Threesology Research Journal
Biological/Physiological 3s
page 9

(The Study of Threes)

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Pages in the Biological & Physiological 3s Series:
B/P 3s pg. 1 B/P 3s pg. 2 B/P 3s pg. 3
B/P 3s pg. 4 B/P 3s pg. 5 B/P 3s pg. 6
B/P 3s pg. 7 B/P 3s pg. 8 B/P 3s pg. 9
B/P 3s pg. 10 B/P 3s pg. 11 The Devil's Advocate and 3s Research

Three flavonoid patterns in barley (geographical distribution):

World Area # of analysed barley varieties Distribution of chemical race or group
Type A Type B Type C
Europe 54 44 9 1




N. & S. Africa




N. & S. America 23 21 2 -
Australia 1 1 - -
Totals 266 156 56 54

--- Three Chemical Races in Barley ---

Triad present in 75% of patients at the time of diagnosis with Whipples:

  1. Chronic diarrhea, often with steatorrhea(The presence of greater than normal amounts of fat in the feces).
  2. Weight loss.
  3. Arthropathy.

3 points to remember with respect to a diagnosis of Whipples disease:

  1. Consider Whipple’s in patients with diarrhea, weight loss, and arthropathy, especially in white men.
  2. Preferred therapy is trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (160/800 mg orally twice daily) for > 1 year.
  3. In critically ill patients use ceftriaxone 2 gm/day for 2 weeks before starting one year of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. For patients allergic to sulfonamides, chloramphenicol has been used.

--- Whipples Disease ---

Three fat categories:

Olive oil
Canola oil
Fish fat
Flaxseed oil
Nut oils
Hydrogenated oils
Dairy fat
Meat fat
Coconut oil
Palm oil
Palm kernel oil
Corn oil
Safflower oil
Sunflower oil

Bad" fats are high in saturated and trans fatty acids. "Good" fats are high in monounsaturated and Omega-3 fatty acids. "OK" fats are high in polyunsaturated fatty acids.

--- How to identify the "good" fats ---

Omega 3 is the name of a type of fat that the human body (is said to) need to function normally. It is found in varying amounts in fish, seeds and nuts. There are three different Omega 3 oils:

  1. DHA (Docosahexaenoic Acid)- [said to be more important than the other two] found in fish .
  2. EPA (Eicosapentaenoic Acid)- found in fish.
  3. ALA (Alphalinolenic Acid)- found in flax seed and some nuts.

Due to modern dietary changes most people do not get enough of these fats. Excellent scientific evidence now exists that supplementing with Omega 3 fats help your heart, joints and brain.

Information source: Gym in a

--- "Don't Buy Omega 3 Supplements Before Reading This..." ---

3-part (complicated) relationship regulates a woman's hormonal cycle:

  1. The central nervous system (CNS).
  2. Areas in the brain called the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland.
  3. The ovaries.

Hormones produced by the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and CNS influence the production of estrogen in the ovaries. In turn, estrogen affects hormone secretion by the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and CNS. Estrogen is also responsible for ovulation and has a stimulating effect on the uterus and the vagina.

--- Anatomy of the Monthly Hormonal Cycle ---

3 human female menstrual cycle phases:

3 menstrual phases

Image adapted from:

