Threesology Research Journal: The Scientification of Philosophy by way of a Threes Model
3s Poster Collection III
A Study of the Threes Phenomena
(Does it lead to a Scientification of Philosophy?)

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Note: prior to and after Hitler came to power, the "3rd Reich" was one of several "3s" which became sacrosanct. Another was the German Belt Buckle with the three-part phrase of "Gott Mitt Uns" (God With Us). Interestingly, one might even cite Hilter's "555" membership number in the German party, only because it was necessary to inflate the membership role to give the impression of increasing advocay. Those who study World War II, and use number values as a tool for making lists and comparisons, might well tell you that World War II involved numerous ("collectively oriented") patterns-of-three or other patterns which provide a tell-tale underlying indication of how the conflicts increased in the values of numbers and how they can be catalogued into columnar displays involving concentrations of repeating values. In short the "3" was prominent such as:

  • 3 axis powers (Germany - Italy - Japan)
  • 3 allied powers (Britain - Russia - USA)
  • 3rd Reich...
    1. 1st Reich: the medieval and early modern Holy Roman Empire of 800 to 1806.
    2. 2nd Reich: the German Empire from 1871 to 1918.
    3. 3rd Reich: official Nazi designation for the regime in Germany from January 1933 to May 1945. ("Third Reich." (2013). Encyclopædia Britannica.)

Cognitively speaking, the "3rd" Reich was a big deal. But not every "3" acquires the same level of cognitive distinction on a global and historical scale. Some "3" events are mentioned as an attribute but not as a title, such as the Rosetta stone having three scripts but the usage of a "3" is not prominent. In other words, no one says "Rosetta Stone 3," but it is used when describing multiple fairy tales and rhymes for children such as the 3 bears, 3 pigs, 3 kittens lost their mittens, etc... However, with the 3 sometimes used as a reference in conjunction with the term "Power" such as in the "power of three," it is not used when describing the use of the 3rd finger of one's hand. Instead, we say "give them the middle finger" but do not routinely say "give them the 3rd finger." Another example is when people refer to the Christian Trinity. You don't hear anyone using the language of "Christian 3". While the Trinity does have three components, the word "trinity" and not "3" is the usual linguistic preferance. Hence, using the "3" in given contexts can provide an attentuation of power, mystique, and even pique curiousty.

These are examples of a small mathematic of cognitive brain functioning. There appears to be no large mathematic counterpart. Humanity seems unable to move into such an arena of conceptualization. Please note I said "unable" and not "incapable". There is a very noticeable conservation of number taking place that I believe is being imposed on all life forms inhabiting Earth due to the incremental deteriorations of the relationships of the Sun, Earth and Moon, which require life forms to adapt to them as a survival mechanism in the face of dwindling resources. And it is only going to get worse, whereby the "threes" phenomean will become more prominent.

In other words it is the exhibition of a conservation of conceptualization with a routine occupation of human behavior that has temporarily moved into a "triplet state" of functionality but as opposed to earlier centuries, does not fall completely back into a singlet... peaceful state; but instead is maintained in a hyper-active, hyper-sensitive and hyper-vigilant doublet (duality/binary) state of excitability— poised to transition into a triplet state (of increased energy output) more easily, but can not be sustained due to the environment and human physiology as it presently navigates its reality. Hence, while a war may be used as an analogy for expressing a 3rd state of attempted sustained existence, it eventually falls back to a singlet/doublet level until something jumps starts the process to begin anew.

However, as the three planetary bodies (Sun, Earth, Moon) deteriorate further with a concomittant decrease in resources for human usage, the situation will drastically change. We should see multiple more attempts to reach and sustain some "three" orientation which may well be concealed in a confluence that I descrive as a three-into-one condition, such as is expressed in such examples as buy three tires get one free, three persons in one godhead, 3 engines in one space shuttle, three rings on one finger, using three fingers to eat with, using three fingers to hold a pen or pencil, the use of a comma after every third group of numbers in notation (after hundreds, after thousands, etc...).

I bring up this point because we can see an increase in the value of "three" (in different variations) being used in different engagements and other activities which will come to bear if their is a global conflict taking place today. For example, China, Israel, the U.S. and Germany have all expressed an interest in using a missile labeled with a 3, despite other armaments not having such a designation. In World War II the "3" value became prominent even if no Journalist or Historian verbally acknowledged the connection to the public, other than repeatedly saying "Third Reich," Third Army Division, big Three Axis and Allied leaders, etc...

Very often we find so-called professionals afraid to engage in a public acknowledgement of a recurrence if it involves a particular pattern that is often ridiculed by Mathematicians as being Numerology (and not up to the supposed standard that they think represents actual mathematics); and belittled by Psychologists and Psychiatrists as an activity to be described as either obsessive-compulsiveness or some projected manifestation of an underlying neuroses. Because numbers are often used by activities involving questionable (Esoteric, Alternative philosophical, Religious) ideas by past thinkers whose views have been brought into question multiple times, there is a leaning towards —first and foremost— discriminating against the use of numbers if it is outside the typical purview of their "advanced," "modern," "complexified," ideological practices of their profession. Even though we can find multiple ideas with a distinct "three-patterned" value in mathematics, psychology, and other subjects, such a recurrence doesn't warrant further investigation because the professionals in such fields do not know how address the issue without falling into some religious, numerological, or metaphysical trappings. Very often they allow the views given by others as a means to add their name to the list of those who routinely prefer to apply some derogatory label.

It is of need then to submit... let us say, a suggestion... that those Mathematicians and Psychologists as well as others who depreciate those engaged in research such as myself, are not appreciably conversant in the topic of "threes" due to a lack of knowledge about a subject (admittedly) still in its infancy of development. Their routine appraisals, assessments and attitudinal claims (often based on what others in their profession have said) are thus a declaration of their ignorance... which means the whole of their foundations should be scrutinized; particularly when we find that they exhibit a fundamental binary orientation commensurate with the old Yin/Yang enterprise. For example, if we look at the foundational structures of both mathematics and psychology, we see that they can be compared quite easily with the old yin/yang list of dichotomies. Indeed, while it is widely known that there is the issue of a persistent use of dichotomies in psychology, those in psychology are failing to recognize just how wide-spread this is in other subjects, much less consider it as an example of a cognitive orientation in a larger set of patterning... to one degree or another such as the binary code usage in computers and the Binomial Nomenclature of "genus and species" developed by Carolus Linnaeus in the 1700s.

