Threesology Research Journal
Biological/Physiological 3s
page 4

(The Study of Threes)

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Pages in the Biological & Physiological 3s Series:
B/P 3s pg. 1 B/P 3s pg. 2 B/P 3s pg. 3
B/P 3s pg. 4 B/P 3s pg. 5 B/P 3s pg. 6
B/P 3s pg. 7 B/P 3s pg. 8 B/P 3s pg. 9
B/P 3s pg. 10 B/P 3s pg. 11 The Devil's Advocate and 3s Research

3 main causes of malabsorption in the elderly:

  1. Coeliac disease
  2. Bacterial over-growth syndrome
  3. Pancreatic insufficiency.

3 stages of Swallowing:

  1. Oral phase- begins with placement of food in the mouth. The tongue presses the bolus up against the hard palate and drives the food into the pharynx.

  2. (Oro)pharyngeal, or transfer, phase- involves a brain-stem reflex that is usually not voluntarily modifiable. The respiratory tract closes, the upper pharyngeal sphincter relaxes and the pharyngeal constrictors propel food into the proximal oesophagus.

  3. Oesophageal phase- a powerful peristaltic wave propels the bolus (clump of food) towards the stomach. The lower oesophageal sphincter, which normally prevents regurgitation of gastric contents, relaxes in advance of the peristaltic wave and remains relaxed for a few seconds after its passing.

3 conditions that Dysphagia may occur with:

  1. Neurological problems
  2. Abnormalities of the oesophageal muscle e.g. scleroderma
  3. Obstruction

3 Types & causes of dysphagia according to the 3 phases of swallowing:

Type of dysphagia Mechanism Cause
Oral-phase dysphagia Patient forgets to swallow or introduces inappropriately large boluses of food too rapidly into the mouth. Dementia, exacerbated by medications that sedate or confuse.
Oropharyngeal (transfer) dysphagia Failure of appropriate muscle contraction to seal the nasopharynx or trachea Stroke, either in the brain stem or a bilateral hemisphere stroke.
(Less common causes include parkinsonism, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis)
*Oesophageal dysphagia Unlike the other two types, patients often do not have advanced neurological problems Motility disorder
Mass lesion
Inflammatory stricture

*Oesophageal dysphagia has very different technical and ethical issues to the other two types and is not at all specific to geriatrics.

3 general components of Gallstones accretions:

  1. Bile pigments- the stones are small and radiolucent.
  2. Cholesterol- large, often solitary, radiolucent, stones.
  3. Calcium salts, pigment and cholesterol (mixed stones)- 10% are radio-opaque.

  • 3 possible fluids in Gastroesophageal reflux: Gastric acid ~ Pepsin ~ and sometimes Bile.
  • 3 conditions that contribute to Hiatus hernia: Aging ~ Obesity ~ Surgery.
  • 3 types of Hiatus hernia: Diaphragmatic ~ Sliding ~ Rolling (para-oesophageal)

Information adapted from:

--- Gastrointestinal diseases and disorders in older people ---

Molecular Tooth Development 1


Growth factors in the BMP- and FGF-families are expressed in dental epithelium during initiation of tooth development and their effects on the underlying mesenchyme mimic those of the epithelium. They up-regulate the expression of many genes, including the homeobox-containing Msx-1 and Msx-2, and stimulate cell proliferation suggesting that they may act as epithelial signals transmitting epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. During subsequent morphogenesis, when the characteristic shapes of individual teeth develop as a result from folding of the dental epithelium, several signal molecules including Sonic hedgehog, Bmps-2, 4, 7 and Fgf-4 are expressed specifically in restricted and transient epithelial cell clusters, called enamel knots.

(Irma Thesleff and Carin Sahlberg Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology, v 7, n 2, April, 1996, p185-193).
Molecular Tooth Development 2

Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions-

govern the development of epidermal organs such as teeth. During the early stages of tooth development, a local ectodermal thickening which expresses several signaling molecules appears. It is believed that these in turn signal to the underlying mesenchyme triggering mesenchymal condensation and tooth development. For example, epithelially expressed Bmp4 induces Msx1 and Lef1 as well as itself in the underlying mesenchyme. In this paper we have investigated the role of four epithelial signaling molecules, Bmp2, Shh, Wnt10a, and Wnt10b, in the early inductive cascades that govern tooth development. We show that all four genes are specifically expressed in the epithelium between E11.0 and E12.0 when tooth morphogenesis is first apparent. Although Shh, Bmp2, and Wnt10b have similar, if not identical, expression patterns, each signal has a distinct molecular action on the jaw mesenchyme. Whereas Shh and Wnt10b can induce general Hedgehog and Wnt targets, Ptc and Gli for Shh and Lef1 for Wnt10b, only Bmp2 is able to induce tooth-specific expression of Msx1. Thus, there are distinct targets for all three pathways. Interestingly, both Bmp and Wnt signaling activate Lef1, making it a candidate for integrating the two distinct signaling pathways.