--- Le cycle menstruel féminin ---

  1. Follicular Phase -The first part of your cycle is menstruation. Day 1 of your cycle is the first full day of menstrual bleeding. Bleeding happens because following the last cycle the egg wasn't fertilised and the lining of the uterus needs to be shed ready for the new cycle. This usually lasts between 3 and 5 days, but can be more or less. Following this your hormones begin to prepare your body for ovulation. The pituitary gland releases a hormone called FSH (Follicle Stimulating Hormone), which stimulates an ovarian follicle to grow and an egg to mature. The pituitary gland also releases LH (Luteinising Hormone) which stimulates the follicle to manufacture and secrete oestrogen.
  2. Ovulatory Phase -Oestrogen causes the lining of the uterus to grow and the cervical fluid to change (become fertile). When the Oestrogen level reaches a certain point it causes the pituitary gland to release a surge of LH. 24 to 36 hours after the surge, the follicle will burst, releasing the matured egg into the fallopian tube. The remainder of the burst follicle (called the corpus luteum) recedes back to the ovary and begins to release progesterone. Progesterone causes an increase in blood vessels to the lining of the uterus, and stops other eggs from developing, and causes the Basal Body Temperature (BBT) to rise about half a degree. It is preparing your uterus for a fertilised egg to live in for the following 9 months.
  3. The Luteal Phase: -The luteal phase is the period of time following ovulation. The egg can be fertilised within 24 hours of release, while it is still in the fallopian tubes. If the egg is fertilised, the pituitary gland produces hCG (which pregnancy tests detect) which causes the increased production of progesterone. The progesterone in turn causes the BBT to remain high throughout the luteal phase. Progesterone is important during this phase because if the egg is fertilised, and implanted in the uterus, progesterone keeps the uterus intact so that the pregnancy is maintained. If the egg is not fertilised within 24 hours, the corpus luteum dies and slows its progesterone production. The luteal phase is usually between 12 - 16 days. After around 11-14 days, there is no longer enough progesterone to supply the uterine lining with blood, and so menstruation begins again.

The best way to discover your patterns is to keep a menstrual chart. Even if you can't be bothered at least write down the first day of your period in your diary. The last day of your cycle is when your period stops. Generally speaking, a mature woman ovulates once a month, releasing one egg each month. If it is not fertilised then a menstrual period will happen.

--- Three phases of the Menstrual Cycle ---

How abortion pill works

3 doctor's visits to abortion pill process:

  1. In a doctor's office, the patient swallows a mifepristone pill during the first seven weeks of pregnancy. The drug causes the embryo to detach from the uterus lining.
  2. Two days later, the patient returns to the doctor's office to take a second drug, misoprostol, that causes contractions to expel the embryo.
  3. Within two weeks, a third doctor's appointment is required to confirm that the abortion is complete.

--- Health ---

(While on the page, press resource link: How the aborption pill works)

3 eye muscle sets

Three sets of muscles control the eyeball:

  1. One set for horizontal eye movement.
  2. One set for vertical movement.
  3. One set for rotational (rolling) movement, i.e. movement around an axis in the direction of sight.

--- 3 Psychological and Physiological Aspects of Eye-Gaze Tracking ---

Three species of snake occur in the UK:

  1. The grass, or ringed snake- non-venomous (family Colubridae)
  2. The smooth snake- non-venomous (family Colubridae)
  3. The adder, or viper, is mildly venomous (family Viperidae)

--- Snakes in the UK ---

3-step linear and triangular animal behavioral guidance systems:

linear and triangular animal behavior sensory systems

--- Telesensory Animals ---

(In most vertebrates each transverse tubule has two cisternae closely associated with it, forming a three element complex called a triad.)

Three species of organisms (dubbed 'space bugs') collected from 41 km above the surface of the Earth were persuaded to divide and grow in culture by Dr. Milton Wainwright, from the University of Sheffield:

  1. Bacillus simplex (bacteria) found commonly in the environment and doesn't cause disease.
  2. Staphylococcus pasteuri (bacteria) found commonly in the environment and doesn't cause disease.
  3. Engyodontium album (fungus) found commonly in the environment and is a harmless mould.

Reported Wednesday, 18 December, 2002 by BBC News: (space bugs grown in lab).

3 to 1 crawling pattern in limbless vertebrates:

  • 3 = Serpentine ~ Concertina ~ Sidewinding (The body is thrown into a series of curves.)
  • 1 = Rectilinear (The body is held relatively straight and glides forward in a manner analogous to the pedal locomotion of snails.)

