Threesology Research Journal
Biological/Physiological 3s
page 7

(The Study of Threes)

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Pages in the Biological & Physiological 3s Series:
B/P 3s pg. 1 B/P 3s pg. 2 B/P 3s pg. 3
B/P 3s pg. 4 B/P 3s pg. 5 B/P 3s pg. 6
B/P 3s pg. 7 B/P 3s pg. 8 B/P 3s pg. 9
B/P 3s pg. 10 B/P 3s pg. 11 The Devil's Advocate and 3s Research

3 main clinical types of canker sores/aphthae (aphthous stomatitis):

  1. Minor aphthous ulcers (80% of all aphthae) are less than 5 mm in diameter and heal in 7-14 days.
  2. Major aphthous ulcers are large ulcers that heal slowly over weeks or months with scarring.
  3. Herpetiform ulcers are multiple pinpoint ulcers that heal within about a month.

3 weeks is the maximum duration a person should permit a mouth ulcer to persist. After this, they should be referred for biopsy or other investigations to exclude malignancy or other serious conditions.

--- ABC of Oral Health ---

3 Types of Recurrent Aphthous Ulcers
(Clinical Features)
Feature Minor Major Herpetiform
Size Small, 3-5 mm Large, 5-10 mm Very small, 1-2 mm
Location Unattached mucosa Unattached mucosa Unattached mucosa
Most common area Anterior Posterior Anywhere
Number 1-5 1-10 1-100
Scarring No Yes No
Pain Yes Yes Yes
Appearance Shallow Deep Ulcers coalesce

Triad of Reiter's syndrome:
  1. Arthritis
  2. Urethritis
  3. Conjunctivitis/Iridocyclitis

3 types of Histiocytosis X (Idiopathic histiocytosis; Langerhans cell granulomatosis):

  1. Letterer-Siwe Disease (acute disseminated histiocytosis)
  2. Hand-SchÜller-Christian Disease (Multifocal eosinophilic granulomas; chronic disseminated histiocytosis)
  3. Eosinophilic granuloma

3 conditions of Pemphigus Vulgaris (a general term used to designate the chronic bullous diseases and sometimes a variety of blistering skin diseases):

  1. Acantholysis
  2. Nikolsky's sign
  3. Acantholytic cells (Tzanck cells)

3 stages to Syphilis (Treponema pallidum):

  1. Primary- Chancre
  2. Secondary- Mucous patch
  3. Tertiary- Gumma

--- Dental Hygiene Oral Pathology ---

3 commonly observed Acne- related blemishes:

  1. Blackheads (non-inflammatory) form when the oil, dead skin cells, and bacteria in the hair follicle become tightly compacted. Contrary to popular belief, blackheads do not turn black because they contain dirt.
  2. Whiteheads (non-inflammatory) form when the contents of the follicle (skin cells and oils) are contained under the skin.
  3. "Redheads" (Inflammatory) sometimes have pus in them. They occur when the follicle contents from a non-inflammatory lesion gets into the surrounding tissue. The body reacts by sending blood cells and chemicals to get rid of the invasion. As a result, the area becomes swollen and inflamed.

3 categories of Inflammatory lesions:

  1. Papules are commonly referred to as "pimples." They are small, firm, reddish lesions that generally do not contain pus.
  2. Pustules are essentially pimples that contain pus. Pus is the substance produced by the body to fight infection. It contains different types of blood cells and other products of the body's immune response.
  3. Nodules are large, inflammatory lesions occurring deep in the skin. They contain a lot of pus and can lead to scarring. The nodules may progress into large cysts, which usually are associated with more inflammation and swelling.

3 defined types of Acne: Mild ~ Moderate ~ Severe. The differences are determined by the number of inflamed lesions versus non-inflamed lesions. The more inflamed lesions, the more severe the acne.

--- Types of Acne ---

3 types of barium x-ray procedures used to diagnose abnormalities of the gastrointestinal tract, such as tumors, ulcers and other inflammatory conditions, polyps, hernias, and strictures:

  1. Link to: ---Barium Enema ---
  2. Link to: --- Barium Small-bowel Enema --- (also called enteroclysis)
  3. Link to: --- Barium Swallow or Upper GI Series ---

    --- Barium X-ray ---

3 serious complications of ulcers:

  1. Gastrointestinal bleeding.
  2. Perforation.
  3. Obstruction of the digestive tract.

3 substances which cause the most acid production in the stomach: Alcohol ~ Nicotine ~ Tobacco.

