Threesology Research Journal: The Standard Cognitive Model page 29
The Standard Cognitive Model
page 29



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Language Narrative Series
Preface 1   Preface 3
           
           
           
Standard Cognitive Model series:
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Old numbering system(Hence, oldest writings)
1b 1c 1d 1e


Let me relay to you three different poems by two different authors concerning the values of "twos" and "threes". I recall having recorded them some years ago and placed the Twos poem reference here and the 1st Threes poem reference here, with the 2nd Threes poem reference here.


Twos

Why are lots of things in twos?
Hands on clocks, and gloves and shoes,
Scissor-blades, and water-taps,
Collar studs, and luggage straps,
Walnut shells, and pigeons? eggs,
Arms and eyes and ears and legs--
Will you kindly tell me who?s
So fond of making things in twos?

John Drinkwater - 1882-1937

It is of interest to note that during the year attributed to the origination of this poem, it must have been typical for clock makers to use two hands and not three hands. Historically then, if we include the sundial, we have a time piece with one hand that is followed in time with the development of two-handed time pieces, followed by the three-handed (seconds- minutes- hours) formula. Hence, it is a 1- 2- 3 developmental sequence which can be correlated to other 3-patterned developmental sequences in different subjects such as the 1- 2- 3 Germ layers.

We also see a "2 to 3" cognitive effort in such ideas as the Yin/Yang (Dyads)... I Ching (Triads)
Binary computer... (And, Or, Not) Boolean logic
Binary computer... (Ternary/Trinary computer)
Binary based Mathematics... Trinary based Mathematics
Threes
(To Be Sung by Niels Bohr)


I think that I shall never c
A # lovelier than 3;
For 3 < 6 or 4,
and than 1 it's slightly more.

All things in nature come in 3s,
like \ trios, Q.E.D.s;
While $s gain more dignity
If augmented 3 X 3—

A 3 whose slender curves are pressed
By banks, for compound interest;
Oh would that, paying loans or rent,
My rates were only 3%!

32 expands with rapture free
And reaches toward ¥
3 complements each x and y
And intimately lives with p.

A O's # of °
Are best ÷ up by 3s,
But wrapped in dim obscurity
Is the (square root of) -3.

Atoms are split by men like me,
But only God is 1 in 3.

John Atherton - 1916-2001
Three is a magic number

Yes it is, it's a magic number.
Somewhere in the ancient, mystic trinity
You get three as a magic number.

The past and the present and the future.
Faith and Hope and Charity,
The heart and the brain and the body,
Give you three as a magic number.

It takes three legs to make a tripod
Or to make a table stand.
It takes three wheels to make a vehicle
Called a tricycle.

Every triangle has three corners,
Every triangle has three sides,
No more, no less.
You don't have to guess.
When it's three, you can see
It's a magic number.

A man and a woman had a little baby,
Yes, they did.
They had three in the family,
And that's a magic number....

(Bob Dorough's cartoon series
"Schoolhouse Rock")

Note: I couldn't find a direct link between the linked John Atherton and the poem. I am assuming that the Wikipedia's Atherton is the author of the poem. And yes, I am cognizant that both poems are written by individuals whose first name is "John", and that the "threes" poem was written by someone living later in the century. It is a reference to the idea that the "threes" mentality became more abundant later on and if we precede backward into European history, patterns-of-two are more prevalent though excursions into contemplations of ideas with a "three" theme began to crop up in imaginative contexts such as myths, legends, fairy tales... and then into everyday life, such as the adoption of using three names for a person used by some Romans and can be viewed in the context of Roman Naming conventions, where two names were apparently standard but the usage of three names had come into vogue, thus emphasizing a from two to three trend in cognitive activity... at least in this respect, while many other cognitive excursions into a "threes" conceptualization remained in areas of conversation which allowed for unconventionalities of thought such as myths, legends, fairy tales, religion, witchcraft, sorcery, ... and of course later on in European history with the repetition of "threes" used in the adopted club philosophy of Free-Masons (Freemasonry: An Introduction). (However, here is one person's interpretation of several number uses in Freemasonry: Masonic Numbers.)