3 typical categories of fish tail types: (1) Diphycercal~ (2) Homocercal~ (3) Hetero/Hypocercal.

3 alternative interpretations to be derived from the so-called four (caudal fin) tail types found in fish... (for example)

2 + 2

{Diphycercal/Hypocercal} + {Homocercal/Heterocercal}

(General observation of outward form; each looks like a variant of the other.)

3 (or 1 + 1 + 1)

{Diphycercal} + {Homocercal} + {Heterocercal/Hypocercal}

(Advanced appreciation of internal structure, function and development.)

3 + 1

{Diphycercal/Homocercal/Heterocercal} + {Hypocercal}

(Advanced appreciation of possible arrangement in light of the existence of other 3-to-1 patterns existing in other so-called "four" groupings.)

It is possible to see another set of 3 patterns consisting of a {2~ 2 + 1~ 4}; with a third addition of a singular item which references all the examples as being merely fish tails. when looked at as a whole, three groups of pattern construction can be devised.
  1. Group ONE --- "1"

    (Singular) view that all examples are simply fish tails that may or may not be further characterized as being (a.) linear/flat-shaped~ (b.) circular/spherical-shaped~ (c.) triangular/ellipsoidal.
  2. Group TWO --- "2"~ "2 + 1"~ "2 + 2"
    1. "2" (Dichotomous) view that fish tails can be characterized as large or small, straight or curved, etc...
    2. "2 + 1" (Dichotomous) view elaborated into the characterization that fish tails are either dual or singular (even though the Diphycercal form appears as being 3-lobed in coelacanths.)
    3. "2 + 2" (Dichotomous) view that the two groups of {Diphycercal/Hypocercal} X {Homocercal/Heterocercal} indicate variations of similarities within the group but are distinct from those of the other group.
  3. Group THREE --- "3"~ "3 + 1"~ "4":...
    1. "3" (Trichotomous) arrangement of tail types into three typical groups:
      1. Diphycercal
      2. Homocercal
      3. Heterocercal/Hypocercal

    2. "3 + 1" (Trichotomous) interpretation of a non-typically identified common representation of fish fins characterized with a consideration such as the Homocercal form may be a younger (or functional) version of the Heterocercal form. In effect, such an alternative distinction is a type of placement into a connected, but singular category, that overall, is customarily denoted as three groups.)
    3. "4" (Trichotomous) perspective when viewed as

      • One group of four ~ • Two groups of two ~ • Four groups of one;

      otherwise, it may be considered by the user as a separate group entitled to its own distinction with no further differentiation into any other pattern.

3 Fish Tails
Spine goes straight to the tip of the tail; dorsal and ventral lobes about equal.

All of the fin membrane posterior to spine; dorsal and ventral lobes about equal.

Spine tilts upward; dorsal lobe longer/larger.

Spine tilts downward; ventral lobe longer/larger.

Note: The picture of fins and related general comments next to it were adapted from:

--- Comparative Biology ---

It should be understood that tail types refer to where the vertebral column goes and not the external appearance of the fin. There are several shapes to the fin:

Caudal Fins

Caudal Fins

In an exploration of attempting to identify what, if any, single environmental event may have contributed to the design of fish fins consistent with the notion of environmental/evolutionary pressures, let's take a look at the basic geometric designs and compare them to ideas concerning how the Sun "travels" from dawn to dusk:

caudalsun (7K)

The correlation is striking. Historically speaking, why did the human mind "logically" defend the perception of a linear and circular pathway? In some old pictures, we see the world depicted as if in a sphere.

Do the so-called logical arguments refer to the same unrecognized "process" on an immature and evolving human brain that "imposed" itself on the design of fish fins? Whereas one species exhibits the influence one way another species exhibits it another way? In other words, that which caused humans to see and think in linear, circular and triangular forms is similar to that which created linear, circular and triangular shaped fish fin forms? As for the third, triangular solar pathway, it can be seen with the usage of time-lapsed photography.