(Hélèene R. Dassule and Andrew P. McMahon Developmental Biology, v 202, n 2, October 15, 1998, p215-227).
Molecular Tooth Development 3


The expression pattern of Delta1 in ameloblasts and odontoblasts is complementary to Notch1, Notch2, and Notch3 expression in adjacent epithelial and mesenchymal cells. Notch1 and Notch2 are up-regulated in explants of dental mesenchyme adjacent to implanted cells expressing Delta1, suggesting that feedback regulation by Delta-Notch signaling ensures the spatial segregation of Notch receptors and ligands. TGF1 and BMPs induce Delta1 expression in dental mesenchyme explants at the stage at which Delta1 is up-regulated in vivo, but not at earlier stages. In contrast to the Notch family receptors and their ligand Jagged1, expression of Delta1 in the tooth germ is not affected by epithelial-mesenchymal interactions, showing that the Notch receptors and their two ligands Jagged1 and Delta1 are subject to different regulations.

(Mitsiadis etal Developmental Biology, v 204, n 2, December 15, 1998, p420-431).

Information adapted from:

--- UNSW Embryo- Skin, Hair & Nails Development ---

3 types of Vaginitis (a sexual disease in women that can be transmitted to men): Gardnerella ~ Monilia ~ Trichomoniasis.

3 types of Gaucher Disease- (are distinguished by):

  1. Their clinical severity and course, and-
  2. By the presence of neurological complications, or-
  3. By the absence of neurological complications.

  1. Type I- is the most common form and does not have mental or neurological involvement. This disease primarily affects Jewish individuals of central and eastern European ancestry (Ashkenazi Jews), although it is also seen in people of other ethnic groups.

  2. Type II- has its onset in infancy and is a fatal neuro-degenerative disorder with death occurring in the first or second year of life. It is an extremely rare type and does not occur with a higher frequency in any particular ethnic or demographic group.

  3. Type III- begins in early childhood, has mild to severe neurological involvement, and is very rare, except in Sweden, where most patients have been found.

Each of these three types of Gaucher Disease is genetically distinct and "breeds true" in affected families - that is, no two types of Gaucher Disease occur in the same family.

Information adapted from:

--- NTSAD Diseases/Family Gaucher Disease ---

Three-step Blood Clotting Process in 3 examples
Normal In Haemophilia In von Willebrand
Bleeding starts Bleeding starts Bleeding starts
•Step 1 Blood vessels constrict Blood vessels constrict Blood vessels constrict
•Step 2 Platelet plug forms Platelet plug forms Incomplete platelet plug; bleeding continues
•Step 3 Fibrin clot forms; bleeding stops Incomplete fribrin clot; bleeding continues Incomplete or delayed fibrin clot; bleeding continues

The factor that is missing or deficient in haemophilia (factor VIII in haemophilia A; factor IX in haemophilia B) is essential to the formation of a fibrin clot, the tough threads that hold the platelet plug in place. The factor that is missing, deficient or abnormal in von Willebrand disease, von Willebrand factor, is essential to the formation of the platelet plug itself.

3 to 1 classification ratio of most Types of von Willebrand Disease:

  1. 1 of 3 Type I:- Most common and mildest form of von Willebrand disease. Levels of von Willebrand factor are lower than normal. Levels of factor VIII may also be reduced.

  2. 2 of 3 Type II- In these people, the von Willebrand factor itself has an abnormality. Depending on the abnormality, they may be classified as having Type IIA or Type IIB. In Type IIA, the level of von Willebrand factor is reduced as is the ability of platelets to clump together. In Type IIB, although the factor itself is defective, the ability of platelets to clump together is actually increased.

  3. 3 of 3 Type III- Severe von Willebrand disease. These people may have a total absence of von Willebrand factor and factor VIII levels are often less than 10%.

  4. 1 of 1 Pseudo (or platelet-type) von Willebrand disease- This disorder resembles Type IIB von Willebrand disease, but the defects appears to be in the platelets, rather than the von Willebrand factor.

Information adapted from: --- The Other Bleeding Disorder ---

3 basic categories of headache pain were proposed in 1962 by the Ad Hoc Committee on Classification of Headache of the National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Blindness:

  1. Vascular headaches.
  2. Traction-inflammatory headaches.
  3. Muscle contraction headaches.

3 basic categories of headache were revised in 1987 by the International Headache Society to develop more specific criteria to provide greater uniformity and reproducibility in the diagnosis of headache pain. Their classification lists "13" (A 1 and 3) types even though for most doctors and patients, it is still useful to divide all headache pain into the three original categories.