The Roman grammarians came to regard the combination of praenomen, nomen, and cognomen as a defining characteristic of Roman citizenship, known as the tria nomina. However, although all three elements of the Roman name existed throughout most of Roman history, the concept of the tria nomina can be misleading, because not all of these names were required or used throughout the whole of Roman history. During the period of the Roman Republic, the praenomen and nomen represented the essential elements of the name; the cognomen first appeared among the Roman aristocracy at the inception of the Republic, but was not widely used among the plebeians, who made up the majority of the Roman people, until the second century BC. Even then, not all Roman citizens bore cognomina, and until the end of the Republic the cognomen was regarded as somewhat less than an official name. By contrast, in imperial times the cognomen became the principal distinguishing element of the Roman name, and although praenomina never completely vanished, the essential elements of the Roman name from the second century onward were the nomen and cognomen.

My take on the 2- to- 3's change in human cognition over time does not imply that a "3" is actually always reached in a complete form, manner or state. Nor does it imply that all humans automatically prefer the usage of a "threes" orientation from birth just because they are being born in the present day. Lot's of people prefer a two-patterned perspective and lots of people have some personal affinity for staking a preferential grasp on the number 7 whose repetitions in their life suggest something special, unique or even having some other-worldly significance. While there does appear to be a change in human cognition taking place over time, the idea I am working on has to do with the identification of basic enumerations seen in thoughts as expressed in behavior and ideas. I then correlate the uses of such enumerated patterns with those patterns recurring in natural events such as physics, biology and anatomy, to note any similarities, differences and absences or substitutions, some of which involve geometric configurations such as the line (linear), circle (circular) and triangle (triangular), since we can find several different structures with one or more of these configurations. However, though such an idea is at present both speculative and subjective, chronicling such impressions for later examination by oneself and others will be helpful in mapping out changes which occur over time.

For example, it is rather a curious thing to note that out of all the poets both living an dead, only the foregoing two examples display an orientation towards specific numbers with examples being provided. While others may include a quantity for a given subject reference, the poem is not about the observation of seeing different instances of the same value occurring. While I may speak of once popular song Knock Three Times on the Ceiling... by Tony Orlando and Dawn, which references both the numbers 2 and 3, it is a far cry from representing the numbers as a list of different items exhibiting these quantitative counts. No less, if I mention that someone told me about a common saying involving playground sports (that I was not aware of at the time) expressed as "1st is worst, 2nd's the same, 3rd is best in any (every) game", this too... though a pattern-of-three, does not provide a list of examples of a given number as the foregoing poems do.

If we say that RNA came first and it has a single strand and DNA with two strands came second in the history of biology, the idea of a numerical sequence might well come to mind. Likewise, when we come to identify complex life forms with three germ layers and less complex life forms with 2 germ layers, the idea of a numerical sequence comes to the fore of consideration. Just because there is no clearly identifiable single germ layer life form (though some claim this honor belongs to sponges), does not invalidate the usage of a 1- 2- 3 developmental scenario being used by Nature. The presence of the Fibonacci sequence with a more-than-three compilation or what appears to be a non- 1,2,3 sequencing, does not invalidate the idea that Nature engages in such an activity, since it is a math formula which uses a repetition of the "2" value:


Fibonacci Sequence

The Fibonacci Sequence is the series of numbers:

0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, ...

The next number is found by adding up the two numbers before it:

  • the 2 is found by adding the two numbers before it (1+1),
  • the 3 is found by adding the two numbers before it (1+2),
  • the 5 is (2+3),
  • and so on!

Example: the next number in the sequence above is 21+34 = 55

It is that simple!