Examples of Persistent Dichotomies in Psychology:

Examples of Persistent Dichotomies in Psychology
Persistent Dichotomies

What I am thinking at this period of investigation is that the cognitive structuring of human perception has and is developing along a sequential path which can be identified numerically, just as we might apply enumeration to the three Germ layers, where we differentiate more complex life forms with three layers and more simplified life forms with two and even one germ layer; though the one germ layer situation may not now have a distinctively clear biological representation... though I consider sponges a good animal candidate. If we place examples of the yin/yang, psychology, mathematics and computer language side by side or at least in close proximity to one another, a viewer can more easily appreciate the existence and persistence of human usage thereof. I do so in a section labeled "Three Vs Two" towards the end of the poster on this page.

While some people wonder why the Chinese appear to be more adept at doing Mathematics than their Western peer groups, not only is it because of their more dedicated work ethic in this regard, but also because they have a culture with a culturally prominent history of using a two-pattern (yin/yang) philosophy. They simply need to find the parallel juncture of equanimity between one style of dichotomy and another style. Instead of the Western countries adopting a particularly prominent realization of a "threes" presence, they permit such an ideology to retain antiquated correlations such as the threes in fairytales, threes in religion, and threes associated with trios of cartoon characters. It's either this or western philosophy wants to enforce ensnarment by claiming a three-part structure such as in syllogisms... which I prefer to call sillygisms. Western Mathematicians, Psychologists, Theologians, Philosophers and others enforce the adoption of the idea that a "threes" philosophy is either specialized or esoterically rationalized. They will use one and develop for an "in house" speciality but never permit, encourage or even suggest there is value in such a study... because they do not broaden their appreciation of how varied and wide-spread such a pattern is actually being used. If it can't be explained primarily by their subject matter, then it doesn't matter to them. Their academically trained field of study does not permit taking in a multitude of seemingly disparate ideas... albeit with a similar pattern, and allowing the presence of such to be explained with just a minor portion of their interest. If something is to be of interest, it must use their professions tools of investigation as the primary source of elucidation.

The Culture which adopts a bona fide "threes" philosophy as a pervasive model of ideological consideration outside the ridiculous trappings of religions, superstition, gaming, recreation, military, political and business strategies, etc., will be more readily prepared when a ternary computer system unfolds that enables an unprecedented level and activity of artificial intelligence, and along with it a factual ternary (trinary) model of mathematics and psychology. It is a philosophy which will be more adept at helping humans to survive as resources deplete to levels where disparities will create conflicting strategies of survival, just as we see occurring in multiple forms and formulas at rather meek levels in the present early 21st century world. Humanity has not yet collectively witnessed with first hand, day-to-day experiences the effects of constraints imposed by severe restrictions in resources which can not be replenished. But such instances have and do occur in Nature. The laws of conservation are one example of how the Universe has had to progress due to restrictions in resources. The use of one or more binary philosophies will not provide the necessary cognitive tools of adaptability which will be needed.

If we accept the premise that human perception is valid, then the value of three being used in Particle Physics (3 families of fundamental particles), Biology (Triplet code of DNA/RNA and three Germ Layers), Anatomy (3s in human anatomy) and Planetary activity (3 laws of planetary Motion), not to mention humanity's presence on the 3rd planet; then we must conclude that Nature itself is either a Numerologist and/or needs Psychological intervention because of its obsessive... if not compulsive usage of a "3" pattern that humanity is at present out of step with (yet try's acquiring the prestige, power and manifest presence thereof in different ways); but will be forced into using, as more resources become depleted in-line with the deteriorating relationships amongst the Sun, Earth and Moon. (These planetary bodies are having an incremental falling out in their declining years, so to speak. Hence, the need for humanity to sever the umbilical cord of antiquated "Mother Earth" orientations and leave the nest like most life forms tend to do.)

Not only should humanity see an increase in "3s" usage as time passes, but an increase in the fusion... the coalescence of such a pattern such as in the Trinitarian view that there are "3 persons in 1 god" or 3 engines in 1 space shuttle, etc... Yep, the three moments of the Sun are on a path of "fusing" together and along with them, any and all things which have come to be directly or indirectly influenced by the event due to the slowing of the Earth's rotation and the expansion of the Sun itself, if not solar irradiations.

Resources were and continue to be at a minimum; (with a descending arc), when we take into consideration such examples as:

  • The formation (structure and extent) of basic Nuclear particles. (The value "3" is formidable, such as Protons-Neutrons-Electrons, 1/3 fractioning, 3 quarks/anti-quarks, etc...)
  • The Formation of. (Conservation of energy, mass (or matter), linear momentum, angular momentum, and electric charge.)
  • The Formation of a Conservation of Number in Particle physics... though possibly applicable elsewhere. Even though this idea is far removed from the consciousness of present day physicists... though they work with fractions when dealing with particles, the phrase "conservation of number" is not on their radar screen of perceptual queries, because it would thus require using ideas from other subjects to place it into a greater context of valuation.
  • The formation of matter. (Human physiology lives with solids, such as food; liquids, such as water; gases, such as breathing in oxygen and flatuating methane gas. While there is plasma, I don't see anyone rolling around in it, much less eating, drinking or breathing it.) In fact, one might add that because most vehicles use a liquid fuel, humanity's state of technological development is still in its infancy... requiring to be bottle-fed. While a rocket may use solid fuel, not the day-to-day grocery getter.
  • The formation of elements. (We have a measly 118 at the present time of investigation. Why so few if there is not an active conservation taking place? In addition, there was and is a continuing interest in using a Triadic formula for the chemical elements.
  • The formation of the Universe. (Why are binary systems foremost being articulated by Astronomers, and not some other numerical-related value?) {A high proportion, perhaps one-half, of all stars in the Milky Way Galaxy are binaries or members of more complex multiple systems. "binary star." (2013). Encyclopædia Britannica.}
  • The formation of the Universe's shape is thought to be (one or more) of three forms. (positive, negative, flat curvature)
  • The Temperature of Outer Space is approximately 3 degrees.
  • The formation of Three Dimensions. (Time and other creatively constructed dimensional geometries are discursive extensions thereof.)
  • The formation of the Earth. (As the 3rd planet).
  • The formation of Water. (3 Molecules: H2O)
  • The formation of the Triplet/Singlet atomic states of molecular activity.
  • The formation of Oxygen. (The Great Oxygen Event ...GOE... is often singularly discussed. We have O, O2, O3.
    • The ground state of molecular oxygen is very unusual in that it is a triplet; hence, it can accept electronic energy from more-energetic triplet states of other molecules in a process called quenching (as in the case of the space shuttle wing described above). When this occurs, the donor molecule begins in its triplet state and undergoes a change in spin to its singlet ground state. The molecular oxygen begins in its triplet ground state and also changes spin to a singlet excited state. Because the total spin between the two molecules is unchanged, the transfer of energy can occur rapidly and efficiently. "photochemical reaction." (2013). Encyclopædia Britannica.
  • The Formation of the Atmosphere's composition: (Although debate continues about its earliest introduction.) The composition is relatively simple, although a considerable number of gases may be present in small amounts. Almost 99 percent consists of oxygen and nitrogen, with argon making up most of the remainder. Carbon dioxide, essential for plant life, is present in an extremely small amount. ("chemical element." (2013). Encyclopædia Britannica.)
  • The formation of complex life. (By way of a triplet code and 3 maturationally developing Germ Layers.)
  • The formation of a cellular energy source involves three distinct nucleotides. (At any given moment, therefore, a living cell contains AMP (adenosine-mono[1]-phosphate), ADP (adenosine-di[2]-phosphate) and ATP (adenosine-tri[3]-phosphate); the relative proportion of the three nucleotides provides an index of the energy state of the cell. "metabolism." (2013). Encyclopædia Britannica.)
  • The formation of human anatomy is replete with patterns-of-three, not to mention the multiple triadic considerations.
  • The Usage of the value "Pi" is approximately 3.14. (Which also is Einstein's Birthday at March 14th.)
  • The Value of the American Government's debt is now in the Trillions. Being a Trillionaire is the objective of some financial orientations.
  • The formation of all Languages apparently has a Tri-modal structure consisting of Subject- Object- Verb, but not necessarily in this word order.

