Gorillas, Chimpanzees, etc...
  • Cows, Pigs, Horses, Sheep, etc...
  • Dogs, Cats, Weasels, Skunks, etc...

--- Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy ---

Three common autoimmune diseases have an unexpected genetic link:

  1. Psoriasis, (affects 2 percent of Americans.)
  2. Rheumatoid arthritis, (affects up to 1 percent of Americans.)
  3. Systemic lupus erythematosus, (which attacks the joints and can cause severe inflammation, affects one-twentieth of 1 percent of Americans.)

The link among the three diseases involves a protein that helps the thymus gland train cells of the immune system.

--- NY Times: Science ---

Three types of Influenza viruses:

  1. Type A infects a variety of birds and mammals. (Causes epidemics)
    • Two proteins distinguish strain A subtypes: 15 variants of hemagglutinin (H), and nine of neuraminidase (N).

  2. Type B infects only humans. (Causes epidemics)
  3. Type C infects only humans. (Less severe)

A flu vaccine includes B and the most common A subtypes, H1N1 and H3N2; this year's (2003/2004) is:

  1. H1N1 (Caledonia)
  2. H3N2 (Panama)
  3. Strain B (Hong Kong).

Flu viruses change in two basic ways. Antigenic shift is a sudden alteration of a hemagglutinin or neuraminidase; antigenic drift is the backdrop of continual mutation.

  1. Strain A shifts and drifts.
  2. Strain B only drifts.
  3. Strain C only drifts.

Compiled by Ricki Lewis

The Scientist: Devious and Deadly: Influenza through the ages

3 types of Bacterial toxins:

  1. Exotoxins
  2. Endotoxins
  3. Non-Protein Toxins

3 areas used for calculating percentage of body fat by using a set of calipers to measure the thickness of skin folds:

  1. Arm- (bicep and tricep)
  2. Subscapula (just under the shoulder-blade)
  3. Suprailiac (on the front corner of the hip)

3 components of the eye can fully account for the Circadian light responses and pupillary responses:

  1. The melanopsin gene
  2. The rods
  3. The cones

--- The Scientist: Melanopsin Lights the Way ---

3 classes of Annelids:

  1. Class Polychoeta- (meaning "many hairs") includes marine worms, such as sandworms and tubeworms.
  2. Class Oligochaeta- includes the earthworm and some freshwater worms.
  3. Class Hirudinea- comprises the leeches.

3 feeding characteristics of insects: Chewing - Sucking - Lapping.

Three primary brain networks that evolved to direct mammalian reproduction:

  1. The sex drive evolved to motivate individuals to seek sex with any appropriate partner.
  2. Attraction, the mammalian precursor of romantic love, evolved to enable individuals to pursue preferred mating partners, thereby conserving courtship time and energy.
  3. The brain circuitry for male-female attachment evolved to enable individuals to remain with a mate long enough to complete species-specific parenting duties.

--- BBC News: How the brain reacts to Romance ---

Claude Bernard, was a French physiologist known chiefly for his discoveries concerning (1) the role of the pancreas in digestion, (2) the glycogenic function of the liver, and (3) the regulation of the blood supply by the vasomotor nerves. On a broader stage, Bernard played a role in establishing the principles of experimentation in the life sciences, advancing beyond the vitalism and indeterminism of earlier physiologists to become one of the founders of experimental medicine. His most seminal contribution was his concept of the internal environment of the organism, which led to the present understanding of homeostasis—i.e., the self-regulation of vital processes.

Source: "Bernard, Claude." Encyclopædia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite, 2013.

The third plague pandemic was the last, for it coincided with (and in some cases motivated) a series of achievements in the scientific understanding of the disease. By the end of the 19th century the germ theory of disease had been put on a sound empirical basis by the work of the great European scientists Louis Pasteur, Joseph Lister, and Robert Koch. In 1894, during the epidemic in Hong Kong, the organism that causes plague was isolated independently by two bacteriologists, the Frenchman Alexandre Yersin, working for the Pasteur Institute, and the Japanese Kitasato Shibasaburo, a former associate of Koch. Both men found bacteria in fluid samples taken from plague victims, then injected them into animals and observed that the animals died quickly of plague. Yersin named the new bacillus Pasteurella pestis, after his mentor, but in 1970 the bacterium was renamed Yersinia pestis, in honour of Yersin himself.

Source: "plague." Encyclopædia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite, 2013.

A typical determination of the amino acid composition of proteins involves three basic steps:

  1. Hydrolysis of the protein to its constituent amino acids.
  2. Separation of the amino acids in the mixture.
  3. Quantification of the individual amino acids.

Source: "amino acid." Encyclopædia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite, 2013.

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