Here is a longer list:

0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, 144, 233, 377, 610, 987, 1597, 2584, 4181, 6765, 10946, 17711, 28657, 46368, 75025, 121393, 196418, 317811, ...

Finding a Mathematician using a pattern-of-two idea as a tool applied to numbers is of no surprise once one understands that patterns-of-two appears to be the dominant recurrence in mathematics and must be taken into account when one is thinking about it for an application in Biology with its already present two-patterned Binomial Nomenclature requirement. I make reference to Mathematics in one of the biology sections: Biological/Physiological 3s pg 1. We can not overlook the fact that the underlying recurrence of dichotomies used in Mathematics (born in the West)... see: History of Mathematics, is extremely similar on a basic, cognitive level of functionality to the underlying recurrence of dichotomies used in the Yin/Yang ideology (born in the East). This is why so-called Modern Mathematics is problematic. And while its partitioners are well adept at using it to solve multiple issues, it is highly suspect as a primivity of thought, similar to the once adeptness of those who were skilled with using an abacus applied to multiple issues involving computations of former ages. The following image provides a side-by-side comparison of dualities which are not meant to convey the idea of parity between the sets, but as an overall structural formula. You can not find clear "sameness" by the words being used. This requires further dissection to underlying orientations such that a yin and yang "up/down" example can be seen in the mathematic's example of super-position and sub-position. Words and/or symbols used in one era in one context can vary when the perception of a similar item is viewed and illustrated without a picture.


Compairing yin and yang ideology to Mathematics

Whereas the two-patterned Yin/Yang ideology attempted to journey into a more complex three-patterned perspective, a close look at the I-Ching with its embellished Byads masquerading as Triads, reveals a similar cognitive gesture akin to the more primitive 1- 2- many counting theme. However, in looking at a presumption about the prehistory of mathematics, the following account also speaks of a use of the "two" value. Note though we can see a three-patterned counting scheme of "1- 2- many", there is no explicit quantity assigned to the word "many". It is like the present day usage of "infinity".

Do the scratches suggest Mathematics or Art?

The origins of mathematical thought lie in the concepts of number, patterns in nature, magnitude, and form. Modern studies of animal cognition have shown that these concepts are not unique to humans. Such concepts would have been part of everyday life in hunter-gatherer societies. The idea of the "number" concept evolving gradually over time is supported by the existence of languages which preserve the distinction between "one", "two", and "many", but not of numbers larger than two.

The Ishango bone, found near the headwaters of the Nile river (northeastern Congo), may be more than 20,000 years old and consists of a series of marks carved in three columns running the length of the bone. Common interpretations are that the Ishango bone shows either a tally of the earliest known demonstration of sequences of prime numbers[12] or a six-month lunar calendar. Peter Rudman argues that the development of the concept of prime numbers could only have come about after the concept of division, which he dates to after 10,000 BC, with prime numbers probably not being understood until about 500 BC. He also writes that "no attempt has been made to explain why a tally of something should exhibit multiples of two, prime numbers between 10 and 20, and some numbers that are almost multiples of 10." The Ishango bone, according to scholar Alexander Marshack, may have influenced the later development of mathematics in Egypt as, like some entries on the Ishango bone, Egyptian arithmetic also made use of multiplication by 2; this however, is disputed.

Predynastic Egyptians of the 5th millennium BC pictorially represented geometric designs. It has been claimed that megalithic monuments in England and Scotland, dating from the 3rd millennium BC, incorporate geometric ideas such as circles, ellipses, and Pythagorean triples in their design. All of the above are disputed however, and the currently oldest undisputed mathematical documents are from Babylonian and dynastic Egyptian sources.