  • ETC...

And for those readers who say they could make a similar list of another pattern, by all means... do so and let me know what it is. I will present it and give you full credit. And also, please fully note that your list is an expressed conservation as well, whether or not you attribute it to declining resources in terms of being part of a survival strategy within the scope of "diminishing returns" whose frequently used definition is being applied in the present context outside the scope of mere economics.

For example:

Diminishing returns, (also called law of diminishing returns or principle of diminishing marginal productivity):

(An) economic law stating that if one input in the production of a commodity is increased while all other inputs are held fixed, a point will eventually be reached at which additions of the input yield progressively smaller, or diminishing, increases in output.

In the classic example of the law, a farmer who owns a given acreage of land will find that a certain number of labourers will yield the maximum output per worker. If he should hire more workers, the combination of land and labour would be less efficient because the proportional increase in the overall output would be less than the expansion of the labour force. The output per worker would therefore fall. This rule holds in any process of production unless the technique of production also changes.

Early economists, neglecting the possibility of scientific and technical progress that would improve the means of production, used the law of diminishing returns to predict that as population expanded in the world, output per head would fall, to the point where the level of misery would keep the population from increasing further. In stagnant economies, where techniques of production have not changed for long periods, this effect is clearly seen. In progressive economies, on the other hand, technical advances have succeeded in more than offsetting this factor and in raising the standard of living in spite of rising populations.

"diminishing returns." (2013). Encyclopædia Britannica.

Yet, look at the social problems which have been wrought by this binary perspective and application so very typical of standard Economics.

The width and Length of the Homepage II 3s (Black poster) collection was stopped at 993/30000, just as I had with the first collection, though I wanted to continue it as well. I do so with the present addition on this page. Again, please do not consider that I advocate any of the ideas being exhibited as examples. I have not read any of the books with a "three" title other than perhaps some short review. Nor do I follow a particular view being expressed by this or that protest group, religion, alternate ideology, etc... I am collecting examples whether or not a given reader finds some example(s) offensive, irrelevant, etc., to their beliefs. It should also be noted that I may duplicate some example such as the 3 Macbeth witches, when I find what I think is a better picture than a previous one used, or some previous information did not contain an image.

Images are necessary since many people browse information by looking for pictures, such as when flipping through a magazine while sitting in a Doctor's office. Religious texts are famous for being absent of using pictures as a medium of communication, because, it appears, the God of different religions uses word of mouth signs and symbols like in the augury of birds, entrails, insect behavior, etc... However, one might argue that art in the past was conveyed in crafts, tools, clothing, meal preparation, burial rites, jewelry, etc., even if they were not explicitly defined in terms of having a relationship with some religion. There are many pattern-of-three images which one might offer as examples. Yet, one person's art is another person's trash. Like music, the reader might consider one image better than another or a group of others, so offering different examples of the same information from time to time is not necessarily repetition in terms of forgetfulness, but more to the point of providing an alternative perspective that may catch a person's eye at a given moment.

As with the lists on the previous two pages, I will update the following list from time to time as time permits. In any case, if you are interested in threes research, you should keep a copy of the different pages at this site and others, since a given author or website could expire without notice. If I expire and you visit m grave site, please make sure some type of "three" headstone or other attribute is being displayed. However, my preference is to be placed into outer space so that I can be revived by some future civilization or individual in order that I might continue my threes research.

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A short and much abbreviated timeline on threes development

One might say that I am an amateur collector of bones and artefacts of the human mind. While some subjects appear to have multiple examples, others have fewer. Yet, it should be stated that we of the present do not know which... if any of today's subjects will be used in the deep future. However, these particular items all have a similar structure involving a three pattern, or make reference as to being an inclusive 3 pattern such as when one claims that while the Earth is the 3rd planet from the Sun, it is not a pattern-of-three in itself. Like those of the present having origins in the past, their shape and usage today does not mean they will be of any value for the system of survival needed in the future. This, for example, is why one might assume, is the reason that the Old Testament of the Bible needed to be updated with a New Testament that may itself at some time be updated with a Newer Testament. because all religious texts are little more than made-up codes and guidelines to be used as survival handbooks in a deteriorating environment, under the guidance of those who charge a fee called tithing. Revisions take place and additions are added to adjust to changing conditions which continue to deteriorate. Yet, if a given text is perfect, there should be no need for revision or an update. Indeed, one might further argue about the supposed sanctity of a text when its main character such as Jesus and Mohammed did not themselves write anything, perhaps because both of them are products of human imagination like so many myths, legends and fairytales presenting different modes, models and mechanisms of dichotomy, (good/bad, darkness/light, peace/destruction, etc...), just as one would expect from a primitive childish mind.