3 types of measurement for caudal fins:

3 Caudal Fin Measurements

3 types of principal fins to stabilize and steer by... most aquatic vertebrates:

  1. Caudal
  2. Dorsal
  3. Anterolateral

3 principal basal cartilages in the fins of fishes:

  1. Proterygium
  2. Mesopterygium
  3. Metapterygium


Mammalian swimming modes

(Above image adapted from the illustration on page 56, chapter 3 by Frank E. Fish, of Mammalian Energetics, ed., by Thomas E. Tomasi and Teresa H. Horton, ©1992 Cornell University.)

3 scale types in fish:

  1. Ganoid, as in gars
  2. Cycloid, as in suckers
  3. Ctenoid, as in perch

Three otoliths found in the endolymphatic sac of the inner ear on each side of the brain:

  1. Sagitta
  2. Lapillus
  3. Asteriscus

--- Life History information from the Calcified Tissues of Fishes ---

3 types of appendages used by (aquatic) motile protozoans: Flagella ~ Cilia ~ Pseudopodia

3 types of modern whales: Plankton feeders ~ Fish eaters ~ Squid eaters

3 dominant tuna species inhabit the Indian Ocean:

  1. Bigeye tuna- Thunnus obesus.
  2. Yellowfin tuna- T. albacares.
  3. Albacore- T. alalunga.

3 types of fish "tales":

  1. Minnow- (An obvious ruse seen even by children.)
  2. Cat fish- (This 'cat' catches your tongue from voicing disbelief for a short while, and only the most gullible continue to believe it.)
  3. Whale- (A 'Whale of a Tale' that is often retold by others and may even be placed into a book or other public communication mediums.)

3 different types of haemoglobin-I alloforms in Atlantic cod (two types and a hybrid), and that the frequency distribution of the three types change with correlation to water temperature.

--- Ecophysiological responses in boreo-artic marine fishes ---

Three main activities of how cells use energy:

  1. Chemical energy - synthesis of complex biological molecules. In other words, to make more of themselves.
  2. Transport - Cells often live in dilute environments. They are sitting in a lake and they need some amino acid, the concentration of that nutrient is very low in the environment. Cells have to expend energy to transport that nutrient into the cell.
  3. Mechanical Energy - Cells may be able to change their physical location and all cells need to move structures within them. (This requires energy.)

--- Basic Energy Concepts ---

Three oligosulphides, a by-product of protein decomposition in decaying meat, is that which attracts flies to assist in helping the arum (smelly plant) to pollinate. The arum, which is found on small islands off the coasts of Sardinia, Corsica and Spain's Balearic islands in the western Mediterranean, is not naturally self-pollinating.

--- BBC NEWS: Plant's smelly trick on flies ---

Three amino acids play a key role in the active site of the Enzyme Ribonuclease:

  1. His-12
  2. Lys-41
  3. His-119.

At 10 weeks of development there are two veins and one artery in the umbilical cord.

(Pg. 136 "Life" by Lennart Nilsson © 2006, Hardcover ISBN: 0-8109-5842-2)

Three parts to the nuclear symbol:

  1. The symbol of the element.
  2. The atomic number of the element.
  3. The mass number of the specific isotope.

Atomic symbol for helium

  1. The letters He: Represent the element Helium.
  2. The atomic number is: The number of protons in the nucleus of the atom.
  3. The mass number is: The number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of the atom.

Information and image adapted from:

--- The Nuclear Symbol ---

Three Fatigue Countermeasures program goals were established and continue to guide research efforts:

  1. To determine the extent of fatigue, sleep loss and circadian disruption in flight operations.
  2. To determine the impact of these factors on flight crew performance.
  3. To develop and evaluate countermeasures to mitigate the adverse effects of these factors and maximize flight crew performance and alertness.

Fatigue is rooted in physiological mechanisms related to: (a) sleep, (b) sleep loss, and (c) circadian rhythms.