For example, a person living 3,000 years ago might well used some non-pictorial reference to a comet that differs appreciably from the perception in the present day. If you don't have a word for a perception or multiple perceptions and no one in your social circle does either, and may not be able to even perceive what you do anyway, how are they to describe it if they are not an artist and must resort to making some word and/or symbol up... that when it is done in the present day, may well be used to discredit someone by calling their behavior a mental illness (and thus incorrectly claim it to be something such as an indication of Schizophasia); though viewing such a behavior in a positive way will render the idea of someone engaging in a Neologism, particularly if the same or similar perception is seen by one or more others who also know of no word to describe their perception/impression. People who are quite perceptive may not have the experience, vocabulary nor education to place their perception into a context which does not give them the impression of being... let us say, "unconventional" in their thinking... and actions.


A description of how comets were perceived by ancient peoples

One problem with historical accounts is that they do not necessarily express the opinion held by everyone. Those who chronicle some perception may be providing their own interpretation though several different types may have existed. Just like today's media reports, they can be phony and not tell the whole story, much less make any effort to follow up on the first report with the same enthusiasm and support of colleagues. More modern views of a comet may well have existed by one or more in the past... but the chroniclers, just like news representatives of today, are inclined to report what the dominant social characters think is true, be they a king, high priest/priestess or person thought to be more informed "about such things" than anyone else. Just because some Media Representative or Historian, or story-teller presents us with a tale that we are led to believe is the dominant perspective, does not mean this is the truth. The truth as they see it... yes, but not necessarily providing us with all the facts. According to some accounts, Henry Ford is cited as having said "history is more or less bunk."

I have not come across a poem which expressly discusses any other number except for the two previous poems displaying what amounts to be a list of items which reference a specific quantity. While there are poems which speak of quantities such as the numerous stars in the heavens or poems used to teach children their numbers, I have not encountered any with a similar intent as the two being offered here. Such poems may well exist or be developed by someone who encounters my description of an absence for a given poem, but for the present discussion, I know not of any. It is rather a curious thing, as I may say it again, that out of all the past and present poets, no effort has been made to make a poem which acts as a list for chronicling examples of a given number. Whereas one may speak of a given number or quantity in a poem, they are not acting as an account listing of examples.

Though I collect and analyze different instances to the "threes" phenomena otherwise known as patterns/groups/sets (etc.) -of-three, I do not deny the presence of some other number but can sometimes find that the person or persons who share a particular view using a particular pattern or label that is not a three, can have their information re-interpreted to present a three-pattern. Sometimes is the case when I come across a non-three pattern is due to the lack of information being used to create a topic of conversation about a subject. Just because you have a room full of experts or lay-persons with decades of experience, this doesn't mean their conclusions are based on the totality of information needed for a clearer understanding. Some may deliberately exclude information so as to cover-up a bias, much like a criminal who lies or keeps silent about knowledge they may have. Hence, those like myself who seek out information and encounter enumerated patterns (or lack thereof) are detectives. While some use a given type(s) mathematics as a tool in their detection process of evaluation, most of us use some personalized model of philosophy that we might well want to support with various examples which support such a philosophy because it has worked most often... but not always, and one may want to deliberately stay clear of information or circumstances which call into question the model of philosophy one is using.

In the field of psychology and chemistry we find the use of experimentation meant to support a perspective, though the experimentation may not be directly transferable to human subjects. Nonetheless, one's idea can find credence under some circumstances which provides supportive hope for a person's philosophy which they may privately apply to the behavior of people in one or more contexts. The study of Psychology is a type of perception which relies heavily on some model of philosophy that someone may try to apply to multiple circumstances from their vantage point at a given time, place and gender/race/age/education perspective. Indeed, one may carve out or find a niche' in which their adopted philosophy helps them acquire and maintain some desired state of equilibrium in which any of their faults, mistakes, misgivings, guilt's, aspirations, etc., reach a controllable level of acceptance, clarity or even concealment and/or convenient denial. Since most people are apparently unstable, that is if we take a cue from physics and recognize that there are more unstable isotopes than stable ones which is an idea that may or may not be transferable to biological activity such as humans or other living beings (insects, plants, fish, bacteria, viruses... if the latter can be said to be "alive"). However, assuming most people are unstable, then the application of stressors will provide an indication of the underlying neurosis to which a given life form is disposed (different life forms in some case require similar stressors while in other they are prone to species and person-specific kinds).