While some readers may think it odd, quirky, an expressed Obsessive/Compulsive order to collect "threes" examples, it is not difficult to see that it is in the act, if not art of collecting that ALL serious studies have taken their cue. For example, where would anthropology be if no one had ever collected bones? Or how about collecting the different ideas of mathematics or flowers or the items which Darwin and his contemporaries indulged in? What if no one collected medical ideas or ideas labeled as religion, philosophy or Astronomy? Whose to say what the end result will be in some future setting with respect to a collection of threes... contrasted to other patterns? If one looks at the (abbreviated) definitions about several subjects (that I culled from the Britannica), I very easily see how they pertain to the phenomena of threes. A short review might be of service to some readers, as well as some simple renderings of the Three in context. While the associations may not be what you want to describe as representing a given subject, there is something familiar with the connections:

  1. Sociology: a social science that studies human societies, their interactions, and the processes that preserve and change them.
    • The "Three" is preserved because it plays a recurring role, such as in the 3 traditional classes (Upper - Middle - Lower); 3 traditional Races (African - Asian - Caucasian), etc... (And despite those who cite more than three for whatever reason, the examples remain as valid examples of Historical cognitive processing.)
  2. Psychology: scientific discipline that studies psychological and biological processes and behaviour in humans and other animals.
    • Why has a given number taken up root in your psyche and another not so? The typical impulse to define and describe Threes Collecting as "obsessive-compulsive," doesn't adequately address this behavior, since many professionals are collectors in their respective field of interest.
  3. Anthropology: “the science of humanity,” which studies human beings in aspects ranging from the biology and evolutionary history of Homo sapiens to the features of society and culture that decisively distinguish humans from other animal species.
    • The "Three" is very much a sustained feature of many societies and cultures, used in multiple disciplines in multiple ways. Cultural Anthropology attempts to do so do not place the different contents of number interests in different cultures in any other area except to toss it into a bin similar to hairdos, clothing and similar types of cultural applications.
  4. Mathematics: the science of structure, order, and relation that has evolved from elemental practices of counting, measuring, and describing the shapes of objects. It deals with logical reasoning and quantitative calculation, and its development has involved an increasing degree of idealization and abstraction of its subject matter.
    • The "Three" has structure, order and relation. It is used in logical reasoning as well as rationalization.
  5. Physics: science that deals with the structure of matter and the interactions between the fundamental constituents of the observable universe.
    • The "Three" is... as a matter of fact, used extensively in physics such as the three basic particles, three families of fundamental particles, 3 laws of motion, etc...
  6. Biology: study of living things and their vital processes. The field deals with all the physiochemical aspects of life. As a result of the modern tendency to unify scientific knowledge and investigation, however, there has been an overlapping of the field of biology with other scientific disciplines.
    • The "Three" is, in a sense, alive... like a symbiotic organism. It grows, dies, is adaptive, mutates... it has been incorporated into the DNA structure as a triplet code. No less, it is as much alive as a virus that is not considered to be alive.
  7. Archeology: the scientific study of the material remains of past human life and activities. These include human artifacts from the very earliest stone tools to the man-made objects that are buried or thrown away in the present day: everything made by human beings—from simple tools to complex machines, from the earliest houses and temples and tombs to palaces, cathedrals, and pyramids.
    • The "three" is an artifact, as well as a working tool.
  8. Chemistry: the science that deals with the properties, composition, and structure of substances (defined as elements and compounds), the transformations they undergo, and the energy that is released or absorbed during these processes. Every substance, whether naturally occurring or artificially produced, consists of one or more of the hundred-odd species of atoms that have been identified as elements.
    • The "Three" represents substance.
  9. Education: discipline that is concerned with methods of teaching and learning in schools or school-like environments as opposed to various non-formal and informal means of socialization (e.g., rural development projects and education through parent-child relationships).
    • For example, the usage of the "Rule of Three" as an educational method.)
  10. Linguistics: the scientific study of language. The word was first used in the middle of the 19th century to emphasize the difference between a newer approach to the study of language that was then developing and the more traditional approach of philology. The differences were and are largely matters of attitude, emphasis, and purpose.
    • Apparently the "Three" is used in all Languages, and in some measures is an expressed symbolic language itself. No less, we find it in word order.

The following list contains a handful of named individuals or entities having the assigned title of "III" or the 3rd. It is not meant to be exhaustive only a sampling. It was culled from the Encyclopæia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite, 2013. I simply put in the "III" as a search reference and then went to each selection individually to gather a bit more information. There are 100 examples in this selection. No doubt the reader could assign more examples to it. And yes, I realize there are those who will argue that some people have I, II, IV, V, or more behind their name to indicate they are first, second, fourth, etc., in their family or associations line. However, such readers fail to recognize the absence of very large numerical values being attached to names.

For Example, while we see Ptolemy I through Ptolemy XV (1st through the 15th), and the Ptolemaic Dynasty existing for approximately 300 years, this, thus far in human history, is the exception and not the rule by which humans engage in playing out their different social narratives. Most often the numerical value is below X (10). An exception to note is that of Roman Catholic Popes. In any respect, the point to make is that we do not routinely use large numbers for most of our day-to-day references. I think this is representative of a FORCED mandate of conservation dictated by the ongoing incremental deterioration of the planet, solar system, and galaxy. It's not that larger numbers do not exist for us to use, it is just that they aren't used by Nature either. For example, there are about 118 Natural (not man-made) chemical elements in the Periodic table of elements for the Entire Universe, as far as we know in this day and age from our Earth-bound perspective. Not hundreds and hundreds and hundreds. A measly handful.

The same goes for life existing on one planet in this solar system and not all of them. It's a conservation we are being FORCED to comply with as a survival mechanism. If I am correct in terms of my current assessment, humanity should see an increased usage of conservation to the extent many of the "three" ideas will be fused to produce a singularity, just as the Sun's three phases (or moments, called dawn-noon- dusk), will continue to "fuse" as the Sun expands and the Earth's rotation slows, as the moon recedes. The three will become one, just is as characterized by the 3-in-1 persons idea of Christian theology whose practitioners do not realize their idea was born from solar worship. Their idea of the Trinity is a symbolic gesture of a Natural event derived from very early Nature worshippers... or at least Nature attendees called Pagans. Whereas it is thought nice for some to want to keep this one type of image in mind, it should be noted that humans are adept at using symbols... which involved substitutions, one of which is to use the word "many" for the value 3...or more. Hence, we find the old numbering system phrase of "1- 2- Many" or used as a phrase by the American government written as "Out of Many, one" [or "One out of Many"] (Seen in Latin as E Pluribus Unum). Yep, out of the "many" comes the "one." It is an indication of how Nature can influence the ideas of humans and yet humans do not actually know what is being taught to them. For the most part, Americans are oblivious to the connection between the expression and the actual impetus. It has nothing whatsoever to do with their Business, Government or Religious nonsense. It is Nature telling humans how it is to be affected as part of the changing survival requirements.

Again, here are a list of "threes" examples that typically reference a title such as a King or Pope. Notice that we do not have enumerations running into the hundreds... which is a tell-tale sign of the limitation in cognitive activity I have spoken elsewhere about. Just as there is a growing acknowledgement in the physical abilities of humans as witnessed in those sports (such as the Olympics) which record strength, endurance, speed, etc., it is becoming evident that human physiology has limitations. This may well carry over into mental, visual and constructive (as well as destructive) capacities, though some would argue that through electro-mechanical or genetic modifications humans could be more than they presently are; the heavy burden of an ongoing environmental (Sun, Moon, Earth) degradation(s) is forcing humanity into a tighter and tighter circle due to diminishing resources. It is apparent that humanity's best course is to use ALL RESOURCES to remove the species from the planet. My view, again, is that humanity has just over 300 years (form 2023) to get off the Earth, another 333 years to get out of the solar system and another 333 years to remove itself from the Milky Way Galaxy.