--- Peptic Ulcers ---

3 oral lifestyle factors that are suspected of causing problems related to ulcers:

  1. Smoking
  2. Drinking alcohol
  3. Drinking Caffeine

3 common types of surgery for ulcers:

  1. Vagotomy: This involves cutting the vagus nerve that links the stomach to the brain. This reduces acid secretion.
  2. Antrectomy: Removal of the lower part of the stomach (antrum) that produces a hormone that stimulates the stomach to secrete digestive juices.
  3. Pyloroplasty: Enlargement of the opening into the duodenum and small intestine (pylorus), enabling contents to pass more freely from the stomach.

--- BBC News Medical Notes- Ulcers ---

3 types of Corneal Dystrophy (Corneal Dystrophy is a general term for an inherited dysfunction of the cornea.) All three types are most often seen in dogs, and are rare in cats:

  1. Epithelial corneal dystrophy occurs mainly in the Shetland Sheepdog and the Boxer. It is caused by a problem with the superficial layers of cells in the cornea, and can (but does not always) result in corneal ulcers.
  2. Lipid corneal dystrophy occurs in many breeds of dogs, including the Siberian Husky, Alaskan Malamute, Samoyed, Bearded Collie, Bichon Frise, German Shepherd, Lhasa Apso, Mastiff, Miniature Pinscher, Weimeraner, Whippet, Cavalier King Charles Spaniel, American Cocker Spaniel, Beagle, Rough Collie, Afghan Hound and Airedale Terrier. It is caused by fat deposits in the middle layer of the corneal cells. The opaque areas can form a variety of patterns, and do not usually cause any problems with the animal's vision.
  3. Endothelial Corneal Dystrophy is found mainly in the Boston Terrier and the Chihuahua. It is a degeneration of the innermost layer of the corneal cells. Early in the disease, there are not many symptoms other than the opacity in the cornea. Later, as the disease progresses, the entire cornea will become swollen and opaque. Pockets of air can develop within the degenerated areas of the cornea, and cause corneal ulcers. In the late stages of the disease, impaired vision and painful corneal ulcers are common.

--- Corneal Dystrophy- Mesa Veterinary Hospital ---

3 social characteristics of Men's laughter with respect to the history of their relationship with their social partner:

When paired with (1.) friends of either sex, men laughed significantly more than men who were tested (2.) alone or with a (3.) male or female stranger.

3 social characteristics of Women's laughter with respect to the history of their relationship with their social partner:

Females paired with a (1.) male friend produced more laughs than females tested (2.) alone, with a female friend, or with a (3.) male stranger.

--- Laughter's Influence ---

3 types of ultraviolet light: UVA, UVB and UVC.

  1. UVC light is normally screened out by the ozone layer and so far does not present an immediate threat.
  2. UVB light can cause the greatest eye damage. Over-exposure to intense UVB light can damage the cornea, producing a painful condition known as photokeratitis. While recovery occurs over several days, the eye often must be bandaged. Many scientists think there is a link between prolonged exposure to UVB light and the formation of lens cataracts.
  3. UVA light may have a link with cataract formation, as is suggested in some studies such as ("Lifting the Clouds of Cataracts" in the December 1989-January 1990 FDA Consumer). Because UVA light can reach the retina, researchers are studying whether long-term exposure may be related to loss of vision in old age.

3 categories of labeling for eye wear to help consumers make the most informed choice to protect their eyes from ultraviolet exposure, have been established by the FDA and the Sunglass(es) Association of America to indicate the "use category" of the product. The 3 categories represent different levels of eye protection appropriate for different outdoor environments:

  1. Cosmetic (lightly tinted lenses for use in non-harsh sunlight)---Screens at least 70 percent of UVB, 20 percent of UVA, and less than 60 percent of visible light.
  2. General Purpose (medium to dark tinted lenses for use in most outdoor activities, such as boating, flying and hiking)--- Screens at least 95 percent of UVB, 60 percent of UVA, and 60 to 92 percent of visible light.
  3. Special Purpose (recommended for use in very bright environments, such as when skiing, mountain climbing, or at tropical beaches)---Screens at least 99 percent of UVB, at least 60 percent of UVA, and 20 to 97 percent of visible light.

--- Protecting Your Eyes From Everyday Hazards- by Jessica Auerbach---

3 most common forms of diagnostic tests in HIV-infected persons:

  1. Ocular
  2. Meningeal
  3. Meningovascular

A nitrate anion is three times the weight of an ammonium cation.

The Digestive System

3 types of "least invasive" tests performed before tissue tests, in diagnosing whether or not the bacteria Helicobacter pylori is present, giving an indication for the condition of an ulcer:

  1. Blood
  2. Breath
  3. Stool

3 types of "most invasive" tissue tests are usually done using the biopsy sample that is removed with the endoscope, in the diagnosis of a peptic ulcer:

  1. The rapid urease test detects the enzyme urease, which is produced Helicobacter pylori.
  2. A histology test allows the doctor to find and examine the actual bacteria.
  3. A culture test involves allowing Helicobacter pylori to grow in the tissue sample.