Three examples of flying conditions:

  1. In long-haul operations, the non-24-hr duty/rest cycles, the circadian desynchronization associated with transmeridien flights, and the sleep loss accompanying nighttime flying are all associated with fatigue.
  2. For short-haul operations, long duty days, sleep loss as a result of short nighttime layovers, and shortened sleep episodes due to progressively earlier report times across trips serve to create flight crew fatigue.
  3. In overnight cargo crews, even regular nighttime flying often results in incomplete circadian adaptation. Additionally, duty periods ending in the morning hours lead to sleep loss due to an increasing signal for wakefulness from the biological clock during this time. The problem is compounded by daytime layovers that can sometimes be too short for an adequate sleep opportunity.

Three core physiological factors related to fatigue were identified:

  1. Cumulative sleep loss.
  2. Continuous hours of wakefulness.
  3. Circadian time of day.

A NASA/FAA countermeasure study empirically demonstrated the effectiveness of a planned cockpit rest period in improving performance and alertness in long-haul flight operations. Flight crews who were provided a planned 40-minute nap opportunity (resulting in an average of 26 minutes of sleep) subsequently exhibited improved physiological alertness and performance compared to flight crews not receiving the nap opportunity. The crewmembers napped one-at-a-time in a three-person cockpit with minimal disruption to normal flight operations and no reported or identified concerns regarding safety. The benefits of the nap were observed throughout the critical descent and landing phases of flight. The planned nap appeared to provide effective and acute relief from significant sleepiness experienced by crews in three-person non-augmented flight operations. Following this study, the Fatigue Countermeasures Program submitted a draft advisory circular to the FAA in January 1993 on "Controlled Rest on the Flight Deck." Regulatory provisions that would sanction the appropriate use of planned cockpit rest remain under review. Several non-U.S. air carriers have already implemented the procedure.

Note: in reading the "threes" example above, one must wonder if NASA and the FAA have any understanding of the "threes phenomena" with respect to its influence on hypothesis development, testing procedures and assumed results. It appears that neither organization is aware of the phenomena and nor are they aware of the 1- 2- 3 maturational development sequence or the 3 to 1 ratio circumstances relative to human cognition.

--- NASA's Statement On Pilot Fatigue ---

Three beneficial reductions cited for Bio-feedback therapy that is said to be cost-effective for treatment of chronic, benign problems:

  1. Reduction in long term medication use.
  2. Reduction in the frequency of emergency room visits.
  3. Reduction in physician consultations.

Three alternatives to medication are cited for Bio-feedback usage:

  1. No side effects.
  2. Recovery from chemical dependency.
  3. Relief beyond medication.

Three Levels of Stress Response Explained:

  1. The first level of stress comprises external events that cause the stress reactions. These can be environmental, interpersonal, familial or job related. Such factors need to be eliminated or a means developed to reduce their impact.
  2. The second level is the person's attitudinal reaction to the stressor. This is important, because how an event is viewed determines much of the physiological response. For example, a person responds differently to a perceived threat than to an event that is supportive in nature.
  3. The third level of stress is the change in physiology over time, as the body reacts to the stressor. The body's stress response can become a habit in a relatively short period of time and unless a person is sensitive to the habit, it can develop without their awareness. The situation is similar to what happens when someone moves their watch from one arm to the other. At first, the new location feels strange, but so does the old location; after a few days the strange feeling ceases and everything feels normal.

Three components to a typical biofeedback treatment session:

  1. Counseling.
  2. Instrument feedback.
  3. General relaxation training.

Three weeks is the approximate time for reductions in muscle pain to occur after normal relaxation ability is attained.

--- Lifematters: The Biofeedback Process ---

Updated Posting (HTML maintenance): Sunday, 15th September 2019... 2:04 PM
Latest Update: Friday, February 24th, 2023... 11:40 AM

Your Questions, Comments or Additional Information are welcomed:

Herb O. Buckland