  1. Amenhotep III, (king of Egypt), also called Amenophis III; reigned 1390–53 BCE, in a period of peaceful prosperity, who devoted himself to expanding diplomatic contacts and to extensive building in Egypt and Nubia.
  2. Adrian III, Saint (pope), also known as Hadrian III; pope from 884 to 885.
  3. Agis III (king of Sparta); Spartan king (338–331) who rebelled unsuccessfully against Alexander the Great. A member of the Eurypontid house (one of the two royal families of Sparta), Agis succeeded to the throne of his father, Archidamus III.
  4. Ahmed III (Ottoman sultan); sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1703 to 1730.
  5. Aix-Marseille I, II, and III, Universities of (schools, Aix-en-Provence and Marseille, France).
  6. Alexander III (emperor of Russia), Russian: in full Aleksandr Aleksandrovich; emperor of Russia from 1881 to 1894, opponent of representative government, and supporter of Russian nationalism. He adopted programs, based on the concepts of Orthodoxy, autocracy, and narodnost (a belief in the Russian people), that included the Russification of national minorities in the Russian Empire as well as persecution of the non-Orthodox religious groups.
  7. Alexander III (king of Scotland); king of Scotland from 1249 to 1286, the last major ruler of the dynasty of kings descended from Malcolm III Canmore (reigned 1058–93), who consolidated royal power in Scotland. Alexander left his kingdom independent, united, and prosperous, and his reign was viewed as a golden age by Scots caught up in the long, bloody conflict with England after his death.
  8. Alexius III Angelus (Byzantine emperor), also spelled Alexios III Angelos; Byzantine emperor from 1195 to 1203. He was the second son of Andronicus Angelus, grandson of Alexius I.
  9. Alfonso III (king of Aragon), byname: Alfonso The Liberal, or The Candid, Spanish: Alfonso El Liberal, or El Franco; king of Aragon from 1285 to 1291, son of Peter III. A weak king, he was involved in an unsuccessful constitutional struggle with the Aragonese nobles.
  10. Alfonso III (king of Asturias), byname: Alfonso the Great, Spanish: Alfonso El Magno; king of Asturias from 866 to 910, son of Ordoño I. Winning a contested succession, he moved his capital forward from Oviedo to the recently restored Roman city of León.
  11. Amenemhet III (king of Egypt); king of ancient Egypt (reigned 1818–1770 BCE) of the 12th dynasty, who brought Middle Kingdom Egypt (c. 1938–1630 BCE) to a peak of economic prosperity by completing a system to regulate the inflow of water into Lake Moeris, in the Al-Fayyum depression southwest of Cairo.
  12. Andronicus III Palaeologus (Byzantine emperor), also spelled Andronikos III Palaiologos; Byzantine emperor who sought to strengthen the empire during its final period of decline.
  13. Antiochus III (Seleucid king); byname: Antiochus The Great, Greek: Antiochus Megas; Seleucid king of the Hellenistic Syrian Empire from 223 BC to 187, who rebuilt the empire in the East but failed in his attempt to challenge Roman ascendancy in Europe and Asia Minor.
  14. Aquino, Benigno, III (president of Philippines); in full: Benigno Simeon Cojuangco Aquino III, also called Noynoy.
  15. Arsinoe III (queen of Egypt); daughter of Queen Berenice II and Ptolemy III Euergetes of Egypt, sister and wife of Ptolemy IV Philopator.
  16. Powerless to arrest the decline of the Ptolemaic kingdom under her debauched husband's rule, the popular queen was eventually murdered by the royal ministers.
  17. Artabanus III (king of Parthia, reigned c. AD 12–c. 38).: At first king of Media Atropatene, Artabanus III took the Parthian throne in AD 9 or 10 from Vonones and was proclaimed king about two years later in Ctesiphon, the Parthian capital on the Tigris River.
  18. Artaxerxes III (Achaemenid king of Persia, reigned 359/358–338 BC).; He was the son and successor of Artaxerxes II and was called Ochus before he took the throne. Artaxerxes III was a cruel but energetic ruler.
  19. Augustus III (king of Poland and elector of Saxony); king of Poland and elector of Saxony (as Frederick Augustus II), whose reign witnessed one of the greatest periods of disorder within Poland.
  20. Baldwin III (king of Jerusalem); king of the Crusader state of Jerusalem (1143–63), military leader whose reputation among his contemporaries earned him the title of “ideal king.”
  21. Béla III (king of Hungary); king of Hungary (1173–96) under whom Hungary became the leading power of south-central Europe.
  22. Berenice III (queen of Egypt); queen of Egypt, daughter of Ptolemy IX, the most strong-willed member of the royal family. She ruled during a period of violent civil strife. Daughter of either Cleopatra Selene or Cleopatra IV, Berenice first married her uncle, Ptolemy X, sometime before 101. After the death in 101 of the dowager queen, Cleopatra III, the widow of Ptolemy VIII, Berenice became full queen. In 87 Ptolemy X was expelled from Egypt by an insurrection of the people of Alexandria, who believed that he had assassinated the dowager queen. He recruited a mercenary army in Syria and, after returning to Egypt, plundered the tomb of Alexander the Great in Alexandria in order to pay his troops.
  23. Boleslaw III (prince of Poland), byname: Boleslaw the Wry-Mouthed, Polish: Boleslaw Krzywousty; prince of Poland who introduced into his country the senioriate system, by which the eldest son received the major part of the royal inheritance. He converted the people of Pomerania to Christianity.
  24. Bohemond III (prince of Antioch); byname: Bohemond the Child or the Stammerer, French dialect: Bohémond le Bambe or le Baube; prince of Antioch from 1163 to 1201. The son of Constance (daughter of Bohemond II) by her first husband, Raymond of Poitiers, he succeeded to the principality upon attaining his majority and then exiled his mother. In the following year (1164) he suffered defeat and was captured by the Muslims.
  25. Bordeaux I, II, and III, Universities of (university, Bordeaux, France).
  26. Calixtus (III) (antipope); also spelled: Callistus, original name: Giovanni di Struma, English: John of Struma; antipope from 1168 to 1178, who reigned with the support of the Holy Roman emperor Frederick I Barbarossa.
  27. Celestine III (pope), original name: Giacinto Bobone, or Bobo-Orsini; pope from 1191 to 1198. He was Peter Abélard's student and friend, and he carried out many important legations in Germany, Spain, and Portugal; St. Thomas Becket considered him his most reliable friend at the Roman Curia.
  28. Charles III (Holy Roman emperor), byname: Charles The Fat, French: Charles Le Gros, German: Karl Der Dicke; Frankish king and emperor, whose fall in 887 marked the final disintegration of the empire of Charlemagne. (Although he controlled France briefly, he is usually not reckoned among the kings of France).
  29. Charles III (count of Valois); also called Charles Of Valois; count of Valois from 1285 and of Anjou and Maine from 1290. He was son of a king, brother of a king, uncle of three kings, and a father of a king. Though he himself never gained a crown, he sought at various times those of Aragon, France, Constantinople, and the Holy Roman Empire.