3 to 1 ratio of drugs used to treat H. pylori Peptic Ulcers

  1. 1 of 3. Stomach-lining protector: Bismuth Subsalicylate
  2. 2 of 3. Blockers- Cimetidine, Ranitidine, Famotidine, Nizatidine
  3. 3 of 3. Proton pump inhibitors:- Oomeprazole, Lansoprazole, Rabeprazole
  4. 1 of 1. Antibiotics- Metronidazole, Tetracycline, Clarithromycin, Amoxicillin

Triple therapy, (for two weeks), at this time, is the most proven effective treatment for peptic ulcers. It involves taking two antibiotics to kill the bacteria and either an acid suppressor or stomach-lining shield. This two-week triple therapy method reduces ulcer symptoms, kills the bacteria, and prevents ulcer recurrence in more than 90 percent of patients. (Another option is 2 weeks of dual therapy. Dual therapy involves two drugs: an antibiotic and an acid suppressor. It is not as effective as triple therapy. In addition to the two treatment methods above, there is a third option involving two weeks of quadruple therapy, which uses two antibiotics, an acid suppressor, and a stomach-lining shield; a treatment that looks promising in research studies. It is also called bismuth triple therapy.)

3 items, for nearly 100 years, were thought by scientists and doctors to have caused ulcers:

  1. Stress
  2. Spicy food
  3. Alcohol

--- Helicobacter pylori and Peptic Ulcer ---

3 stages of glucose breakdown

3 stages of glucose breakdown
  1. STAGE I (glycolysis- with three kinds of atoms: Carbon~ Oxygen~ Hydrogen) begins with expenditure of two molecules of ATP (Adenosine-TRI-phosphate) to produce fructose diphosphate, which is broken down to two molecules of PGAL (an energy-rich three-carbon compound called phosphoglyceraldehyde). After these preparatory steps, the two PGAL molecules are broken down to two molecules of pyruvic acid, a process that first pays back the two ATP molecules originally invested and then yields two molecules each of ATP and NADre (reduced Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide).
  2. STAGE II (the breakdown of two molecules of acetyl-CoA) yields two molecules each of CO2 (carbon dioxide) and NAD re.
  3. STAGE III, in which the two molecules of acetyl-CoA (acetyl-coenzyme A) are fed into the krebs citric acid cycle and further broken down, yields four CO2 molecules, two ATP molecules, six NADre molecules, and two FADre (Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide) molecules.

3 to 1 ratio of the so-called 4 pathways that are used for the fixation of CO2:

  1. 1 of 3- The reductive tricarboxylic acid pathway (rTCA).
  2. 2 of 3- The reductive acetyl-CoA pathway (rACA),
  3. 3 of 3- The 3-Hydroxypropionate cycle.
  4. 1 of 1- The ribulose bisphosphate pathway (RuBP).

The Ribulose bisphosphate pathway [RuBP] (also called The Calvin Cycle), is one of the most important biosynthetic cycles on earth. It is used by most photosynthetic organisms (plants, cyanobacteria, purple and green bacteria) to incorporate CO2 into cell carbon. All higher organisms eventually obtain their carbon from the products of this cycle. RuBP is not just the providence of photosynthetic organisms however, many other autotrophs use RuBP and it is by far the most commonly found method for CO2 fixation in nature. Because of its prevalence, it was discovered first and a great deal of research has revealed much about the cycle.

3 phases in RuBP and three unique enzymes have been found operating in the cycle.

3 phases of the Calvin Cycle

  1. Carboxylation - CO2 is combined with ribulose bisphosphate a 5 carbon compound that immediately splits to form two 3-phosphoglycerate molecules (3 carbon compounds). The enzyme that catalyzes the reaction is ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase and it is the most abundant and arguable the most important enzyme on earth. The evolution of this catalytic ability contributed to the emergence of photosynthetic organisms and their presence allowed for the explosive abundance of life. The rest of RuBP has two goals. Create fructose, that is siphoned off for cellular metabolism and regenerate the ribulose bisphosphate molecule, for another turn of the cycle.
  2. Reduction - In this phase, the two 3-phosphoglycerate molecules are reduced, using

    --- ATP ---


    --- NADPH ---

    to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (an intermediate in glycolysis). One of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphates is then converted to dihydroxyacetone phosphate. Next the glycolytic enzyme aldolase is used in reverse, combining glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate to form fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. Finally, this is converted into Fructose-6-phosphate.
  3. Regeneration - The rest of the steps of RuBP involve reforming the ribulose bisphosphate. Regeneration involves a complex series of reactions and two enzymes unique to the RuBP are important in the process. One ATP is expended to regenerate Ribulose bisphosphate.