In some cases a number value can exist as itself and be counted in a list of patterns which share the same value such as 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and so on. And yet, when we look at numbers exceeding the value of "9", we might interpret this to be a set of two single numbers and the hundreds collection a set of three numbers and so on; whereby we might interpret this to be a recurring repetition that is labeled a cognitive or mental recurrence. We might even say that the value "2" is a combination of two single values and larger values as collections of smaller values themselves. Hence, one might sat that a "9" value is three sets of three or 3 multiples of the value 3. Other numbers can receive the same treatment and be used to justify the presence of some desired outcome. Various mental exercises can be employed to satisfy one's eagerness to comply an assumption with an inclination. For example, if I am inclined to see the value "3", I might well engage in a form of mental gymnastics that allows for this value to take precedence in all outcomes, and deny or subvert or diminish the presence of some other value. While personal deceptions can vary, it is lying and cheating... or "stretching the truth". Governments, Businesses and Religions are quite adept at such practices even though individuals within one or more of these "clubs" strive for the utmost honesty. Yet it is too bad such honesty is often wasted on presenting the truth of information based on an underlying lie. Military strategists and different protection agencies (U.S. Marshals, FBI, CIA, NSA, DHS, etc...) use such a tool when necessary. Layers upon layers upon layers of overlapping nonsense is produced to cover-up a lie, a criminal activity, or ulterior motive involving greed, ego or misguided love (many a patriotic inclination is sometimes viewed as love for one's country or one's service, or one's mission, etc...).

US "Spook" Three-lettered agencies:

  • LEO - Law Enforcement Organization
  • CIA - Central Intelligence Agency
  • FBI - Federal Bureau of Investigation
  • NRO - National Reconnaissance Office
  • NSA - National Security Agency
  • DOD - Department of Defense [Formerly the Department of War]
  • DHS - Department of Homeland Security (US)
  • DEA - Drug Enforcement Agency
  • DOE - Department of Energy
  • CID - Counter Intelligence Defense

When thinking of such para-military groups as law enforcement agencies are, it is difficult not to think of present and past military activities and align some number count to them. In present day terms we can view these as expressions of cognitive activity, where the Binary perspective of the Wars can be applied to past wars such as the crusades. (In other words, applying a count to them.)


Binary and Trinary cogntive expressions

One problem of defining a "world war" is in describing what is meant by "world". For example, in the past we had countries whose populations had a very narrow... let us generously describe it as a commonplace... perception of what the "world" entailed for those unaware of lands and peoples outside the small communities in which they lived. In such instances, if two or more groups lived in a relatively close proximity to one another and had no knowledge of peoples outside their known territory who engaged in wars; could this not be considered a "world war"? An analogy of this can be seen when a person attached to a martial arts club in the only city they are familiar with has contests against one or more other martial arts clubs and beats them... whereby they define themselves (their club, called a Dojo), "champions of the world". Their perspective of "the world" is small, but not inaccurate in terms of a personal orientation. In addition, if another species from another planet came and read our human descriptions of "world wars", they might be equally amused since such a world did not include theirs, and despite those arguments which might arise to define such a label by referring to the events as "World Wars on Earth", even if not every single nation participated... and only those countries thought to be most important by those chronicling the events. Another example is when we use the term "world" to describe boxing, baseball and other sporting events involving championships. However, instead of "world champions" American football describes a "super bowl" event.


Several Crusades took place between the 11th and 13th centuries, but the precise number is still debated among historians. "Historians are generally pretty consistent in numbering five of the largest crusading campaigns to the Eastern Mediterranean, using terms such as 'First Crusade', 'Second Crusade,' etc," Nicholas Morton (senior lecturer at Nottingham Trent University, and author of "The Teutonic Knights in the Holy Land, 1190-1291) wrote.