  30. Childeric III (Merovingian king); the last Merovingian king. Effective power in France had long been wielded by the Carolingian mayors of the palace, but the revolt that followed the death of Charles Martel in 741 made it wise for his sons Carloman and Pippin III the Short, in 743, to place Childeric III, a Merovingian of questionable legitimacy, on the Frankish throne, which had been vacant since 737, so that they could dissemble their authority behind his name. Carloman entered a monastery in 747, and, when Pippin felt sufficiently secure to have himself elected king of the Franks (751), Childeric was deposed, tonsured, and confined in the monastery of Sithiu (St. Bertin), near Saint-Omer.
  31. Clement (III) (antipope), original name Guibert, or Wibert, of Ravenna, Italian: Guiberto, or Wiberto, di Ravenna; antipope from 1080 to 1100. Of noble birth, Guibert served at the German court (c. 1054–55) and became imperial chancellor for Italy (1058–63).
  32. Clovis III (Merovingian king); Merovingian king of the Franks from 690/691, the son of Theuderic III.
  33. Constantius III (Roman emperor in 421).
  34. Conrad III (king of Germany); German king from 1138 to 1152, the first king of the Hohenstaufen family.
  35. Constantine III (king of Scotland); king of the Scots (995–997), who succeeded to the crown after the murder of his cousin, Kenneth II, son of Malcolm I. After a brief reign of two years he was himself killed, perhaps by an illegitimate son (named Kenneth) of Malcolm I or by his successor, Kenneth III.
  36. Cosimo III (grand duke of Tuscany), in full Cosimo de' Medici; sixth grand duke of Tuscany, who reigned for 53 years (1670–1723), longer than any other Medici, but under whom Tuscany's power declined drastically. Though Cosimo III traveled widely and spent money generously (in particular for the benefit of the church), he had a reserved manner aggravated by conjugal, political, and dynastic disillusionments, and he took refuge more and more in devout practices. After continually trying to represent her marriage as invalid, his frivolous consort, Marguerite-Louise d'Orléans, finally abandoned him in 1675 and went back to France. The humiliations that he had to endure in order to keep Tuscany neutral in the European conflicts of the age of Louis XIV were barely compensated by his navy's share in Francesco Morosini's victories over the Turks (1684). When his brother and his two sons proved childless, Cosimo and his brilliant minister Carlo Rinuccini had to envisage the extinction of his dynasty and even proposed, at one point, that a republican form of government should be restored in Tuscany.
  37. Dagobert III (Merovingian king); Merovingian Frankish king who succeeded his father, Childebert III, in 711. For most of his reign the boy was dominated by Pippin II of Herstal, the Austrasian mayor of the palace.
  38. Darius III (king of Persia), also called Codommanus; the last king (reigned 336–330 BC) of the Achaemenid dynasty. Darius belonged to a collateral branch of the royal family and was placed on the throne by the eunuch Bagoas, who had poisoned the two previous kings, Artaxerxes III and Arses. When Darius asserted his independence, Bagoas also attempted his murder but was forced by the king to drink the poison himself.
  39. Edward III (king of England), byname: Edward of Windsor; king of England from 1327 to 1377, who led England into the Hundred Years' War with France. The descendants of his seven sons and five daughters contested the throne for generations, climaxing in the Wars of the Roses (1455–85).
  40. Edward III (play by unknown author); play in five acts sometimes attributed to William Shakespeare, though without much evidence other than the resemblances of this play to Shakespeare's early history plays and an occasional passage. It was not included in the First Folio of 1623. A quarto text was published in 1596; the play must have been written prior to that date, presumably in the early 1590s, when history plays of this sort were much in vogue. It was based largely on Raphael Holinshed's Chronicles.
  41. Farman III (biplane); aircraft designed, built, and first flown by the French aviator Henri Farman in 1909.
  42. Frederick (III) (king of Germany), byname: Frederick The Fair, German, Friedrich Der Schöne; German king from 1314 to 1326, also duke of Austria (as Frederick III) from 1308, the second son of the German king Albert I.
  43. George III (king of Great Britain), in full George William Frederick, German: Georg Wilhelm Friedrich; king of Great Britain and Ireland (1760–1820) and elector (1760–1814) and then king (1814–20) of Hanover, during a period when Britain won an empire in the Seven Years' War but lost its American colonies, and then, after the struggle against Revolutionary and Napoleonic France, emerged as a leading power in Europe. During the last years of his life (from 1811) he was intermittently mad—his son, the future George IV, acting as regent.
  44. Gregory III, Saint (pope from 731 to 741).
  45. Grenoble I, II, and III, Universities of (university, Grenoble, France).
  46. Gustav III (king of Sweden, 1771–92); who reasserted the royal power over the Riksdag (parliament).
  47. Hattusilis III (Hittite king), flourished 13th century BC; Hittite king during the New Kingdom (reigned c. 1286–c. 1265 BC); he came to power by overthrowing his nephew Urhi-Teshub (Mursilis III).
  48. Henry III (king of Castile), byname: Henry the Sufferer, Spanish: Enrique el Doliente; king of Castile from 1390 to 1406. Though unable to take the field because of illness, he jealously preserved royal power through the royal council, the Audiencia (supreme court), and the corregidores (magistrates). During his minority, the anti-Jewish riots of Sevilla (Seville) and other places produced the large class of conversos (converts).
  49. Henry III (king of England [1207-72]); king of England from 1216 to 1272. In the 24 years (1234–58) during which he had effective control of the government, he displayed such indifference to tradition that the barons finally forced him to agree to a series of major reforms, the Provisions of Oxford (1258).
  50. Henry III (king of France and Poland), also called Henry of Valois, or (until 1574) duc d'Anjou; king of France from 1574, under whose reign the prolonged crisis of the Wars of Religion was made worse by dynastic rivalries arising because the male line of the Valois dynasty was going to die out with him.
  51. Honorius III (pope); original name: Cencio Savelli; pope from 1216 to 1227, who is often considered one of the great administrators in papal history.
  52. Innocent (III) (antipope); original name: Lando Di Sezze; last of four antipopes (1179–80) during the pontificate of Alexander III. A member of a family of German origin, he was a cardinal when elected on Sept. 29, 1179, by a faction opposing Alexander, who, in January 1180, relegated Innocent to the southern Italian abbey of SS. Trinità in La Cava, where he died.