3 to 1 ratio Symptoms of the Classic Migraine (migraine with aura):

  1. 1 of 3. Initially, a unilateral dull ache
  2. 2 of 3. Intensifying pain in a crescendo fashion (Photophobia light)---(light sensitivity) Paleness or redness of the skin on the face
  3. 3 of 3. The pain is generally becomes pulsating
  4. 1 of 1. The presence of an aura (seeing "stars," photophobia, tunnel vision) before the headache starts.

3 Symptoms of the Common Migraine (migraine without aura):

  1. Similar symptoms to the classic migraine.
  2. Lack of a prominent aura.
  3. Occasionally, the headache is bilateral.

Information adapted from:

--- TMJ Headaches ---

3 descriptive attributes of hearing loss:

  1. Type of hearing loss
  2. Degree of hearing loss
  3. The Configuration of the hearing loss.

3 basic types of hearing loss:

  1. Conductive hearing loss- occurs when sound is not conducted efficiently through the outer and middle ears, including the ear canal, eardrum, and the tiny bones, or ossicles, of the middle ear.

  2. Sensorineural hearing loss- occurs when there is damage to the inner ear (cochlea) or to the nerve pathways from the inner ear (retrocochlear pathway of the acoustic nerve) to the brain.

  3. Central auditory processing disorder (CAPD)- occurs when auditory centers of the brain are affected by injury, disease, tumor, heredity or unknown causes. CAPD does not necessarily (although it may) involve hearing loss. Central auditory processing involves sound localization and lateralization, auditory discrimination, auditory pattern recognition, the temporal aspects of sounds, and the ability to deal with degraded and competing acoustic signals. Therefore, a deficiency in one or more of the above listed behaviors may constitute a central auditory processing disorder. CAPD is often associated with Attention Deficit disorder (ADD) or Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

Information adapted from:

--- Types of Hearing Loss ---

3 (experimental) injection medications available for use as a means to cause penile erection:

  1. Papaverine hydrochloride
  2. Phentolamine (Regitine)
  3. Prostaglandin E1 (Prostin)

3 types of penile prostheses:

  1. The semirigid implant- Semirigid implants are paired silicone-covered malleable or bendable metal rods.& The semirigid prosthesis allows the penis to be rigid enough or penetration, but the malleable rods allow it to be flexible enough to allow concealment in a curved position. It is the simplest of all prostheses and has the least chance of mechanical failure. It is also the simplest to place.

  2. The inflatable implant- are the most natural of the implants. These are soft paired inner tubes made of silastic or bigflex, which are inert plastics. The inner tubes are literally filled with a solution that comes from a small reservoir placed under the muscles of the abdomen. A pump is used to transfer the fluid from the reservoir to the penile cylinders or inner tubes. The more fluid that is pumped into the inner tubes, the firmer and larger the erection. When the erection is no longer desired, the fluid returns to the reservoir leaving the penis soft and pliable.

  3. The self-contained inflatable implant- are paired silicone cylinders which have a pump at the very tip of the prosthesis, along with a reservoir within the shaft that transfers fluid in such a way that the rod becomes firm.

Information adapted from:

--- Urological Associates- Health ---

3 numerical values associated with quantity of types of female orgasm:

  1. 3 types of orgasm...
  2. 4 types of orgasm...
  3. 7 types of orgasm...

Note: some women may claim that they are particularly sensitive enough to identify a large number of orgasm types. Such claims are not typical and may indicate that the person is highly imaginative and seeking some personal distinction of uniqueness in order to achieve some level of superiority over others. Their ability of uniqueness is not necessarily in the context of honestly experiencing the actual occurrence of a large number of orgasms, but in their ability to fashion different labels that describe a changing state of mind, physiology, and consciousness under varying conditions in which sexual orgasm is thought to have taken place. If a change in mind, physiology and consciousness under varying conditions is to be the criteria by which we describe a difference in orgasm, then there are millions of kinds of orgasms since there are millions upon millions upon millions of people... and we might want to include the sexual "experiences" of all life forms.

3 types of female orgasm generally identified:

  1. Clitoral Orgasms- The most common, they result from directly stimulating the clitoris and surrounding tissue. What many people don’t realize is that the majority of the clitoris is actually hidden inside the woman’s body. Recently, Australian urologist Helen O’Connell, M.M.E.D., studied cadavers and 3-D photography and found that the clitoris is attached to an inner mound of erectile tissue the size of your first thumb joint. That tissue has two legs or crura that extend another 11 centimeters. In addition, two clitoral bulbs—also composed of erectile tissue—run down the area just outside the vagina.