"The problem is that this numbering system is not comprehensive and nor was it used by contemporaries. During the First Crusade, which lasted from 1095 to 1099, European Christian armies defeated Jerusalem and established the Crusader States. After the Fifth Crusade, some modern historians identify some crusades in the later 13th century by using labels such as the Sixth, Seventh and Eighth crusades. However, there is less consistency here."

Morton claims it is difficult to define exactly what a crusade was. "Neither the papacy nor anyone else referred to the earliest Crusades as such. At the time, writers sometimes described crusaders as 'crucesignati' — meaning 'persons marked by the sign of the cross' — but at other times, they described them using other terms such as 'pilgrim'. Crusading also evolved over time, taking on many different forms and operating in many different geographical areas — which all complicates making any easy definition," he wrote.

There are several key features that help historians to define crusading campaigns. "In order to be considered an actual 'Crusade', the campaign had to be endorsed by the pope. In addition, a true Crusader took a crusading vow and then sewed a cross onto their clothing to symbolize their commitment. They also wore symbols traditionally associated with pilgrimages — such as a pilgrim's ‘scrip’ (pouch) and staff. Over time, crusaders acquired a specific legal status, which gave them privileges designed to protect them and their families during their absences; such a status also came with penalties should they fail to complete their vow."

Although the more famous campaigns occurred in the Near East, some Crusades took place in Europe as well. These Crusades were launched by ambitious soldiers. After the first of these religious wars, other commanders tried to get the pope to also endorse their military endeavors, according to Morton. "Within a few decades, crusading campaigns took place against the Byzantine Empire, in Iberia (Spain and Portugal) and also in the Baltic region."

Although they were primarily military campaigns, medieval Crusades were grounded in Christian religious ambitions. They were often spiritual undertakings that could be classified as "Popular" movements, Morton wrote. "Popular" Crusades occurred sporadically across much of the history of the crusading movement," he said. What Were The Crusades

Crusade (Religion-influenced Fanaticism embroiled with Mass Hysteria?) counts:

  1. First three were most important: (According to Nicholas Morton)
  2. At least 8 Crusades:
    1. The First Crusade lasted from 1096 to 1099. (3 years)
    2. The Second Crusade began in 1147 and ended in 1149. (2 years)
    3. The Third Crusade started in 1189 and was concluded in 1192. (3 years)
    4. The Fourth Crusade got underway in 1202 and ended in 1204. (2 years)
    5. The Fifth Crusade lasted from 1217 until 1221. (4 years)
    6. The Sixth Crusade occurred in 1228–29. (1 year)
    7. The Seventh Crusade began in 1248 and ended in 1254. (6 years)
    8. The Eighth Crusade took place in 1270.

There were also smaller Crusades against dissident Christian sects within Europe, including the three:

  1. The Albigensian Crusade (1209–29). (20 years)
  2. The so-called People’s Crusade occurred in response to Pope Urban II’s call for the First Crusade. (6 months)
  3. The Children’s Crusade took place in 1212. (5 months)
  1. 9 Major Crusades:
    1. First Crusade (1096 CE to 1099 CE)
    2. Second Crusade (1147 until 1149 CE)
    3. Third Crusade (1189 until 1192 CE )
    4. Fourth Crusade (1202 until 1204 CE)
    5. Fifth Crusade (1217 until 1221 CE)
    6. Sixth Crusade (1228 to 1229 CE)
    7. Seventh Crusade (1248 until 1254 CE)
    8. Eighth Crusade (1270... said to be a continuation of 7th crusade)
    9. Ninth Crusade (1271 until 1272 CE... said to be a continuation of 8th crusade)



Date of (series) Origination: Saturday, 14th March 2020... 6:11 AM
Date of Initial Posting (this page): 1st March 2022... 6:04 AM
Updated Posting:Wednesday, 16th November 2022... 8:20 AM, MST; Albuquerque, NM.