  53. Innocent III (pope); original name: Lothar of Segni, Italian: Lotario di Segni; the most significant pope of the Middle Ages.
  54. Ivan III (Russian prince, in full Ivan Vasilyevich [Ivan Veliky], byname Ivan the Great; grand prince of Moscow (1462–1505), who subdued most of the Great Russian lands by conquest or by the voluntary allegiance of princes, rewon parts of Ukraine from Poland–Lithuania, and repudiated the old subservience to the Mongol-derived Tatars. He also laid the administrative foundations of a centralized Russian state.
  55. John III (king of Portugal), byname: John the Pious, Portuguese: João o Piedoso; king of Portugal from 1521 to 1557. His long reign saw the development of Portuguese seapower in the Indian Ocean, the occupation of the Brazilian coast, and the establishment of the Portuguese Inquisition and of the Society of Jesus.
  56. James III (king of Scotland); king of Scots from 1460 to 1488. A weak monarch, he was confronted with two major rebellions because he failed to win the respect of the nobility.
  57. John III Ducas Vatatzes (emperor of Nicaea); emperor of Nicaea (1222–54) who, by acquiring territory, encouraging economic growth, and supporting a cultural revival from his capital at Nicaea (modern Iznik, Turkey), paved the way for the recovery of Constantinople from the Latin emperors and the reestablishment of the Byzantine Empire.
  58. Kamehameha III (king of Hawaii) also called Kauikeaouli; king of Hawaii from 1825 to 1854, brother of Kamehameha II.
  59. Kenneth III (king of Scots); ing of the Scots (from 997), son of Dub and grandson of Malcolm I. He succeeded to the throne perhaps after killing his cousin Constantine III (reigned 995–997); he was himself killed at Monzievaird by Malcolm (son of Kenneth II), who became Malcolm II. Gruoch, wife of the future King Macbeth, was apparently a granddaughter of Kenneth III.
  60. Khama III (Ngwato chief), byname: Khama, also spelled Kgama; Southern African Tswana (“Bechuana” in older variant orthography) chief of Bechuanaland who allied himself with British colonizers in the area.
  61. Leo III, Saint (pope from 795 to 816).
  62. Lille I, II, and III, Universities of (university, Lille, France).
  63. Louis III (Holy Roman emperor); byname: Louis The Blind, French: Louis L'aveugle; king of Provence and, from 901 to 905, Frankish emperor whose short-lived tenure marked the failure to restore the Carolingian dynasty to power in Italy.
  64. Louis III (king of France); king of France (i.e., Francia Occidentalis, the West Frankish kingdom) from 879 to 882, whose decisive victory over the Northmen in August 881, at Saucourt, Ponthieu, briefly stemmed the incursions of the Scandinavian invaders into northern France.
  65. Lucius III (pope), original name: Ubaldo Allucingoli; Pope from 1181 to 1185. A Cistercian monk whom Pope Innocent II had made cardinal in 1141, Lucius was bishop of Ostia (consecrated 1159) and papal counsellor when elected on Sept. 1, 1181, to succeed Alexander III. As pope, Lucius was forced to leave Rome because the Romans had earlier declared their city a republic free from papal interference.
  66. Magnus III (king of Norway); byname: Magnus Barefoot, Norwegian: Magnus Berrføtt, Old Norse: Magnus Barfot; king of Norway (1093–1103), warrior who consolidated Norwegian rule in the Orkney and Hebrides islands and on the Isle of Man (all now part of the United Kingdom). He was called Barefoot (i.e., bareleg) because he often wore Scottish kilts.
  67. Mswati III, (king of Swaziland), byname Ngwenyama Mswati III Dlamini; member of the Swazi royal family who became king of Swaziland in 1986.
  68. Phraates III (king of Parthia); king of Parthia (reigned 70–58/57 BC), the son and successor of Sanatruces (Sinatruces).
  69. Mustafa III (Ottoman sultan); Ottoman sultan (1757–74) who attempted governmental and military reforms to halt the empire's decline and who declared a war on Russia that (after his death) culminated in a disastrous defeat.
  70. Napoleon III (emperor of France); also called (until 1852) Louis-Napoléon, in full Charles-Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte; nephew of Napoleon I, president of the Second Republic of France (1850–52), and then emperor of the French (1852–70). He gave his country two decades of prosperity under a stable, authoritarian government but finally led it to defeat in the Franco-German War (1870–71).
  71. Otto III (Holy Roman emperor); German king and Holy Roman emperor who planned to recreate the glory and power of the ancient Roman Empire in a universal Christian state governed from Rome, in which the pope would be subordinate to the emperor in religious as well as in secular affairs.
  72. Paschal (III) (antipope), original name Guido Da Crema; Antipope from 1164 to 1168. Against Pope Alexander III, he was one of the original supporters of the antipope Victor IV, whom he succeeded on April 22, 1164, becoming the second antipope set up by the Holy Roman emperor Frederick I Barbarossa.
  73. Paul III (pope), original name: Alessandro Farnese; Italian noble who was the last of the Renaissance popes (reigned 1534–49) and the first pope of the Counter-Reformation. The worldly Paul III was a notable patron of the arts and at the same time encouraged the beginning of the reform movement that was to affect deeply the Roman Catholic Church in the later 16th century. He called the Council of Trent in 1545.
  74. Peter III (king of Aragon and Sicily), byname Peter The Great, Spanish: Pedro El Grande; king of Aragon from July 1276, on the death of his father, James I, and king of Sicily (as Peter I) from 1282.
  75. Philip III (duke of Burgundy), byname: Philip The Good, French: Philippe Le Bon; the most important of the Valois dukes of Burgundy (reigned 1419–67) and the true founder of the Burgundian state that rivaled France in the 15th century.
  76. Philip III (king of France), byname: Philip the Bold, French: Philippe le Hardi; king of France (1270–85), in whose reign the power of the monarchy was enlarged and the royal domain extended, though his foreign policy and military ventures were largely unsuccessful.
  77. Philip III (king of Spain and Portugal [as Philip II]); whose reign (1598–1621) was characterized by a successful peaceful foreign policy in western Europe and internally by the expulsion of the Moriscos (Christians of Moorish ancestry) and government by the King's favourites.)
  78. Pippin III (king of Franks); the first king of the Frankish Carolingian dynasty and the father of Charlemagne.
  79. Rama III (king of Siam); king of Siam (1824–51) who made Siam's first tentative accommodations with the West, and under whom the country's boundaries reached their maximum extent.
  80. Richard III (fictional character); formerly duke of Gloucester, son of Richard Plantagenet, duke of York, in Shakespeare's Henry VI, Part 2 and Henry VI, Part 3; later king of England in Richard III. One of Shakespeare's finest creations, the physically deformed Richard is among the earliest and most vivid of the playwright's sympathetic villains.