Image and information from:

--- Biosynthesis of Carbon Compounds ---

Calvin Cycle: An historical note...(abbreviated)

When radioactive isotopes first became available to the scientific community after World War II, they provided biologists with a powerful new tool for analyzing the pathway by which CO2 is converted to carbohydrate during photosynthesis. This opportunity was quickly seized by Melvin Calvin and his collaborators, who exposed green algae to radioactive carbon dioxide (14CO2) and then analyzed the radioactive products by paper chromatography. Such experiments revealed that a large number of radioactive products appear in cells that have been exposed to (14CO2) for a few minutes or more. When the length of exposure to (14CO2) is reduced to a few seconds, the vast majority of the radioactivity appears in a single compound called 3-phosphoglycerate (3-PGA).

Because chemical analyses revealed that only one of the 3 carbon atoms in 3-PGA is radioactive, Calvin first guessed that the dark reactions of photosynthesis link CO2 to a two-carbon acceptor molecule to form the three-carbon compound, 3-PGA. After several years of searching in vain for such a two-carbon precursor, a new observation revealed the error in this approach; it was discovered that longer exposures to (14CO2) cause all of the carbon atoms in 3-PGA to become radioactive instead of just one. The most straight-forward explanation of this unexpected finding was that (14CO2) is initially joined to an acceptor molecule whose carbon skeleton is itself gradually acquiring radioactive carbon atoms. Since all radioactivity initially appears in 3-PGA, the 3-PGA molecule must be giving rise to a radioactive product that in turn combines with (14CO2) to produce more 3-PGA. In other words, the pathway for CO2 fixation is circular. This realization eventually allowed Calvin to work out the details of the circular reaction pathway, now called the CALVIN CYCLE, by which photosynthetic cells fix and reduce CO2.

Information compiled from Principles of Cell and Molecular Biology, second edition, pages 386-387, Lewis J. Kleinsmith & Valerie M. Kish, ©1995.

...and for those of you are familiar with the 3 basic geometric forms of linear, circular, and triangular, it is necessary to consider the possibility that a triangular configuration ("cycle") will be found in a higher organism, which does not necessarily mean we humans.

3 types of "pill" pain relievers:

  1. Acetaminophen (example Tylenol, often called "non-aspirin pain reliever" in store brands).
  2. Anti-inflammatories (ibuprofen, aspirin, naproxen, etc.)
  3. Narcotics.

--- Pain Relievers ---

3 major types of chronic wounds:

  1. Venous stasis ulcers- A venous ulcer is an ulceration that develops on the ankle or lower leg in patients with chronic vascular disease. In these patients, blood flow in the lower extremities is impaired, leading to edema (swelling) and mild redness and scaling of the skin that gradually progress to ulceration.
  2. Diabetic ulcers- A diabetic ulcer is a chronic wound of the foot that occurs in patients with diabetes. While the actual cause of the ulcer in these patients is an injury such as a callus, blister or foreign body such as a pebble or splinter, it is the patient’s underlying disease that places him or her at high risk for developing an ulcer.
  3. Pressure ulcers- A pressure ulcer is defined as any lesion caused by unrelieved pressure on tissues that are located over a bony prominence on the body. They were formerly referred to as bedsores or decubitus ulcers. They develop in immobile patients whose tissues are subjected to continuous pressure from bones on the interior and hard surfaces such as beds or chairs on the exterior.

--- Wounds ---

3 frequently-used group divisions for Islet cell cancer tumors:

  1. Islet cell cancers occurring in one site within the pancreas.
  2. Islet cell cancers occurring in several sites within the pancreas.
  3. Islet cell cancers that have spread to lymph nodes near the pancreas or to distant sites.

3 types of islet cell tumors:

  1. Gastrinoma- The tumor makes large amounts of a hormone called gastrin, which causes too much acid to be made in the stomach. Ulcers may develop as a result of too much stomach acid.
  2. Insulinoma- The tumor makes too much of the hormone insulin and causes the body to store sugar instead of burning the sugar for energy. This causes too little sugar in the blood, a condition called hypoglycemia.
  3. Miscellaneous- Other types of islet cell cancer can affect the pancreas and/or small intestine. Each type of tumor may affect different hormones in the body and cause different symptoms.

--- Islet Cell Carcinoma ---

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Herb O. Buckland