  2. Pelvic Floor or Vaginal Orgasms- These occur through stimulating the G-spot, or putting pressure on the cervix (the opening into the uterus) and/or the anterior vaginal wall. Located halfway between the pubic bone and the cervix, the sensitive G-spot—named after its discoverer, German physician Ernest Grafenberg— is a mass of spongy tissue that swells when stimulated. (note: Some women refer to the "G"-spot as the Goddess spot.)

  3. The Blended Orgasm- This can be attained through a combination of the first two.

--- Psychology Today, Online ---

3 types of female orgasm: Clitoris ~ G-spot ~ Epicenter.

--- 3 types of Orgasm ---

3-part general organization of the reproductive systems of both sexes:

  1. The gonads produce gametes (eggs or sperm) which unite during fertilization. They also produce steroid hormones essential for reproduction as well the growth and development of the entire body.

  2. The genitalia are the external reproductive structures (penis in males, clitoris and vulva in females). They allow for passage of the sperm from the male into the female.

  3. Ducts and accessory glands are the structures connecting the gonads to the genitalia. They are the site of final preparation of the gametes for fertilization, and in females also create the environment where fertilization occurs and the resulting embryo develops until birth.

--- The Reproductive System ---

3 major categories of sexual disorders

  1. Sexual dysfunctions- These prevent or reduce an individual's enjoyment of normal sex and prevent or reduce the normal physiological changes brought on normally by sexual arousal. (3 types of sexual arousal phases: Desire- Arousal- Orgasm.)

  2. Paraphilia- These are sexual behaviors in which unusual objects or scenarios are necessary to achieve sexual excitement. Eight paraphilias are recognized which are grouped into 3 broad categories...

    1. Preferences for Nonhuman Objects- There are two types of preferences for nonhuman objects:

      1. Fetishism- A fetish exists when a person is sexually aroused by a nonliving object. It can manifest in two ways, one more extreme than the other. One form associates coitus with some object (most frequently women's panties or other undergarments). The more extreme form of fetishism is when a nonliving object completely substitutes for a human partner, such as underwear, boots, and shoes or such textured objects as velvet or silk.

      2. Transvestism- This paraphilia exists when the person achieves sexual excitement by cross-dressing. This is very rarely found in females.

    2. Preferences for Situations Causing Suffering

      1. Sadism and Masochism- The term sadist is derived from the reported violent sexual exploits of the Marquis de Sade. "Sadist" is applied to those who derive sexual excitement from the pain of others. The term masochist was derived from the writing of Leopold von Sacher-Masoch whose characters sought out women who would beat them. "Masochist" is applied to those who derive sexual excitement through their own pain. Hence, sadists and masochists go hand in hand, one depending on the need of the other. The danger of these needs is that each may need successively more brutal treatment to satisfy their sexual needs.

    3 types of Preference for Nonconsenting Partners- (all are considered crimes in the U.S. and are almost entirely male crimes:

    1. Exhibitionism- is the exposure of one's genitals in a public place. It is the most prominent sexual offense leading to arrest and makes up one third of all sexual crimes. From the psychological point of view, there are three characteristic features of the exhibition. First, it is always performed for unknown women; second it always takes place where sexual intercourse is impossible, for example in a crowded shopping mall; and third it must be shocking for the unknown woman or it seems to lose its power to produce sexual arousal in the individual. Exhibitionists are not assaultive and are considered more of a nuisance than an actual danger.

    2. Voyeurism- Looking at sexually arousing pictures or situation is a relatively common, apparently normal activity. (Is it a "normal" activity due to widespread experiences and response to abnormal circumstances of stress, disease, or mental illness that is/are affecting lots of people?) The difference between that and voyeurism is that in normal watching, the viewing is a prelude to normal sexual activity. In the voyeur or "Peeping Tom" the experience replaces normal sexual activity. Nevertheless, voyeurism may exist in a person who also engages in normal heterosexual activity.

    3. Pedophilia- This is the act of deriving sexual excitement through the physical contact of children. This paraphilia is radically different from exhibitionism and voyeurism in its severely damaging impact on the nonconsenting partner, a child. Ordinarily, the pedophiliac is someone who has ready access to the child. The child or parent would have no reason to suspect that the individual has a pedophilic orientation.

  3. Gender identity disorders- A gender identity disorder exists when a person, male or female, experiences confusion, vagueness or conflict in their feelings about their own sexual identity. There is a struggle between the individual's anatomical sex gender and subjective feelings about choosing a masculine or feminine style of life.

--- Types of sexual Disorders ---

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Herb O. Buckland