  81. Richard III (play by Shakespeare); chronicle play in five acts by William Shakespeare, written about 1592–94 and published in 1597 in a quarto edition seemingly reconstructed from memory by the acting company when a copy of the play was missing.
  82. Robert III (king of Scotland); also called (until 1390) John Stewart, earl of Carrick; king of Scots from 1390, after having ruled Scotland in the name of his father, Robert II, from 1384 to 1388. Physically disabled by a kick from a horse, he was never the real ruler of Scotland during the years of his kingship.
  83. Sancho III (king of Castile), byname: Sancho The Desired, Spanish: Sancho El Deseado; king of Castile from 1157 to 1158, the elder son of the Spanish emperor Alfonso VII.
  84. Seleucus III, Soter (Seleucid ruler); fifth king (reigned 225–223 BC) of the Seleucid dynasty, elder son of Seleucus II Callinicus.
  85. Selim III (Ottoman sultan); Ottoman sultan from 1789 to 1807, who undertook a program of Westernization and whose reign felt the intellectual and political ferment created by the French Revolution.
  86. Sesostris III (king of Egypt); king of ancient Egypt (reigned 1836–18 BCE) of the 12th dynasty (1938–c. 1756 BCE), who completely reshaped Egypt's government and extended his dominion in Nubia, the land immediately south of Egypt.
  87. Sigismund III Vasa (king of Poland and Sweden), Polish: Zygmunt Waza, Swedish: Sigismund Vasa; king of Poland (1587–1632) and of Sweden (1592–99) who sought to effect a permanent union of Poland and Sweden but instead created hostile relations and wars between the two states lasting until 1660.
  88. Sixtus III, Saint, also spelled Xystus, (pope from 432 to 440); A chief Roman priest when he succeeded Pope St. Celestine I on July 31, 432, Sixtus had previously been suspected of favouring Pelagianism (heretical doctrine that minimized the role of divine grace in man's salvation), but on becoming pope he disappointed the Pelagians' expectations and repelled their attempts to rejoin with Rome.
  89. Smith, Joseph, III (American religious leader [1832-1914]); American religious leader, first president of the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. He was the son of Joseph Smith, the founder of Mormonism. Smith was a boy of 11 when his father was murdered by a mob, and he did not go to Utah with Brigham Young's group but remained in Nauvoo, Ill., with his mother and a group of followers who rejected Young's leadership. Instead they claimed that Joseph Smith III had been designated to succeed his father as leader of the Mormon church. This faction founded its own church, the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, in 1852.
  90. Sylvester III (pope or antipope), also spelled Silvester, original name: John of Sabina, Italian: Giovanni di Sabina; pope from January 20 to February 10, 1045.
  91. Theodoric III (king of Neustria and Burgundy), also spelled Theuderic; Merovingian ruler who succeeded his brother Chlotar III as king of Neustria and Burgundy in 673, at the instigation of Ebroin, the Neustrian mayor of the palace.
  92. Theodosius III (Byzantine emperor); Byzantine emperor from 715 to 717. He was an obscure tax collector of southwestern Asia Minor who against his will was proclaimed emperor by the troops of the Opsikion theme rebelling against Anastasius II. His supporters successfully captured Constantinople, and Anastasius was deposed and entered a monastery. Theodosius was quite unsuited to imperial office and in 717 was forced to abdicate by the able commander of the Anatolikon troops, Leo III the Isaurian, and ended his life in a monastery at Ephesus.
  93. Thutmose III (king of Egypt); was a skilled 'warrior king' (reigned 1479–26 BCE) of the 18th dynasty, often regarded as the greatest of the rulers of ancient Egypt.
  94. Tiridates III (king of Parthia); Flourished 1st century AD. Grandson of the Parthian king Phraates IV and an unsuccessful contender for the Parthian throne. He was captured by the Romans, taken to Rome as a hostage, and educated there. In AD 35 the Roman emperor Tiberius sent him and an army under Lucius Vitellius, governor of Syria, against the Parthian ruler Artabanus III, hoping to place Tiridates on the Parthian throne. The Romans entered Seleucia, and Tiridates was crowned king. In 36, however, Artabanus III returned to Mesopotamia, and Tiridates fled to Syria.
  95. Toulouse I, II, and III, Universities of (university, Toulouse, France); Three autonomous coeducational state institutions of higher learning founded at Toulouse, Fr., in 1970 under the 1968 law reforming higher education, to replace the former University of Toulouse founded in 1229: the University of Social Sciences, specializing in law and economics; the University of Toulouse-le-Mirail, a liberal arts institution; and the University Paul-Sabatier, specializing in science and technology, including medicine, dentistry, pharmacy, and engineering.
  96. Vasily III (grand prince of Moscow from 1505 to 1533); Succeeding his father, Ivan III (ruled Moscow 1462–1505), Vasily completed his father's policy of consolidating the numerous independent Russian principalities into a united Muscovite state by annexing Pskov (1510), Ryazan (1517), and Starodub and Novgorod-Seversk (now Novgorod-Seversky) by 1523.
  97. Urban III (pope from 1185 to 1187), original name: Umberto Crivelli; Of noble birth, he was made cardinal and archbishop of Milan in 1182 by Pope Lucius III, whom he succeeded on Nov. 25, 1185, and from whom he inherited an imperial diplomatic crisis that harassed his entire pontificate.
  98. Valentinian III (Roman emperor), Latin in full: Flavius Placidius Valentinianus; Roman emperor from 425 to 455. At no time in his long reign were the affairs of state personally managed by Valentinian.
  99. Victor III, Blessed (pope from 1086 to 1087), original name: Dauferi, Benedictine name: Desiderius.
  100. Vlad III (ruler of Walachia); in full Vlad III Dracula, also called Vlad the Impaler, Romanian Vlad Tepes (voivode (military governor, or prince) of Walachia (1448; 1456–1462; 1476) whose cruel methods of punishing his enemies gained notoriety in 15th-century Europe. Some in the scholarly community have suggested that Bram Stoker's Dracula character was based on Vlad.)
  101. William III (king of England, Scotland, and Ireland), byname: William of Orange, also called William Henry, prince of Orange, Dutch: Willem Hendrik, prins van Oranje; stadholder of the United Provinces of the Netherlands as William III (1672–1702) and king of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1689–1702), reigning jointly with Queen Mary II (until her death in 1694). He directed the European opposition to Louis XIV of France and, in Great Britain, secured the triumph of Protestantism and of Parliament.
Date of Origination: Monday, 28th November 2023...2:35 AM
Date of Initial posting: Friday, 1st December 2023... 12:53 PM
Updated Posting: Sunday, 21st January 2024... 8:59 AM